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Full text of "The Labour gazette January-June 1956"

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in 2012 with funding from 

University of Guelph, University of Windsor, York University and University of Toronto Libraries 



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THE 

Labour Gazette 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR, CANADA 

INDEX 

VOLUME LVI 

FOR THE YEAR 
1 956 



Minister — Hon. Milton F. Gregg 
Deputy Minister— Arthur H. Brown Editor — Harry J.Walker 



EDMOND CLOUTIER, C.M.G., O.A., D.S.P. 
QUEEN'S PRINTER AND CONTROLLER OF STATIONERY 
OTTAWA, 1957. 
86825—1 



A "5 

■ 

Page numbers of monthly editions 

Month 

1- 136 __ January 

137- 236 February 

237- 352 March 

353- 472 April 

473- 604 May 

605- 776 June 

777- 936 July 

937-1092 August 

1093-1212 September 

1213-1340 October 

1341-1468 November 

1469-1632 December 



2 i* S? 



INDEX 



Absenteeism : 



Canada 



less time loss by older workers through 
absenteeism — findings of committee of 
Health League of Canada, 1495. 

Accident Prevention : 

Canada 

Conference on Prevention of Work Acci- 
dents in Government Departments and 
Crown Agencies sponsored by Depart- 
ment of Labour and Civil Service 
Commission, 675. 

United Kingdom 

1954 report of Chief Inspector of Factories, 
529. 

Accidents : 

1955 report of Director-General of I.L.O. 
on industrial injuries, 287. 

Canada 

fatalities during first quarter of 1956, 835; 

during second quarter of 1956, 1264. 
fatalities during fourth quarter of 1955, 

409. 
fatal industrial accident in 1955, 523. 
Civil Service accident claims in 1955-56 
reported by Government Employees 
Compensation Branch, 497. 
statistics re federal government employees, 
163, 963, 1118, 1233, 1359, 1495. 

Alta: amended regulations under Work- 
men's Compensation Act, 1572; activi- 
ties of clinic for rehabilitation of 
injured workmen, opened by Work- 
men's Compensation Board, 1397. 

B.C.: accident prevention regulations under 
Workmen's Compensation Act, 302, 
424 ; accident-prevention regulations 
for oil and gas well-drilling, etc., under 
Workmen's Compensation Act, 881; 
Labour-Management Safety Confer- 
ence held by paper industry, 374. 

Man.: amended provisions of Workmen's 
Compensation Act, 1151 ; regulations 
under Building Trades Protection Act 
re prevention of accidents in construc- 
tion and excavation work, 1039. 

N.S.: amendment to Workmen's Compen- 
sation Act, 1028. 
86825— H 



Accidents — Con. 

Ont.: annual safety conference of I.A.P.A., 
800; Federation of Labour (C.C. of 
L.) requests amendment to Labour 
Relations Act, 379-80. 

Que.: amended provisions of Workmen's 
Compensation Act, 1289; regulations 
under Mining Act provide for estab- 
lishment of mine rescue stations, 883. 

United Kingdom 

1954 report of Chief Inspector of Factories, 

527. 
See also Workmen's Compensation. 

Adams, K.C., Editor, United Mine Workers' 
Journal: 
death of, 962. 

Advisory Committee on Professional Man- 
power : 

meeting of, 391. 

"The Outlook for Professional Manpower" 
extracts from address by J. P. Francis, 
Economics and Research Branch, 
Department of Labour, 393. 

Affiliation: 

See Labour Unity. 

Aged Persons: 

See Older Workers. 

Agencies : 

See Older Workers. 



Agreements : 

can companies eliminate female wage 
differential in collective agreements 
signed between Continental Can Com- 
pany, American Can Company, and 
U.S.W.A., 1229. 

Canada 

affiliation agreement between Radio and 
Television Employees of Canada and 
National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians, 163. 

can companies eliminate female wage 
differential in collective agreements 
signed between Continental Can Com- 
pany, American Can Company, and 
U.S.W.A., 1229. 



INDEX 



Agreements — (. on. 

ida — t\</i. 
summary of agreements under Industrial 

- adards Acts, 86, 869, 1145, 1567. 
summary of agreements under Collective 
ment Act (Quebec), 84, 295, 720, 
v 1145, 1566. 

changes in wage rates under Collective 
Agreement Act, Quebec, 720. 

collective bargaining in hotel industry — 
analysis of agreements, 867. 

conciliation board in railway dispute fully 
constituted — appointment of concilia- 
tion officer by-passed, 20. 

continuation of federal-provincial farm 
labour agreements, 69. 

despite altered status, Mine-Mill union 
retains rights — decision of Ontario 
Labour Relations Board, 628. 

grievances arising under labour contracts 
— proceedings of 85th annual meeting 
of Employer-Employee Relations Con- 
ference of CM. A., 994. 

Hansard reference to Canada — U.S.S.R. 
trade agreement, 504; to certification 
of unions under I.R.D.I. Act, 503. 

merger of Ontario Hydro Employees' 
Association with National Union of 
Public Service Employees (C.C. of 
L.), 27. 

non-railway collective agreements cover- 
ing 1,000 or more employees, 1283. 

number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada, 1955, 1560; in 
1954, 78; in 1954-11, 293. 

provisions of agreement between C.L.C. 
and Office Employees' International 
Union, 795. 

recent changes in wage rates and other 
conditions of work — study of recent 
collective agreements, 717. 

resolution adopted at 23rd meeting of 
Vocational Training Advisory Council 
re vocational schools' assistance agree- 
ment, 275. 

St. Lawrence Seaway and St. Lawrence 
Power Projects — terms of agreement 
between Labour Relations Association 
and Allied Construction Council, 1498. 

61-cent package won by employees of 
Marmoraton Mining Company, 
Marmora, Ont., members of U.S.W.A., 
1111. 

Stelco and steelworkers (Hamilton) sign 
two-year contract providing wage 
increases and fringe benefits, 956. 



Agreements — Con. 
Canada — Con. 

s.u.b. plans in collective agreements nego- 
tiated between Studebaker-Packard of 
Canada Limited, General Motors of 
Canada, and United Automobile 
Workers, 515, 516; Continental Can 
Company of America and United 
Steelworkers of America, 515, 517; 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass and Libby- 
Owens Ford and United Glass 
Workers, 515, 518. 
Teamsters and Mine Mill sign mutual 

assistance pact, 27. 
two-year contracts covering office workers 
and hourly-rated employees signed by 
Ford of Canada and U.A.W., 959. 
wage increases and other benefits won by 
four paper manufacturing plants in 
two-year labour agreements, 369. 
wage increases provided in five-year con- 
tract signed by Canadian General 
Electric and employees, U.E.R.M.W.A., 
497. 

Alta.: recommendation of Federation of 
Labour re Rand Formula, 1262; 
summary of agreement under Indus- 
trial Standards Act, 1567. 

B.C.: provisions of two-year agreement 
between Bakery and Confectionery 
Workers' International Union and 
Canadian Bakeries Limited, and seven 
other bakery firms, 626; resolution 
adopted by Federation of Labour 
(C.C. of L.) re T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. 
merger, 31 ; Supreme Court holds that 
company did not violate terms of 
agreement in refusing to dismiss 
employee for failure to join union or 
pay membership dues, 190. 

Man.: provisions of Public Schools Act, 
723, 1147-1148. 

N.B.: amendment to Labour Relations Act 
sought by N.B. Federation of Labour, 
1254; summary of agreements under 
Industrial Standards Act, 1567. 

N.S.: summary of agreements under Indus- 
trial Standards Act, 85, 1567 

Ont.: American Newspaper Guild will limit 
contracts between publishers and 
locals to two-year duration, 964; 
Court of Appeal rules courts may 
review decision of arbitration board 
established under collective agreement, 
1155; despite altered status, Mine- 
Mill union retains rights — decision of 
Labour Relations Board, 628; High 
Court rules decisions of arbitration 
board set up by collective agreement 
not reviewable by courts, 877; mass 
overtime refusal while negotiations in 



INDEX 



Agreements — Con. 

Ont. — Con. 

progress, ruled illegal strike, 1116; 
merger of Ontario Hydro Employees' 
Association with National Union of 
Public Service Employees (C.C. of 
L.), 27; 61-cent package won by 
employees of Marmoraton Mining 
Company, Marmora, Ont., members 
of U.S.W.A., 1111; summary of agree- 
ments under Industrial Standards Act, 
85, 1145, 1567; teachers and board 
agree to future arbitration in disputes 
— provision of agreement between 
Port Arthur Board of Education and 
Teachers' Federation, 21; unions may 
seek legislation permitting right to 
strike during life of agreement, 21. 

Que.: approval of merger agreement between 
Federation of Labour and Federa- 
tion of Industrial Unions, 1384; recom- 
mendation of Federation of Labour 
(T. and L.C.) re collective agree- 
ments, 28; resolution re collective 
agreements, adopted at convention of 
Quebec Federation of Labour, 1386; 
summary of agreements under Collec- 
tive Agreement Act, 84, 295, 720, 869, 
1145, 1566; Superior Court finds that 
check-off clause in collective agree- 
ment is invalid under Quebec law, 
1579. 

Sask.: merger terms approved by Saskatoon 
labour councils, 797; Saskatchewan 
Provincial Federation of Labour (T. 
and L.C.) seeks merger with Sas- 
katchewan Federation of Labour (C.C. 
of L.), 30; summary of agreements 
under Industrial Standards Act, 85, 
869. 

U.S.A. 

A.F. of L.-C.I.O. merger consummated — 
amalgamation of major segments of 
organized labour in United States 
effected at convention, 56. 

campaigns forbidding compulsory union 
membership agreements planned by 
National "Right-to-Work" Committee, 
686. 

can companies eliminate female wage 
differential in collective agreements 
signed between Continental Can Com- 
pany, American Can Company, and 
U.S.W.A, 1229. 

clauses to protect public utility workers 
against job displacement by automa- 
tion, won by two unions — Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers and Utilit}- Workers Union 
of America, 953. 



Agreements — Con. 
V'.S.A.—Con. 

collective agreement under Railway 
Labour Act valid — decision of 
Supreme Court, 621. 

convention to effect merger between 
United Packinghouse Workers Union 
and Amalgamated Meat Cutters and 
Butcher Workmen, cancelled, 629. 

11 railway unions sign 3-year agreement, 
1497. 

fringe and wage benefits equal to steel 
industry provided under three-year 
agreement between Aluminum Com- 
pany of America and U.S.W.A., 1116. 

hiring preference to men 40 years of age 
and over given under terms of agree- 
ment reached between United Plant 
Guard Workers of America and 
Detroit industrial police firm, 1495. 

merger of American Federation of State, 
County and Municipal Employees 
(A.F. of L.) and Government Civic 
Employees Organizing Committee 
(C.I.O.), 964. 

most major agreements run two years or 
more, 1024. 

1955 hourly wage increase granted under 
collective agreements in N. Y. State 
averaged 7.3 cents, 1144. 

one-year contract signed between U.M.W.A. 
and Bituminous Coal Operators Asso- 
ciation, 1364. 

preferential hiring pact signed by United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
National Contractors Association, 490. 

provisions of four-year agreement signed 
by N.Y. local of International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, 1117. 

settlement of jurisdictional dispute between 
United Steelworkers of America and 
the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners, 625. 

7-year no-strike pact signed by 4 locals 
of International Brotherhood of 
Teamsters and Coca-Cola Bottling 
Company, 799. 

s.u.b. plans amended by new 3-year agree- 
ments between American Can Com- 
pany and Continental Can Company, 
and the United Steelworkers, 1365. 

s.u.b. plans in automobile industry allow 
short work weeks, 262. 

s.u.b. provisions in contracts ' reached 
between U.A.W. and Studebaker 
Packard Corporation and Willys 
Motors, Inc., 19. 

Supreme Court rules that union shop 
agreement under Railway Labour Act 
not invalidated by "right-to-work" 
law, 1035. 



VI 



INDEX 



Agreements — Con. 
USA.— Con. 

three-year no-strike pact ends steel strike 
— provisions of new contract, 956. 

wage increase provisions shown in survey 
of collective agreements, 1145. 

withdrawal of International Longshore- 
men's Association from "working 
alliance" with . . . International Bro- 
therhood of Teamsters, 491. 

See also Legal Decisions. 

Agreements Resulting from Proceedings 
Under the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act: 

Abitibi Power and Paper Company, Limited, 
Toronto, and employees, 856. 

Association of Lake Carriers, and employees 
(Great Lakes and St. Lawrence shipp- 
ing), 626. 

Association of Lake Carriers, Port Colborne, 
(Canada Steamship Lines Limited, 
N. M. Paterson and Sons Limited; 
Colonial Steamships Limited and Hall 
Corporation of Canada Limited), and 
employees, 626, 856. 

Association of Lake Carriers, Port Colborne 
(Canada Steamship Lines Limited; 
Upper Lakes and St. Lawrence Trans- 
portation Company Limited; N. M. 
Paterson and Sons Limited; Colonial 
Steamships Limited; Misener Hold- 
ings Limited; Hall Corporation of 
Canada Limited; Norris Transporta- 
tion Company Limited; Mohawk 
Navigation Company; and Beacons- 
field Steamships Limited), and 
employees, 626, 856. 

Atlantic Broadcasters Limited (Radio 
Station CJFX), Antigonish, N.S., and 
certain employees, 292. 

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk 
River, and certain employees, 77. 

Buntain and Bell Company Limited, Char- 
lottetown, and certain employees, 77. 

Canada Steamship Lines, Limited, Mont- 
real, and certain employees, 854. 

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, and 
certain employees, 541, 854. 

Canadian Marconi Company, Montreal, and 
certain employees, 541. 

Canadian National Railways (Atlantic, 
Central and Western Regions, includ- 
ing Newfoundland District), and cer- 
tain employees, 1025. 

Canadian National Railways (Port Mann 
and Okanagan Lake Barge and Ferry 
Service), 854, 1025. 

Canadian National Railways (Regional 
Accounting Office), and certain 
employees, 77. 



Agreements Resulting from Proceedings 
Under the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act — Con. 

Canadian National Railways; Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company; Toronto, 
Hamilton and Buffalo Railway Com- 
pany; Ontario Northland Railway; 
and Algoma Central and Hudson Bay 
Railway, and certain employees, 856. 

Canadian Pacific Air Lines Limited, and 
certain employees, 416. 

Canadian Pacific Railway Company and 
certain employees (on SS. Princess 
Helene), 180. 

Canadian Pacific Transport Company, 
Limited, Winnipeg (C.P.R.) and 
certain employees, 543. 

Cape Breton Broadcasters Limited, and 
certain employees, 1025, 1405. 

Clarke Steamships Limited, Montreal; 
Albert G. Baker Limited, Quebec; 
Quebec Terminals Limited, Quebec, 
and certain employees, 1025. 

Dominion Coal Company, Limited, A. T. 
O'Leary and Company, S. Cunard 
and Company, Limited, and R. E. 
Archibald Company, Limited, Halifax, 
and certain employees, 292. 

Eastern Canada Stevedoring Company, 
Limited, Halifax, and certain 
employees, 292. 

Eastern Canada Stevedoring Company, 
Limited, Montreal, and certain 
employees, 1136. 

Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited, 
Port Hope, and employees, 1025, 

Empire Stevedoring Company, Limited; 
Louis Wolfe and Sons (Vancouver) 
Limited; Canada Stevedoring Com- 
pany Limited; Western Stevedoring 
Company Limited ; Victoria-Vancouver 
Stevedoring Company Limited; and 
certain employees, 1406. 

Expressway Truck Lines (Canada) Limited, 
Vancouver, and employees, 415. 

Giant Yellowknife Gold Mines Limited, 
Yellowknife, N.W.T., and certain 
employees, 541. 

Holden Sand and Gravel Limited, Toronto, 
and employees, 856. 

Kawartha Broadcasting Company Limited 
(Radio Station CHEX), Peterborough, 
and certain employees, 1137. 

La Tribune Limitee (Radio Station CHLT), 
Sherbrooke, and certain employees, 
1546. 

Minshull Storage and Van Lines, Halifax, 
and certain employees, 1405. 

Newfoundland Employers' Association Li- 
mited (coal and salt boats), St. John's, 
and certain employees, 1136. 



INDEX 



Agreements Resulting from Proceedings 
Under the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act — Con. 

Newfoundland Employers' Association 
(general cargo operators), St. John's, 
and certain employees, 1136. 

Newfoundland Employers' Association 
Limited (Newfoundland Coal Com- 
pany Limited), and employees, 854. 

Niagara, St. Catharines and Toronto Rail- 
way, and certain employees, 1405. 

Nova Scotian Hotel, Halifax (Canadian 
National Hotels Limited), and certain 
employees, 1137. 

Ontario Northland Railways, and certain 
employees, 77. 

Ottawa Transportation Commission, and 
certain employees, 292. 

Quebec and Ontario Transportation Com- 
pany Limited, Montreal, and certain 
employees, 684. 

St. Charles Transportation Company 
Limited, Quebec, and certain 
employees, 686. 

Sherbrooke Telegram Printing and Publish- 
ing Company (Radio Station CKTS), 
Sherbrooke, and certain employees, 
1545. 

Shipping Federation of British Columbia 
and employees, 856. 

Shipping Federation of Canada, Inc., Saint 
John, N.B., and certain employees, 
292. 

Guy Tombs Marine Services Limited, and 
Davie Transportation Limited, Mont- 
real, and certain employees, 1546. 

Trans-Canada Air Lines and certain 
employees, 854, 1025, 1136. 

Vancouver Hotel Company, Limited (C.N.R. 
and C.P.R.), and certain employees, 
77. 

Westward Shipping Limited, Vancouver, 
and certain employees, 415. 

Agricultural Implements : 

lay-offs in automobile and agricultural 
implement fields caused by automa- 
tion, etc., in Canada and the United 
States, studied by U.A.W., 794. 

Canada 

Hansard reference to lay-offs in farm 
implement and automotive indus- 
tries, 802. 



Agriculture : 

'text of recommendation concerning voca- 
tional training in agriculture, adopted 
at 39th Conference of I.L.O., 1013. 
Third International Congress of the 
International Catholic Secretariat for 
Technologists, Agriculturists and 
Economists, held at Montallegro, 
Italy, 376. 

Canada 

Co-operation in Canada — 23rd annual edition 
(1954) issued by Department of Agri- 
culture, 377. 

farm income up 13 per cent over 1955, 
1367. 

farm cash income down in 1955, 160, 491. 

no prospect in 1956 to end of farming 
depression, 160. 

number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada, 1955, 1561; in 
1946, 1953, and 1954, 79. 

report on agricultural training in Sas- 
katchewan, to 23rd meeting of Voca- 
tional Training Advisory Council, 275. 

shift in job opportunities from agriculture 
to industry, 428. 

13th federal-provincial farm labour con- 
ference, 63. 

working and living conditions in agricul- 
ture — bulletin issued by Federal 
Department of Labour, 19. 
B.C.: recommendations of Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.) re grain market- 
ing, 31. 
P.E.I. : recommendations of Labour Council 
(C.C. of L.), 502. 

U.S.A. 

more farmers' wives working away from 
home, 1128. 

1955 farm income down, 491. 

price to farmer drops, handling costs of 
food rise, 160. 

recommendation of A.F. of L.-C.I.O. con- 
tained in economic report, 378. 

Agriculture, Department of: 

Credit Unions in Canada, 1954 — published 
by Economics Division, 748. 

Air Transportation: 

Canada 

C.L.C. to seek national control of, 644. 

wage claim of employee of Department of 
Transport at Gander Airport, Nfld., 
dismissed by Exchequer Court of 
Canada, 1413. 



INDEX 



Aircraft Manufacturing: 

Canada 

Occupations in the Aircraft Manufacturing 
Industry — monograph issued by De- 
partment of Labour, 1232. 

Airports : 

P.EX— 

recommendation of Labour Council (C.C. 
of L.), 503. 

Alberta Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) : 

merger with Industrial Federation of 
Labour of Alberta (C.C. of L.), 1261. 
provincial legislative proposals, 266. 

Algoma Central and Hudson Bay Railway: 

conciliation board in railway dispute fully 
constituted — appointment of concilia- 
tion officer by-passed, 20. 



Alliance; 



U.S.A. 



withdrawal of International Longshore- 
men's Association from "working 
alliance" with. . .International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters, 491. 

Allowances: 

See Blind Persons; Handicapped Persons; 
Mothers' Allowances; Old Age Assist- 
ance; Pensions; Workmen's Compen- 
sation. 

Aluminum Industry: 

U.S.A. 

fringe and wage benefits equal to steel 
industry provided under three-year 
agreement between Aluminum Com- 
pany of America and U.S.W.A., 1116. 

Amalgamated Civil Servants of Canada: 

Civil Service merger talks — preliminary 
negotiations towards union of federal 
civil servants, 799. 

Amalgamated Engineering Union: 

United Kingdom 

William John Carron elected president, 
961. 



Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher 
Workmen of North America (A.F. 
of L.) : 

merger with United Packinghouse Workers 

of America (C.I.O.), 370. 
merger convention cancelled, 629. 

Amalgamation : 

See Labour Unity; Mergers. 

American Can Company: 

s.u.b. plans amended by new 3-year agree- 
ment between Company and United 
Steelworkers, 1365. 

terms of collective agreement signed with 
U.S.W.A., eliminate female wage dif- 
ferential, 1229. 

American Control: 

Canada 

concern over "increased American control 
of Canadian industries" expressed in 
T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. brief to 
Royal Commission on Canada's Eco- 
nomic Prospects, 387. 

American Federation of Labour and 
Congress of Industrial Organiza- 
tions : 

A.F. of L.-C.I.O. merger consummated — 
amalgamation of major segments of 
organized labour in United States 
effected at convention, 56. 

chronology of events leading to unity, 61. 

structure of, 58. 

anti-trust aspect of merger, 260. 

number of workers under agreement, in 
Canada, 294. 

A.F. of L. staff and unions in Canada 
transferred to C.L.C., 797. 

merger of C.I.O. and A.F. of L. state 
organizations progresses, 490. 

Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
Enginemen to seek affiliation with 
C.L.C. and A.F. of L.-C.I.O., 953. 

A.F. of L.-C.I.O. seeks policy on juris- 
dictional problems, affecting affiliates 
of Industrial Union Department and 
Building and Construction Trades 
Department, 963. 

public employee unions merge — American 
Federation of State, County and 
Municipal Employees, and Govern- 
ment and Civic Employees Organizing 
Committee, 1232. 

consolidation of Barber and Beauty Union 
(C.I.O.) and Journeymen Barbers, 
Hairdressers, Cosmotologists and Pro- 
prietors' Union (A.F. of L.), 964. 



INDEX 



IX 



American Federation of Labour and 
Congress of Industrial Organiza- 
tions — Con. 

merger of American Federation of State, 
County and Municipal Employees 
(A.F. of L.) and Government Civic 
Employees Organizing Committee 
(C.I.O.), 964. 

47th annual convention of Metal Trades 
Department, 1363. 

seeks extension of Fair Labour Standards 
Act, governing wages and hours, 741. 

"substantial" wage and welfare increases 
recommended in economic report, 378. 

death of Matthew Woll, vice-president, 801. 

problems of organization, and corruption 
in management of union welfare funds, 
dealt with at meeting of Executive 
Council, 797. 

merger of meat worker unions — Amal- 
gamated Meat Cutters and Butcher 
Workmen of North America (A.F. of 
L.) and United Packinghouse Workers 
of America (C.I.O.), 370. 

American Federation of State, County and 
Municipal Employees (A.F. of L.) : 

merger with Government Civic Employees 
Organizing Committee (C.I.O.), 964, 
1232. 

American Newspaper Guild: 

American Newspaper Guild will limit con- 
tracts between publishers and locals 
to two-year duration, 964. 

submission to Ontario Federation of 
Labour Committee on Labour Rela- 
tions, 981. 

Amusements : 

Alta.— 

regulations under Alberta Amusements 
Act, 1290. 

Annual Holidays: 

See Holidays. 

Annuities : 

Canada 

doubling of limit on government annuities 

urged by Senator, 960. 
inquiry by Senate Committee into sale 

of government annuities, suggested, 

262. 
legislative recommendation of T. and L.C., 

41. 
resolution re government annuities adopted 

at first constitutional convention of 

C.L.C., 653. 
Que.: recommendation of C.C.C.L., 1395. 
86825—2 



Anti-trust Laws : 



U.S.A. 



anti-trust aspect of A.F. of L.-C.I.O. mer- 
ger, 260. 

Apprenticeship : 

labour-management sponsored apprentice 
contest, 25. 

text of recommendation concerning voca- 
tional training in agriculture, adopted 
at 39th Conference of I.L.O., 1016. 

Canada 

"A New Look at Apprenticeship" — text 
of address by G. C. Bernard, Manager, 
Ontario Division, CM. A., to Appren- 
ticeship Training Advisory Commit- 
tee, 405. 

lack of development of apprenticeship 
system deplored by President, C.M.A., 
255. 

apprentices needed to relieve manpower 
shortage, 1232. 

Chrysler Corporation of Canada estab- 
lishes four-year apprentice training 
program, 795. 

joint meeting of Apprenticeship Training 
Advisory Committee with provincial 
Directors of Apprenticeship, 399. 

labour-management sponsored apprentice 
contest, 25. 

report of Committee at 38th meeting of 
Canadian Construction Association, 
172. 

urges contractors help training of appren- 
tices — extracts from address by Presi- 
dent, C.C.A., 796. 
Alta.: amended regulations under Appren- 
ticeship Act, 193, 729, 1038, 1160, 1417; 
recommendations of Alberta Federa- 
tion of Labour, 267, 1261. 
B.C.: regulations under Apprenticeship and 
Tradesmen's Qualification Act, 424, 
1290. 
Man.: amended regulations under Act re 
painters and decorators, 194; "drastic 
revision" of opinion necessary — W. 
Elliott Wilson, Deputy Minister of 
Labour, 623. 
N.B.: Director of Appprenticeship, Depart- 
ment of Labour, to act as I.L.O. tech- 
nical adviser on apprenticeship to 
Government of Burma, 955. 
Nfld.: general regulations under Appren- 
ticeship Act, 94; amended regulations 
under Act, 1044. 
N.S.: application of Apprenticeship Act to 
carpentry trade, 1044; new scheme of 
indenture, 26. 



INDEX 



Apprenticeship — Con. 

Ont.: apprentices needed to relieve man- 
power shortage, 1232; recommendation 
of Provincial Federation of Labour 
(T. and L.C.), 502; regulations under 
Apprenticeship Act re carpenters and 
plasterers, 431, and bricklayers and 
masons, 307. 

Que.: increase in number of students attend- 
ing apprentice training centres, 1232. 

Sask.: amended regulations under Appren- 
ticeship and Tradesmen's Qualifica- 
tion Act re motor vehicle mechanics' 
repair trade, plumbing trade, elec- 
trical trade and general regulations, 
SS4. re carpentry trade, motor vehicle 
body repair trade and sheet metal 
trade, 1294. 

United Kingdom 

development of "sandwich" courses in 
technical education, 1231. 

U.S.A. 

concern over decline in apprentice train- 
ing, 25. 

labour-management sponsored apprentice 
contest, 25. 

N.Y. trains apprentices in automation and 
electronics, 624. 

Apprenticeship Training Advisory Com- 
mittee: 

joint meeting of Committee with provin- 
cial Directors of Apprenticeship, 399. 

Appropriations Act: 

assistance to immigrants — Family Assist- 
ance plan under Act, 1570. 



Arbitration: 



Canada 



C. C. of L. reiterates opposition to com- 
pulsory arbitration, 45. 

conference on labour arbitration arranged 
by McGill Industrial Relations Cen- 
tre, 396. 

grievances arising under labour contracts- — 
proceedings of 85th annual meeting of 
Employer-Employee Relations Con- 
ference of CM .A., 994. 

resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C. re compulsory 
arbitration, 648. 
Man.: amended provisions of Fire Depart- 
ments Arbitration Act, 1150; of Public 
Schools Act, 1147-48; amendments to 
legislation re disputes in fire depart- 
ments, 723. 



Arbitration — Con. 

Ont.: amended provisions of Fire Depart- 
ment Act, 1410, and of Police Act, 
1411; Court of Appeal rules courts 
may review decision of arbitration 
board established under collective 
agreement, 1155; Federation of Labour 
(C. C. of L.) condemns compulsory 
arbitration, 283; High Court rules 
decisions of arbitration board set up 
by collective agreement not review- 
able by courts, 877; teachers and 
board agree to future arbitration in 
disputes — provision of agreement be- 
tween Port Arthur Board of Education 
and Teachers' Federation, 21; amend- 
ments to legislation re disputes in fire 
departments, 723. 

Que.: conference on labour arbitration 
arranged by McGill Industrial Rela- 
tions Centre, 396; delay in arbitration 
procedure protested by C.C.C.L., 264; 
reply of Premier Duplessis, 266; 
Federation of Labour (T. and L. C.) 
recommends improved conciliation and 
arbitration service, 28, and other 
recommendations, 28, 29; resolution 
adopted by Federation re arbitration 
courts, 1386. 

Australia 

appointments under Conciliation and 
Arbitration Act, 1409; provisions of 
bill to amend Conciliation and Arbi- 
tration Act, 957. 

Ceylon 

principles for settlement of industrial 
disputes outlined by Minister of 
Labour, 1496. 

U.S.A. 

settlement of jurisdictional disputes estab- 
lished in agreement reached between 
International Association of Machi- 
nists and International Brotherhood 
of Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders, 
Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers, 
1116. 

Argentina : 

government decrees ban price increases 
and orders wage increase, 377. 

Armed Forces: 

N.B.— 

union employees vis-a-vis enlisted person- 
nel — resolution adopted by Federation 
of Labour, 1254. 



IXDEX 



Asbestos : 

Que.— 

— tion of book 

on fa like in IS 

Assisted Passage Loan Plan: 

Canada 
plan extended to ne .pries and 



Automation L 



Cir.iii 



Atomic Power 



Canada 



engineer shortage slows rower 

m 958 

Australia: 

app; and A:~> 

provij - bill to amend Concil 

and 
right economic dim led for produc- 

nd Advis- 

n 

full enip'.; 

Automation : 

ition— Wl 

d by 
Affairs, 

?mic and 
social re] ss 
req - I.C.F.T.U.. 253 

imp". - press -text 

ss by - v 

sties, US. 
A.LI.. 



S 

s 
no union opposition to ant 

Machinists, in San ] 

ce of 

I.L.O.. 1010. 

5 -■:* 



:<i civiliz; running labour 

force — Donald P. Campbell, Massachu- 
:: Technology, in 
address A.. &o3. 

o Canadian em- 
inent — comment 

5 from add:,,- ::' 7. Masher, 

- 

I ] 25? 

• 
published in Toronto 
*4. 
addrf- 7. A. P. at 

son ; :' [JJ 

au:c:a 

ana -;na:nffrs— A—: f:an: Surfrin:e~- 
dent of Ontario S S hools, 

automation in offices 

Seventh A] . _ 

nee in M 

¥ ; a — 
sd by 

Canadian s on Public A 

505. 

ding 

.:. Life 

SS 

lian Manoi - kssc 

com;; osive s 

C -C C d I 

3S 

p 

5 
SS 

men: C 

." 
imp!. _ prog ess— 

text 

ad S 

3 

S 

3 

3 

- s 

3 
S 



XII 



INDEX 



Automation — Con. 

Canada — Con. 

texts of papers on automation delivered 
at Montreal meeting of Society for 
Advancement of Management by 
Parliamentary Assistant to Minister 
of Defence Product ion. and Public 
Relations Director, U.S.W.A., 497. 
statement by Gerard Picard, General 
adent, C.C.C.L., before the Gor- 
don Commission, 390. 

B.C.: address by T. A. Rice, President, at 
British Columbia division of CM. A., 
513. 

Out: automation a stumbling block to 
scientists and engineers — Assistant 
Superintendent of Ontario Secondary 
Schools, 623; Federation of Labour 
(C.C. of L.) proposes six-point pro- 
gram, 380; program adopted by Inter- 
national Union of United Brewery, 
Flour, Cereal, Soft Drink and Dis- 
tillery Workers, 1113; resolution 
adopted by Federation of Labour 
(C.C. of L.), 283. 

Que.: recommendation of C.C.C.L., 1395. 

New Zealand 

six problems and six advantages of auto- 
mation, 24. 

United Kingdom 

Automation and Higher Living Standards 
— extracts from address by President 
of Institution of Production Engineers, 
256. 

automation must be kept in field of indus- 
trial relations — conference of T.U.C. 
white-collar unions, 256. 

"first automation strike" ends — walkout 
of employees of Standard Motor Com- 
pany, Coventry, when men laid off for 
plant conversion, 622. 

gains from automation should be used to 
reduce consumer prices — report of 
T.U.C. on automation in offices, 798. 

government study urges industry 3eize 
and develop automation rapidly, 623. 

how to ease transition to automation — 
report published by H. M. Stationery 
Office, 954. 

1954 report of Chief Inspector of Fac- 
tories, 526. 

re-distribution of workers as outcome of 
office automation foreseen by speaker 
at meeting of Trade Union Council's 
Non-Manual Workers Advisory Coun- 
cil, 258. 

resolutions adopted at convention of 
T.U.C, 1258. 

unemployment caused by loss of markets 
greater danger than displacements by 
automation, 622. 



Automation — Con. 



U.S.A. 



"Automation — What It Means to You"— 
theme of conference sponsored by 
Canadian Institute on Public Affairs, 
505. 

"Automation and Technological Change" 
— sections of report of Joint Com- 
mittee on The Economic Report to 
the Congress of the United States, 
506. 

automation indirect cause of clerk short- 
age, 624. 

clauses to protect public utility workers 
against job displacement by automa- 
tion, won by two unions — Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers and Utility Workers Union of 
America, 953. 

automation only solution to employment 
problem — President, General Electric 
Company, 373. 

foreseen as more extensive in office opera- 
tions than in manufacturing, 157. 

implications of technological progress — 
text of address by Deputy Assistant 
Secretary for Standards and Statis- 
tics, U.S. Department of Labour, to 
CA.A.L.L, 1375. 

lay-offs in automobile and agricultural 
implement fields caused by automa- 
tion, etc., studied by U.A.W., 794. 

N.Y. trains apprentices in automation and 
electronics, 624. 

problems of automation should not be 
under-estimated — remarks of U.A.W. 
official at convention of American 
Personnel and Guidance Association, 
514. 

remarks of William H. Davis, former 
Chairman, War Labour Board, at con- 
ference of American Labour Education 
Service, 257. 

report of congressional subcommittee on 
automation and technological change, 
280. 

Automobile Industry: 

Canada 

lay-offs in automobile and agricultural 
implement fields caused by automa- 
tion, etc., studied by U.A.W., 794. 

Chrysler Corporation of Canada estab- 
lishes four-year apprentice training 
program, 795. 

General Motors strike — provisions of new 
agreement, 277-79. 



INDEX 



Automobile Industry — Con. 



U.S.A. 



lay-offs in automobile and agricultural 
implement fields caused by automa- 
tion, etc., studied by U.A.W., 794. 

pricing of automobiles according to sea- 
sonal demand, suggested, 794. 

s.u.b. plans in automobile industry allow 
short work weeks, 262. 

s.u.b. procedures explained to employees 
in booklet issued by "Big Three" auto 
companies and U.A.W., 1110. 

s.u.b. provisions in contracts reached be- 
tween U.A.W. and Studebaker Packard 
Corporation and Willys Motors, Inc., 
19. 

See also Minimum Wages. 

Automobile Service Stations : 

See Service Stations. 

Automotive Industry: 

Canada 

Hansard reference to lay-offs in farm 
implement and automotive industries, 
802. 

Baby Bonus: 

See Family Allowances. 

Bakeries : 

B.C.— 

Supreme Court of British Columbia finds 
picketing of Vancouver bakery illegal 
and rules picketers be held liable for 
damages, 1157. 

provisions of two-year agreement between 
Bakery and Confectionery Workers' 
International Union and Canadian 
Bakeries Limited, and seven other 
bakery firms, 626. 

Bakery and Confectionery "Workers' Inter- 
national Union of America: 

submission of union to Ontario Federation 
of Labour Committee on Labour 
Relations, 977. 



Banking: 



Barber and Beauty Union (C.I.O.): 

U.S.A. 

consolidation with Journeymen Barbers, 
Hairdressers, Cosmologists and Pro- 
prietors' Union (A.F. of L.), 964. 

Beard, Wilfred, President, British Trades 
Union Congress: 
presidential address at 88th annual Trades 
Union Congress, 1256. 

Beauticians: 

U.S.A. 

Employment Opportunities for Women in 
Beauty Service — bulletin issued by 
W T omen's Bureau, Department of 
Labour, 1398. 



Benefits: 



Canada 



Canada 



C.L.C. to seek nationalization of banking 
and credit, 644. 



General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement following 
lengthy strike, 278. 

legislative recommendations of T. and L.C. 
re unemployment insurance, 39. 

release of annual report on benefit years 
under terms of Unemployment Insur- 
ance Act, by D. B. of S., 1493. 

Stelco and steelworkers (Hamilton) sign 
two-year contract providing wage 
increases and fringe benefits, 956. 
Alta.: amended regulations under Work- 
men's Compensation Act, 1572 ; recom- 
mendations of Federation of Labour 
re unemployment insurance, 1263. 

U.S.A. 

amount paid to unemployed workers in 
state unemployment benefits in 1955, 
164. 

Carolina bars integration of s.u.b. and 
state benefits, 1110. 

decline in number of countries receiv- 
ing unemployment insurance benefits, 
1493. 

increase in strike benefits approved at 
convention of International Associa- 
tion of Machinists, 1365. 

lay-off benefit plan of Colgate-Palmolive 
Company, 159. 

out-of-work benefits fail to cover all 
expenses, 26. 

s.u.b. provisions in contracts reached 
between U.A.W. and Studebaker- 
Packard Corporation and Willys 
Motors, Inc., 19. 



XIV 



INDEX 



Benefits — Con. 

s.u.b. procedures explained to employees 
in booklet issued by "Big Three" auto 
companies and U.A.W., 1110. 
also Workmen's Compensation. 

Bernard, 6« C, Manager, Ontario Division, 

idian Manufacturers' Association: 

• A New Look at Apprenticeship" — text of 

address to Apprenticeship Training 

Advisory Committee, 405. 



Bill of Rights: 



Canada 



recommendation of C.C. of L., 47, of T. 

and L.C., 41. 
Ont.: resolution adopted by Federation of 

Labour (C.C. of L.), 284. 
Sask.: provisions of Act replaced by Fair 

Employment Practices Act and Fair 

Accommodation Practices Act, 721, 

12S6. 

Blanchard, Francis, Assistant Director- 
General, International Labour Organ- 
ization: 
appointment, 1132. 

Blanchette, J. A., M.P.. Parliamentary 
Assistant to the Minister of Labour: 
appointment, 254. 



Blind Persons: 



Canada 



C.C. of L. recommends payment of pen- 
sions without means test, 45. 

resolution re pensions adopted at first 
constitutional convention of C.L.C., 
653. 

Hansard references, 166, 268, 504. 

legislative recommendations of T. 
L.C., 41. 

payments under Blind Persons Act, 
261, 630, 966, 1496. 



and 



156, 



Boilers : 

Alta.— 

regulations under Boilers and Pressure 
Vessels Act, 88, 880, 1160. 

B.C.: amended regulations under Boiler 
and Pressure-Vessel Act, 299. 

N.B.: regulations under Statutory Engineers 
Act, 1042. 

Que.: new regulations under Pressure Ves- 
sels Act, 196. 

Sask.: regulations under Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Act, 307, 554. 



Bricklayers and Masons: 

Ont.— 
new regulations under Apprenticeship Act 
governing bricklayers and masons, 307. 

Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers' Inter- 
national Union: 

s.u.b. variation modelled on vacation 
stamp plan adopted by construction 
contractors and Bricklayers, Masons 
and Plasterers' International Union in 
Albany, N.Y., 1237. 

British Columbia Federation of Labour 
(C.C. of L.): 

annual convention, 30. 

merger with B.C. Trade Union Congress 

(T. and L.C.) to form B.C. Federation 

of Labour (C.L.C.), 1489. 

British Columbia Federation of Peace Offi- 
cers: 

formation, 1362. 

British Columbia Teachers' Federation: 

breaks 13-year affiliation with T. and L.C, 
490. 

British Columbia Trade Union Congress 
(T. and L.C): 

merger with B.C. Federation of Labour 
(C.C. of L.) to form B.C. Federation 
of Labour (C.L.C.), 1489. 

British North America Act: 

C.L.C. to seek amendments to Act, 644. 
legislative recommendation of T. and L.C, 
41. 

British Trades Union Congress: 

automation must be kept in field of indus- 
trial relations — conference of T.U.C 
white-collar unions, 256. 

88th annual convention, 1256. 

gains from automation should be used 
to reduce consumer prices — report of 
T.U.C. on automation in offices, 798. 

T.U.C. report — the economy and the 
organized worker, 36. 

Broadcasting : 

See Radio Broadcasting. 

Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers: 

Canada 

retirement of U.W. Carpenter, and elec- 
tion of O. J. Travis, as senior grand 
officers, Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers, 962. 

wage increase sought by engineers, 369. 



INDEX 



xv 



Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
Enginemen : 

to seek affiliation with C.L.C. and A.F. of 
L.-C.LO., 953. 

demands of locomotive firemen (railway 
and harbour board), 153. 

Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen: 

Canada 

wage increase demanded by B.R.T., 261. 

Brown, A. H., Deputy Minister of Labour: 
extracts from address of welcome at meet- 
ing of Advisory Committee on Profes- 
sional Manpower, 391. 
opens 39th session of International Labour 
Conference, as Chairman of the 
Governing Body of the I.L.O., 839; 
other remarks, 841. 
remarks at 2nd meeting, Advisory Council 
on Professional Manpower, convened 
by Department of Labour, 1517; at 
13th federal-provincial farm labour 
conference, 63; at 23rd meeting of 
Vocational Training Advisory Coun- 
cil, 274. 

Budget : 

Hansard reference, 383. 

Building and Construction: 

fifth session, I.L.O. Building, Civil 
Engineering and Public Works Com- 
mittee, 847. 

Canada 

Canadian Housing Statistics — summary of 
quarterly report by Central Mortgage 
and Housing Corporation, 1396. 

construction of rehabilitation centres pro- 
ceeding, 532. 

distribution of agreements covering 1,000 
or more employees, 1284. 

Hansard reference, 966. 

housing statistics, 104. 

importance of three organizations in con- 
struction of Canada's share of St. 
Lawrence Seaway and St. Lawrence 
Power Projects — Central Hiring Bur- 
eau, 1498; Labour Relations Associa- 
tion, 1498, 1501; Allied Construction 
Council, 1498. 

labour income in 1955, 255. 

"Large Fishing Vessel Inspection Regula- 
tions" under Canada Shipping Act, 
1159. 



Building and Construction — Con. 
Canada — Con. 

less unemployment in building trades dur- 
ing winter of 1955 reported by joint 
committee of Canadian Construction 
Association, 369. 

1955 a year of record achievement in 
construction — Canadian Construction 
Association, 18. 

number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada, 1955, 1564; in 
1946, 1953 and 1954, 82. 

plan now for building next winter — extracts 
from address of president, Canadian 
Construction Association, 800. 

Private and Public Investment in Canada: 
Outlook, 1956, report prepared by 
D.B. of S. and Economics Branch, 
Department of Trade and Commerce, 
253. 

re 1954-56 building progress, 17. 

recommendation of Canadian Federation 
of Mayors and Municipalities, 258. 

reduction in house building in 1956 pre- 
dicted by Minister of Public Works, 
407. 

seasonal variations, historical background 
and current trends in the construction 
industry, 660-669. 

38th annual general meeting of Canadian 
Construction Association, 171. 

urges contractors help training of 
apprentices — extracts from address by 
President, Canadian Construction 
Association, 796. 
Alta.: Alberta Federation of Labour (T. and 
L.C.) requests amendment to Labour 
Act, 266; applications of Hours of 
Work and Minimum Wage Order No. 
18 (1956) under Labour Act, to 
workers in pipeline construction indus- 
try, 1420. 
B.C.: minimum wage orders for pipeline 
construction industry, under Male and 
Female Minimum Wage Acts, 551. 
Man.: regulations under Public Health Act 
re industrial and construction camps, 
1583. 
N.B.: regulations under Mining Act, 304. 
N.S.: application of Apprenticeship Act to 

carpenter trade, 1044. 
Ont.: construction of new rehabilitation 
centre near Toronto, 532; hospital 
construction costs reduced by new 
design, 173; Provincial Federation of 
Labour (T. and L.C.) requests 
amendments to Labour Relations Act, 
501; regulations under Apprentice- 
ship Act re carpenters and plasterers, 
431. 



XVI 



INDEX 



Building and Construction — Con. 

Que.: special regulations under Industrial 
aud Commercial Establishments Act 
governing safety of employees in con- 
struction and excavation work, 1293. 

Scandinavia 

sonal employment fluctuations in build- 
ing industry in Sweden, Norway and 
Denmark, 1370. 

U.S.A. 

A.F. of L.-CI.O. seeks policy on jurisdic- 
tional problems, affecting affiliates of 
Industrial Union Department and 
Building and Construction Trades 
Department, 963. 

Empire in Wood — history of carpenters' 
union published by N.Y. State School 
of Industrial Labour Relations, 378. 

housing statistics, 104. 

preferential hiring pact signed by United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Na- 
tional Contractors Association, 490. 

s.u.b. variation modelled on vacation 
stamp plan adopted by construction 
contractors in Albany, N.Y., 1237. 

See also Canadian Construction Associa- 
tion; Minimum Wages. 

Building Permits: 

Scandinavia 

technique to stabilize building employ- 
ment in Sweden, Norway and Den- 
mark, 1371. 

Building Trades: 

Man. — 
regulations under Building Trades Pro- 
tection Act re prevention of accidents 
in construction and excavation work, 
1039. 

Bureau of Standards: 

Canada 

resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C., 656. 

Burt, George, Canadian Director, United 
Automobile Workers: 

Ontario Federation of Labour (C.C. of L.) 
approves action in General Motors 
strike, 283. 

Bus Operators: 

U.S.A.— 
bearded bus driver dismissed — case not 
heard because it lacked jurisdiction 
under Civil Rights Act, 1117. 



Business and Professional Women: 

See International Congress of Business 
and Professional Women; Interna- 
tional Federation of Business and Pro- 
fessional Women. 

Business Expansion: 

Canada 

lack of material and labour may curb 
expansion in 1956 — summary of report 
Private and Public Investment in 
Canada: Outlook, 1956, 253. 

Calendar : 

See World Calendar. 

Campbell, Donald P., Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology: 
extracts from address to C.M.A., 953. 

Campbell, Ian, National Co-ordinator of 
Civilian Rehabilitation: 

on education of handicapped persons, 532. 

remarks at Conference of World Organiza- 
tions Interested in the Handicapped, 
410. 

extracts from address before Ottawa Area 
Chapter of the Registered Nurses of 
Ontario, 173; before Toilet Goods 
Manufacturers' Association, Montreal, 
173. 

Canada Elections Act: 

Hansard reference, 633. 

Canada Fair Employment Practices Act: 

legislative recommendation of T. and L.C., 
41. 

Canada Labour Relations Board: 

resolutions adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C., 649. 

amendment to I.R.D.I. Act, recommended 
by C.C. of L., 45. 

amendments to I.R.D.I. Act recommended 
by International Railway Brother- 
hoods, 55. 

certification and other proceedings before 
the Canada Labour Relations Board — 
74, 178, 290, 414, 540, 683, 853, 1022, 
1134, 1270, 1404, 1543. 

See also Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act. 

Canada Shipping Act: 

examination of engineers regulations under 
Act amended, 550, 1582. 

"Large Fishing Vessel Inspection Regula- 
tions" under Act, 1159, 1417. 



INDEX 



XVII 



Canadian and Catholic Confederation of 
Labour : 

Dominion legislative proposals, 48. 

35th annual convention, 1387. 

provincial legislative proposals, 264; reply 
of Premier Duplessis, 266. 

C.C.C.L. seeks participation in C.L.C., 370. 

C.C.C.L. in favour of principle of affilia- 
tion to C.L.C., 1387, 1390. 

unification with C.L.C. — resolution adopted 
at first constitutional convention of 
C.L.C, 650. 

Labour Day message of General President 
Gerard Picard, 971. 

statement by Gerard Picard, General 
President, before the Gordon Com- 
mission, 390. 

number of workers under agreement, 294. 

Canadian Association of Administrators of 
Labour Legislation: 

conference, 1423. 

implications of technological progress — text 
of address by Deputy Assistant Secre- 
tary for Standards and Statistics, U.S. 
Department of Labour, to C.A.A.L.L., 
1375. 

Canadian Association of Real Estate Boards: 

urges establishment of education mortgage 
plan, 1232. 

Canadian Bakeries Limited: 

provisions of two-year agreement between 
Bakery and Confectionery Workers' 
International Union and Canadian 
Bakeries Limited, and seven other 
bakery firms, 626. 

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: 

Citizens' Forum— 1956-57 program, 1235. 

C.L.C. to urge maintenance of C.B.C. to 
control all radio and television, etc., 
644; resolutions adopted at first con- 
stitutional convention of C.L.C, 656. 

See also Radio Broadcasting. 

Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees 
and Other Transport Workers: 

triennial conference, 1236. 

C.B.R.E. given support in fight to repeal 
U.M.W. raid of Montreal Transpor- 
tation Commission's workers' union, 
163. 

urges enforcement of 48-hour week for 
taxi drivers, in brief to Ontario 
government, 1029. 

Canadian Chamber of Commerce: 

27th annual meeting, 1527. 

changes in income, excise and federal 
succession duty taxes, requested in 
submission to Ministers of Finance 
and National Revenue, 155. 



Canadian Conference on Social Work: 

'proceedings, 1127. 

Canadian Congress of Labour: 

Dominion legislative proposals, 42. 

T. and L.C-C.C. of L. Brief to Royal 
Commission on Canada's Economic 
Prospects, 384. 

provincial legislative proposals — 

Ontario Federation of Labour, 379. 
P.E.I. Labour Council, 502. 
Saskatchewan Federation of Labour 
29. 

annual conventions — 

British Columbia Federation of La- 
bour, 30. 
Ontario Federation of Labour, 281. 

merger creates Canadian Labour Con- 
gress — founding convention, 489. 

merger with Ontario Provincial Federation 
of Labour (T. and L.C) voted at 
convention of Ontario Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.), 282. 

Saskatchewan Provincial Federation of 
Labour (T. and L.C.) seeks merger 
with Saskatchewan Federation of 
Labour (C.C of L.), 30. 

merger of Ontario Hydro Employees' 
Association with National Union of 
Public Service Employees (C.C. of 
L.), 27. 

merger of C.C of L. and T. and L.C. 
labour councils into Vancouver — Lower 
Mainland Trades and Labour Council, 
490. 

approves merger of National Union of 
Public Service Employees and Ontario 
Hydro Electric Employees' Associa- 
tion, 162. 

positions allotted to C.C. of L. officials 
on newly-formed Canadian Labour 
Congress, 645. 

correction re salary of Secretary-Treasurer, 
154. 

death of Thomas B. MacLachlan, member 
of executive council, 500. 

official opening of new headquarters, 23. 

number of workers under agreement, 294. 

C.C. of L.-T. and L.C. support Canadian 
Farm-Labour Economic Council in 
demand for cash advances on farm- 
held grain, 263. 

expulsion of U.M.W. for non-payment of 

dues, 22. 
"Conciliation in Ontario takes thrice legal 
time" — statement by Ontario Federa- 
tion of Labour, 21. 



INDEX 



Canadian Construction Association: 

brief presented to federal Government, 
397. 
! h annua] general meeting, 171. 

urges contractors help training of appren- 
tices—extracts from address by Presi- 
dent, C.C.A., 796. 

plan now for building next winter — extracts 
from address of president, C.C.A., 800. 
unemployment in building trades dur- 
ing winter of 1955 reported by joint 
committee of C.C.A., 369. 

1955 a year of record achievement in con- 
struction, 18. 

Canadian Farm-Labour Economic Council: 

meeting, 263. 

formation of farm-labour bloc predicted 
by chairman, 658. 

Canadian Federation of Agriculture: 

remarks of R. A. Stewart, Director, at 
13th federal-provincial farm labour 
conference, 64. 

Canadian Federation of Business and 
Professional Women: 

15th biennial convention, 1000. 

Canadian Federation of International Print- 
ing Pressmen: 

12th annual conference, 629. 

Canadian Federation of Mayors and Munici- 
palities: 

presentation of brief to Federal Cabinet, 
258. 

Canadian Federation of University Women: 

Occupations of University Women — results 
of questionnaire addressed by Women's 
Bureau, Department of Labour, to 
members of C.F.U.W., 1511. 

Canadian General Electric: 

wage increases provided in five-year con- 
tract signed by Canadian General Elec- 
tric and employees, U.E.R.M.W.A., 
497. 

Canadian Institute of Mining and Metal- 
lurgy: 

convention proceedings, 495. 

Canadian Institute on Public Affairs: 

"Automation — What It Means to You" — 
theme of conference sponsored by 
Institute, 505. 



Canadian International Paper Company: 

wage increase and other benefits won by 
Company in two-year labour agree- 
ment, 369. 

Canadian Labour Congress: 

merger creates Canadian Labour Con- 
gress — founding convention, 489. 

first constitutional convention, 634. 

Platform of Principles, 644. 

election of officers, 642; positions allotted 
to T. and L.C., 642; positions allotted 
to C.C. of L., 645. 

structure, 646. 

A.F. of L. staff and unions in Canada 
transferred to C.L.C., 797. 

30-hour week and wage increases granted 
to clerical employees at headquarters 
of C.L.C., 795. 

initial presidential address of Claude 
Jodoin, 637. 

Labour Day message of Claude Jodoin, 
President, 969. 

C.C.C.L. in favour of principle of affilia- 
tion to C.L.C., 370, 1387, 1390. 

Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
Enginemen to seek affiliation with 
C.L.C. and A.F. of L.-C.I.O., 953. 

mergers of trades and labour councils, 963, 
1113, 1233, 1493. 

compromise plan of political activity, 646- 
47. 

resolutions adopted by C.L.C. directed by 
Committee on Organization at C.C. 
C.L,. U.M.W.A. and O.B.U., 650. 

Union Label Trades Department of T. 
and L.C. to continue as department of 
C.L.C. — proceedings of fourth annual 
convention, 659. 

resolution adopted by Canadian Federa- 
tion of International Printing Press- 
men, 629. 

appointment of vice-president, C. H. Mil- 
lard, as Director of Organization, 
I.C.F.T.U., 961. 

shipbuilding unions adopt common wage 
policy, 963. 

Council of Broadcasting Unions formed, 
964. 

William Mahoney named vice-president, 
1111. 

seeks support for educational institutions, 
1230. 

appointment of Kalmen Kaplansky as 
Associate Secretary of National Com- 
mittee on Human Rights of C.L.C, 
1235. 

Canadian Life Assurance Company: 

"automation will create more rewarding 
jobs" — vice-president, Canadian Life 
Assurance Company, 24. 



INDEX 



XIX 



Canadian Manufacturers' Association: 

85th annual general meeting, 630, 814, 989. 

brief presented to Gordon Commission, 
388. 

CM. A. suggests reduction in income tax 
rates, in submission to Minister of 
Finance, 155. 

average profit of goods sold in manufac- 
turing industry in 1955, 1367. 

C.M.A. (Quebec Division) Conference on 
automation, 1532. 

President of C.M.A. stresses need for 
better education, 255; urges youth to 
finish training, 1360; "must show shop- 
pers Canadian goods best", 379. 

address by T. A. Rice, President, at British 
Columbia division of C.M.A., 513. 

proper use of engineers would reduce 
shortage — remarks of President of 
Canadian Westinghouse Company to 
Hamilton Branch, C.M.A., 1360. 

demands of civilization outrunning labour 
force — Donald P. Campbell, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, in 
address to C.M.A., 953. 

Canadian Marconi Company: 

"guaranteed unemployment insurance" 
plan to be introduced, 262. 

Canadian National Railways: 

conciliation board in railway dispute fully 
constituted — appointment of concilia- 
tion officer by-passed, 20. 

renting-out of contracts criticized at trien- 
nial conference of C.B.R.E., 1236. 

wage increase sought by Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Engineers, 369. 

Hansard reference, 383. 

Canadian Pacific Railway Company: 

conciliation board in railway dispute fully 
constituted — appointment of concilia- 
tion officer by-passed, 20. 

appointment of S. M. Gossage, Manager 
of Labour Relations, 499. 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment 

No. 1: 

summary of decisions, 863, 1282, 1558. 

Canadian Welfare Council: 

issues booklet Health Insurance — What 
Are the Issues? 1118. 

Canadian Westinghouse Company: 

establishment of training plan to increase 
supply of professional engineers, 958. 

proper use of engineers would reduce 
shortage — remarks of President of 
Company to Hamilton Branch, C.M.A., 
1360. 



Canterbury, Archbishop of: 

'message to delegates to British T.U.C., 
1259. 

Capital Expenditure: 

See Expenditure. 

Capital Punishment: 

Canada 

Hansard reference, 381. 
resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C., 656. 

Carpenter, U. W., Brotherhood of Locomo- 
tive Engineers : 
retirement as senior Canadian grand offi- 
cer, 962. 

Carpentry : 

Alta.— 

amended regulations under Apprentice- 
ship Act, 193, 1160. 

N.S.: application of Apprenticeship Act to 
carpenter trade, 1044. 

Ont.: regulations under Apprenticeship Act 
re carpenters and plasterers, 431. 

Sask.: amended regulations under Appren- 
ticeship and Tradesmen's Qualification 
Act, 1294. 

U.S.A. 

preferential hiring pact signed by United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Na- 
tional Contractors Association, 490. 

Empire in Wood — history of carpenters' 
union published by N.Y. State School 
of Industrial and Labour Relations, 
378. 

Cartels : 

Que.— 
resolution adopted by C.C.C.L., 1395. 

Casselman, Dr. P. H., Economics and Re- 
search Branch, Department of Labour: 
remarks at 2nd meeting Advisory Council 
on Professional Manpower, convened 
by Department of Labour, 1517. 

Central Mortgage and Housing: 

Canadian Housing Statistics — summary of 
quarterly report, 1396. 



XX 



INDEX 



Certification: 



Canada 



certification and other proceedings before 
the Canada Labour Relations Board, 
74. 178, 290. 414. 540, 683, 853, 1022, 
1134, 1270. 1404, 1543. 
Hansard reference to labour unions, 270. 
resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C., 649. 
dative requests of T. and L.C., 40; 
reply of Prime Minister, 41. 

Alta.: Alberta Federation of Labour (T. and 
L.C.) requests amendment to Labour 
Act, 266. 

B.C.: Court of Appeal finds Labour Rela- 
tions Board must settle voters' list 
in advance of representation vote, 724; 
Regulation 9A under Labour Rela- 
tions Act, 93; resolution adopted by 
Federation of Labour (C.C. of L.), 31. 

Man.: Court of Queen's Bench finds that 
Board exceeded its jurisdiction by 
certifying union before making proper 
inquiry, 727. 

Ont.: High Court of Justice finds provincial 
board lacked jurisdiction to certify 
a union for uranium mining employees, 
1578. 
See also Industrial Relations and Dis- 
putes Investigation Act. 

Ceylon : 

principles for settlement of industrial dis- 
putes outlined by Minister of Labour, 
1496. 

Chamber of Commerce: 

Que.— 
Montreal District Chamber of Commerce 
formed by business women, 263. 

Charitable Institutions : 

See Minimum Wages. 



Check-off : 



Canada 



Hansard references, 271, 802. 

resolution adopted at first constitutional 

convention of C.L.C. re amendment 

to I.R.D.I. Act, 648. 
recommendations of C.C. of L., 45. 
Nfld.: Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 

recommends amendment to Labour 

Relations Act, 381. 
Que.: Superior Court finds that check-off 

clause in collective agreement is 

invalid under Quebec law, 1579. 



Chevrier, Hon. Lionel, President, St. Law- 
rence Seaway: 
predicts winter employment of 75 per cent 
of labour force on St. Lawrence Sea- 
way, 17. 



Child Labour: 



Canada 



C.L.C. to seek abolition of child labour, 
644. 
Man.: recommendation of provincial labour 
bodies in joint submission to Winnipeg 
Chamber of Commerce, 156. 

Children's Allowances : 

See Family Allowances. 

Chrysler Corporation of Canada: 

establishes four-year apprentice training 
scheme, 795. 

Chrysler Corporation (U.S.A.) : 

s.u.b. payments commenced on June 1, 
1956, 626. 

Citizens' Forum: 

1956-57 C.B.C. program, 1235. 

Civil Engineering: 

fifth session, I.L.O. Building, Civil En- 
gineering and Public Works Com- 
mittee, 847. 



Civil Service: 



Canada 



Civil Service merger talks — preliminary 
negotiations towards union of federal 
civil servants, 799. 

Hansard reference re Civil Service Com- 
mission, 967, 1119; to five-day week in 
Public Service, 381. 

accidents reported to Government Em- 
ployees Compensation Branch, 163, 
497. 

Conference on Prevention of Work Acci- 
dents in Government Departments and 
Crown Agencies sponsored by Depart- 
ment of Labour and Civil Service 
Commission, 675. 

recommendations of C.C. of L. re govern- 
ment employees, 45. 

resolution referred to Executive at first 
constitutional convention of C.L.C, 
657. 

legislative request of T. and L.C, 40. 
Nfld.: salary increase for civil servants 
sought in resolution adopted by New- 
foundland Federation of Labour, 1007. 



INDEX 



XXI 



Civil Service Federation of Canada: 

Civil Service merger talks — preliminary 
negotiations towards union of federal 
civil servants, 799. 



Collective Agreement Act (Quebec) : 

'changes in wage rates under Act, 720. 
summary of agreements, 295, 720, ! 
1145, 1566. 



Civilian Rehabilitation: 

See Rehabilitation. 

Cleaning Establishments: 

See Hours of Work. 

Clerical Workers: 

See White-collar workers. 

Clothing Industry: 

U.S.A. 

"negotiation by research" to settle future 
differences urged by Executive Direc- 
tor of Industrial Council of Cloak, 
Suit and Skirt Manufacturers, 22. 

clothing workers gain 12i-cent increase, 
720. 

Coal: 

6th session of I.L.O. Coal Mines Com- 
mittee, 850; correction, 1118. 

Canada 

Hansard reference re imports of coal from 

United States, 967. 
convention proceedings of District 26, 

U.M.W.A., 1363. 
recommendations of C.C. of L. re 
Dominion Coal Board, 47. 

Alta.: regulations under Coal Mines Regu- 
lation Act, 729. 

B.C.: amended regulations under Coal 
Mines Regulation Act, 872. 

N.B.: convention proceedings of District 26, 
U.M.W.A., 1363. 

N.S.: convention proceedings of District 26, 
U.M.W.A., 1363; special training facili- 
ties for unemployed miners provided 
by federal and provincial departments 
of labour, 156. 

Coat and Suit Industry: 

See Clothing Industry. 

Coca-Cola Bottling Company: 

7-year no-strike pact signed by 4 locals 
of International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters and Company, 799. 

Colgate-Palmolive Company: (U.S.A.): 

lay-off benefit plan, 159. 



Collective Bargaining: 

Canada 

number of workers affected by collective 
agreements, Canada, 1954-11, 293. 

summary of book by Professor Harold A. 
Logan, on State Intervention and 
Assistance in Collective Bargaining in 
Canada, 1943-1954, 1239. 

CM. A. brief to Gordon Commission, 389. 

collective bargaining in hotel industry — 
analysis of agreements,. 867. 

collective bargaining on national scale 
planned by United Packinghouse 
Workers, 625. 

despite altered status, Mine-Mill union 
retains rights — decision of Ontario 
Labour Relations Board,. 628. 

Supreme Court of Canada rules that 
Trade Union Act does not prohibit 
employees of competitor from acting 
on bargaining committee, 1155. 

recommendation of C.C.C.L., 51. 

recommendation of C.C. of L. re govern- 
ment employees, 45. 
Alta.: amended provisions of Police Act, 
723; Alberta Federation of Labour 
(T. and L.C.) requests amendment to 
Labour Act, 266. 
B.C.: resolution adopted by B.C. Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.) re B.C. 
Electric Company, 1489. 
Man.: provisions of Public Schools Act, 723, 
1147-48; amendments to legislation re 
disputes in fire departments, 723. 
Ont.: amended provisions of Fire Depart- 
ment Act, 1410; amended provisions 
of Police Act, 723, 1411; despite 
altered status, Mine-Mill union retains 
rights — decision of Labour Relations 
Board, 628; IU.M.M.S.W. certified as 
bargaining agent for employees at four 
gold mines, 801 ; Provincial Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.) requests 
amendments to Labour Relations Act, 
501 ; same union may bargain for 
office or plant employees — decision of 
Labour Relations Board, 202; amend- 
ments to legislation re disputes in fire 
departments, 723. 
Que.: Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 
requests right to strike when employer 
does not bargain in good faith, 28; 
recommendations of Professional Asso- 
ciation of Industrialists, 1497. 



XXII 



INDEX 



Collective Bargaining — Con. 

Sask.: Supreme Court of Canada rules that 
Trade Union Act does not prohibit 
employees of competitor from acting 
on bargaining committee, 1155. 

U.S.A. 

recommendation of A.F. of L.-C.I.O., 60. 

resolutions adopted at convention of A.F. 
of L.-C.I.O. Metal Trades Depait- 
ment. 1363. 

Supreme Court rules union deriving bar- 
gaming status from Taft-Hartley Act 
has duty to represent whole unit, 87. 

D AW. seeks shorter work week and 
increased s.u.b., 625. 

removal of industrial medicine from col- 
lective bargaining, urged, 157. 

"labour and management rely too much 
on government" — remarks of Director 
of Federal Mediation and Conciliation 
Service, 22. 

"negotiation by research" to settle future 
differences urged by Executive Direc- 
tor of Industrial Council of Cloak, 
Suit and Skirt Manufacturers, 22. 

See also Legal Decisions. 

Colleges : 

See Universities. 

Colombo Plan: 

Canada's contributions, 1234. 

Colombo Plan Annual Report, 1954-55, 
summary of, 158. 

National Council of Women (Canada) 
recommends increased support of tech- 
nical assistance program, 259. 

Hansard reference, 165. 

Combines Investigation Act: 

X.B.— 
Marine Workers' Federation urges amend- 
ment re price fixing, 1236. 

Commerce : 

I.L.O. preliminary report on weekly rest 
in commerce and offices to be dis- 
cussed at 39th Conference, 681. 

Commerce, Chamber of: 

See Canadian Chamber of Commerce; 
Chamber of Commerce (Quebec). 

Commercial Establishments : 

Que.— 
special regulations under Industrial and 
Commercial Establishments Act gov- 
erning safety of employees in con- 
struction and excavation work, 1293. 



Committee on Professional Manpower: 

See Advisory Committee on Professional 
Manpower. 



Communications : 



Canada 



number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada, 1955, 1564; in 
1946, 1953 and 1954, 82. 



Communism : 



Canada 



unification of Communist - dominated 
unions with C.L.C.— resolution adopted 
at first constitutional convention of 
C.L.C., 650. 

U.S.A. 

recommendation of A.F. of L.-C.I.O., 60. 

Compulsory Arbitration: 

See Arbitration. 

Compulsory Conciliation : 

See Conciliation. 

Compulsory Trade Union Membership: 

See Trade Union Membership. 

Conciliation : 

Canada 

conciliation and other proceedings before 
the Minister of Labour, 77, 180, 291, 
414, 541, 684, 854, 1025, 1136, 1272, 1405, 
1545. 

compulsory arbitration strongly opposed 
in T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. brief to 
Royal Commission on Canada's Eco- 
nomic Prospects, 387. 

conciliation board in railway dispute fully 
constituted — appointment of concilia- 
tion officer by-passed, 20. 

agreement reached between Association of 
Lake Carriers and employees (Great 
Lakes and St. Lawrence shipping), 626. 

amendment to I.R.D.I. Act, recommended 
by C.C. of L. re compulsory concilia- 
tion, 45; remarks of President, 47; 
of Prime Minister, 47. 

amendments to I.R.D.I. Act recommended 
by International Railway Brother- 
hoods, 55. 
Alta . : amended provisions of Police Act, 

1575. 
Man.: provisions of Public Schools Act, 723. 



INDEX 



XXIII 



Conciliation — Con. 

Ont.: M.L.A. recommends abolition of three- 
man conciliation boards and replace- 
ment by one-man board, 372, and 
criticizes divergence of pay allowed 
members of conciliation boards, 372; 
"conciliation in Ontario takes thrice 
legal time" — statement by Ontario 
Federation of Labour (C.C. of L.), 21, 
and urges amendments to Labour 
Relations Act, 283; Provincial Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.) requests 
amendments to Labour Relations Act, 
501; resolution adopted by Ontario 
Federation of Printing Trades Unions, 
501, 628. 

Que.: delay in arbitration procedure pro- 
tested by C.C.C.L., 264; reply of 
Premier Duplessis, 266; Federation of 
Labour (T. and L.C.) recommends 
improved conciliation and arbitration 
service, 28. 

Sask.: Conciliation Board Regulations under 
Trade Union Act, 1421. 

Australia 

provisions of bill to amend Conciliation 
and Arbitration Act, 957. 

appointments under Conciliation and Ar- 
bitration Act, 1409. 

See also Industrial Relations and Dis- 
putes Investigation Act. 



Contractors : 

See Building and Construction. 



Contracts : 



Canada 



renting out of contracts criticized at 
triennial conference of C.B.R.E., 1236. 

See also Agreements; Fair Wages; Mini- 
mum Wages. 



Contributions : 



Canada 



new interpretation of provision (conver- 
sion of contributions) in revised 
Unemployment Insurance Act — state- 
ment of Minister of Labour, 308. 

Conventions : 

See Trade Unions; various subject head- 
ings. 

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation: 

submission of C.C.F. Trade Union Com- 
mittee to Ontario Federation of 
Labour Committee on Labour Rela- 
tions, 977. 

continued support by Ontario Federation 
of Labour (C.C. of L.), 282. 



Congress of Industrial Organizations: 

A.F. of L.-C.I.O. merger consummated — 
amalgamation of major segments of 
organized labour in United States 
effected at convention, 56. 

chronology of events leading to unity of 
A.F. of L. and C.I.O., 61. 

merger of meat worker unions — Amalga- 
mated Meat Cutters and Butcher 
Workmen of North America (A.F. of 
L.) and United Packinghouse Workers 
of America (C.I.O.), 370. 

merger of C.I.O. and A.F. of L. state 
organizations progresses, 490. 

number of workers under agreement in 
Canada, 294. 



Co-operative Societies : 

resolution adopted by committee on 
co-operatives at sixth regional con- 
ference of American states members of 
I.L.O., 1402. 

Canada 

Co-operation in Canada — 23rd edition 
(1954) issued by Department of 
Agriculture, 377. 

C.L.C. to seek full support for producers' 
and consumers' co-operatives and 
credit unions, 644; resolution referred 
to Executive at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C, 658. 



Construction : 

See Building and Construction. 

Continental Can Company of America: 

s.u.b. plan in collective agreement between 
Company and United Steelworkers of 
America, 517, 1365. 

terms of collective agreement signed with 
U.S.W.A., eliminate female wage dif- 
ferential, 1229. 



Cornell University: 

publishes guide to labour union periodicals, 
1186. 

Corporation Profits: 

Canada 

1955 corporation profits up 35 per cent 
after taxes, 491. 



XXIV 



INDEX 



Cost of Living: 

Canada 

(6.94 per poison weekly spent 
on food. 162. 
changes in provisions of collective 
cost-of-living escalator 
clauses, 719. 
D.B. of S. survey of family expenditures 
in 1953. 56S.* 

U.S.A. 

provisions of new agreement reached 
between steel companies and United 
Steelworkers, 956. 
also Prices. 

Cottcrill. Murray. Public Relations Director, 
United Steelworkers: 
text of paper delivered at Montreal meet- 
ing of Society for Advancement of 
Management, 497. 

Councils: 

See Management Councils; Radio Broad- 
casting. 

Crawford, A. W., Director of Training, 
Department of Labour: 
report to 23rd meeting of Vocational 
Training Advisory Council, 275. 

Crean, J. G., President, Canadian Chamber of 
Commerce: 
address before 27th annual meeting, Cana- 
dian Chamber of Commerce, 1527. 



Credit: 



Canada 



C.L.C. to seek nationalization of banking 
and credit, 644. 
Que.: C.C.C.L. protests against restrictions 
on housing credit, 1395. 



Credit Unions: 



Canada 



C.L.C. to seek full support for producers' 
and consumers' co-operatives and 
credit unions, 644. 

Credit Unions in Canada, 1954 — published 
by Department of Agriculture, 748. 



Criminal Code: 



Canada 



resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C. re injunctions in 
labour disputes, 648. 



Criminal Law: 

Canada 

Hansard reference, 967. 

Croll, Senator David: 

urges doubling of limit on government 
annuities, 960. 

Crossings : 

See Level Crossings. 



Crown Agencies: 



Canada 



Conference on Prevention of Work Acci- 
dents in Governments and Crown 
Agencies sponsored by Department of 
Labour and Civil Service Commission, 
675. 

accidents reported to Government Em- 
ployees Compensation Branch, 163. 

Crown Companies: 

Man — 
resolution adopted by Manitoba Federa- 
tion of Labour re right to organize, 
1490. 

Crowsnest Pass: 

Canada 
Hansard reference, 269. 

Dangerous Substances : 

I.L.O. establishes basic list of dangerous 
substances that should be labelled 
uniformly throughout the world, 1541. 

Davidson, Dr. George F., Deputy Minister 
of Welfare: 
extracts from address at 85th annual 
meeting of C.M.A., 989. 

Davis, William H., former Chairman, United 
States War Labour Board: 
remarks re automation, at conference of 
American Labour Education Service, 
257. 



Decentralization : 



Canada 



Hansard reference to decentralization of 
industry, 382. 

Denmark: 

sharing increased productivity benefits, 
446. 



INDEX 



XXV 



Depressed Areas: 



U.S.A. 



introduction of Bill to aid areas of 
chronic unemployment, 162. 

Dickey, John H., Parliamentary Assistant to 
Minister of Defence Production: 
text of paper delivered at Montreal meet- 
ing of Society for Advancement of 
Management, 497. 



Diesel Power: 



Canada 



recommendation of International Railway 
Brotherhoods, 54. 

Dietitians : 

Que.— 

legal recognition to women, 263. 

Disarmament : 

resolution adopted at 39th Conference of 
I.L.O., 1011. 

United Kingdom 
resolution adopted by T.U.C., 1260. 

Discrimination : 

less job discrimination in world — I.L.O. 

report, 72. 
resolution adopted at 39th Conference of 

I.L.O. re wage discrimination, 1010. 
U.N. Subcommission on the Prevention of 

Discrimination and the Protection of 

Minorities to discuss discrimination 

in employment, 176. 

Canada 

Canadian Jewish Congress urge nation- 
wide anti-discrimination legislation, 
1362. 

discrimination against certain persons in 
opportunities to purchase housing 
under National Housing Act, dis- 
approved by Canadian Federation of 
Mayors and Municipalities, 259. 

Canadian Labour Congress — to seek 
amendment to British North America 
Act, 644; industry discriminates 
against diminutive workers — delegate 
to C.L.C. convention, 651; report of 
committee on human rights — resolu- 
tions drafted, and adopted at first 
constitutional convention of C.L.C, 
654. 
B.C.: enactment of Fair Employment Prac- 
tices Act, 721; provisions of Act, 871. 



Discrimination — Con. 

Man.: amendments to Fair Employment 
Practices Act, 721, 1151. 

N.B.: enactment of Fair Employment Prac- 
tices Act, 721; provisions of Act, 874. 

Sask.: enactment of Fair Employment Prac- 
tices Act, 721 ; repeal of Sections 8 
and 11 of Bill of Rights Act and 
incorporation of these provisions into 
Fair Employment Practices Act and 
Fair Accommodation Practices Act, 
1286. 

U.S.A. 

two N.Y. agencies move to combat dis- 
criminatory practices, 1362. 

Diseases, Industrial: 

Canada 

increase in problems of occupational dis- 
eases, 161. 

B.C.: schedule of industrial diseases under 
Workmen's Compensation. Act, 301, 
425, 1038. 

N.B.: inclusion of pneumoconiosis under 
Workmen's Compensation Act recom- 
mended by Federation of Labour, 
1254. 

Displacement: 

See Job Displacement. 



D.E.W. Line: 



Canada 



Hansard reference to conditions of em- 
ployment, 383. 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: 

See Statistics, Dominion Bureau of; 
various subject headings. 

Dominion Coal Board: 

C.C. of L. recommends labour representation 
on Board, 47. 

Dominion Statistician : 

appointment of Walter E. Duffett, 1234. 



Draftsmen : 



U.S.A. 



General Motors Corporation training pro- 
gram to overcome shortage of drafts- 
men, 1231. 



INDEX 



Drapeau. Jean. Mayor of Montreal: 

extracts from address at conference on 
labour arbitration held by McGill 
Industrial Relations Centre, 397. 

Dressmaking: 

Hours of Work. 

Drug- : 

Nfld.— 

regulations under Food and Drugs Act 
(Counter Freezers Regulations, 1955), 
195. 

Drydocks : 

See Shipping. 

Duffett, Walter E., Director, Economics and 
Research Branch, Department of 
Labour: 
appointment as Dominion Statistician, 
1234. 

Duke of Edinburgh: 

proceedings of Conference on Human 
Problems in Industry, 793, 1122. 

Duplessis, Maurice, Premier, Province of 
Quebec: 
reply to legislative proposals of Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.), 28; to 
legislative brief of Professional Asso- 
ciation of Industrialists, 1496. 

Dyeing Establishments: 

See Hours of Work. 

Dymond, Dr. W. R., Economics and Research 
Branch, Department of Labour: 
remarks at 2nd meeting, Advisory Council 
on Professional Manpower, convened 
by Department of Labour, 1517. 



Earnings: 



Canada 



employees' earnings on Canadian railways 
in 1954, 20. 



Economic Development: 

Canada 

T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. brief to Royal 
Commission on Canada's Economic 
Prospects, 384. 

CM. A. brief to Gordon Commission, 388. 



Economic Development — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 

economic expansion in 1956 predicted by 
Minister of Trade and Commerce, 17. 

continued shortage of engineers and scien- 
tists will handicap Canada's economic 
and scientific development, 494. 
United Kingdom 

T.U.C. report — the economy and the 
organized worker, 36. 
U.S.A. 

1956 economic prospects good, 18. 

Economic Policy: 

Canada 

C.L.C. "Statement of Economic Policy", 
645. 

Economic Rehabilitation : 

See Rehabilitation. 

Economic Situation: 

Canada 

C.C. of L. legislative memorandum, 43. 

economic prosperity and employment 
instability — proceedings of Laval Uni- 
versity's 11th annual industrial rela- 
tions convention, 670. 

14th annual convention of Personnel Asso- 
ciation of Toronto, 677, 678. 

no prospect in 1956 to end of farming 
depression, 160. 

United Kingdom 

resolution adopted by Trades Union Con- 
gress, 1256. 

U.S.A. 

1956 economic prospects good as forecast 
by labour union economists, 18. 

Economics : 

See Home Economics. 

Economists : 

Third International Congress of the Inter- 
national Catholic Secretariat for Tech- 
nologists, Agriculture and Economists, 
held at Montallegro, Italy, 376. 

Edinburgh, Duke of: 

proceedings of Conference on Human 
Problems in Industry, 793, 1122. 



INDEX 



XXVII 



Education: 



Canada 



Association of Professional Engineers of 
Ontario urges aid to education by 
government and industry, 1230. 

automation a stumbling block to scientists 
and engineers — Assistant Superinten- 
dent of Ontario Secondary Schools, 
623. 

Canadian Labour Congress — to seek free 
compulsory education, etc., 644; com- 
promise plan of political activity, 646- 
47; seeks support for educational 
institutions, 1230; resolutions referred 
to Executive at first constitutional 
convention, 658. 

Canadian Manufacturers' Association — 
brief to Gordon Commission, 390; 
need for better education stressed by 
President of, 255. 

competition from United States em- 
ployers for Canadian university 
graduates, 797. 

establishment of education fund for mining 
professions — to overcome urgent situa- 
tion — suggested at convention of 
Canadian Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgy, 495. 

establishment of education mortgage plan 
urged by Canadian Association of Real 
Estate Boards, 1232. 

establishment of Industrial Foundation on 
Education — resolution adopted at Na- 
tional Conference on Engineering, 
Scientific and Technical Manpower, 
1520, 1525. 

Hansard reference, 270. 

increase in university enrolment in 1955, 
493. 

Claude Jodoin, President, Canadian Labour 
Congress, proposes federal-provincial 
conference on educational problems, 
1358. 

more and better trained university 
graduates urged at Learned Societies 
Conference, 796. 

National Conference of Canadian Univer- 
sities, 1526. 

need for education of handicapped per- 
sons, 532. 

need for vocational training stressed by 
President of National Council of 
Women, 795. 

new system for university grants, con- 
sidered by Federal Government, 1358. 
1956 research grants under Labour Depart- 
ment — University Research Program, 
834. 



Education — Con. 

Canada. — Con. 
Occupations of University Women— results 
of questionnaire addressed by Women's 
Bureau, Department of Labour, to 
members of Canadian Federation of 
University Women, 1511. 
recommendations of International Railway 
Brotherhood, 53; reply of Prime 
Minister, 55. 
The Crisis in Higher Education in 
Canada — conference sponsored by Na- 
tional Conference of Canadian Univer- 
sities, 1109. 
T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. brief to Royal 
Commission on Canada's Economic 
Prospects, 387. 
university education must be extended — 
President, University of Western 
Ontario, 621. 

B.C.: British Columbia Teachers' Federa- 
tion breaks 13-year affilition with 
T. and L.C, 490. 

Man.: provisions of Public Schools Act, 723, 
1147-48; resolution adopted by Mani- 
toba Federation of Labour, 1490. 

N.B.: resolution adopted at convention of 
Federation of Labour, 1254. 

Ont.: Association of Professional Engineers 
of Ontario urges aid to education by 
government and industry, 1230; auto- 
mation a stumbling block to scientists 
and engineers — Assistant Superinten- 
dent of Ontario Secondary Schools, 
623; proposed 10-year program of 
capital assistance to provincial univer- 
sities and technical institutes, 1358; 
recommendation of Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.), 380; school for 
advanced technical training to be 
established in Ottawa area, 1495; 
teachers and board agree to future 
arbitration in disputes — provision of 
agreement between Port Arthur Board 
of Education and Teachers' Federa- 
tion, 21; Waterloo College plan to 
relieve shortage of engineers and tech- 
nicians, 1230. 

P.E.I. : recommendations of Labour Council 
(C.C. of L.), 502, 503. 

Que.: resolution adopted at convention of 
C.C.C.L. re submission of brief to 
Department of Education, 1395; 
recommends establishment of study 
camps, 1396. 



United Kingdom 

development of "sandwich" courses in 
technical education, 1231. 

increase in number of state scholarships 
granted, to ease shortage of tech- 
nologists, 796. 



INDEX 



Education — Con. 

U.S.A. 

General Motors Corporation training pro- 
gram to overcome shortage of drafts- 
men, 1231. 

training of mature, college-educated women 
for teaching profession, 1536. 

See also Technical Education. 

Eisenhower, Dwight W., President, United 
States: 

urges enactment of recommendations made 
to Congress, 164. 



Elections: 



Canada 



Hansard reference to Canada Elections 

Act, 633. 
recommendation of C.C. of L. re half-day 

holiday, 47. 
T. and L.C. recommends amendment to 
Election Act, 41. 
B.C.: Court of Appeal finds Labour Rela- 
tions Board must settle voters' list 
in advance of representation vote, 724. 
Ont.: resolution adopted by Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.), 284; resolution 
adopted by Ontario Federation of 
Printing Trades Unions, 628. 
Que.: resolutions adopted by C.C.C.L., 1395. 

U.S.A. 

representation election set aside by 
Labour Relations Board on ground 
employer required employees to wear 
ribbons... "I'm Voting No", 1383. 

Electrical Equipment: 

N.B.— 

regulations under Mining Act, 307. 

Electrical Installations : 

B.C.— 

amended regulations under Coal Mines 
Regulation Act, 872. 

Man.: amended provisions of Electricians 
Licence Act and Manitoba Power 
Commission Act, 1152. 

N.S.: amendment to Inside Electrical Instal- 
lation Act, 1028. 

Electrical Trade: 

Man. — 
amended provisions of Electricians Licence 
Act, 724, 1152; regulations under Power 
Commission Act, 425, 1152. 

N.S.: amendments to Electricians Licence 
Act, 724. 

Sask.: amended regulations under Appren- 
ticeship and Tradesmen's Qualifica- 
tion Act re electrical trade, 884. 



Electronics: 

B.C.— 

provisions of Order No. 7 (1956) under 
Male and Female Minimum Wage Act, 
1291-92; regulations under Apprentice- 
ship and Tradesmen's Qualification 
Act, 1290. 

U.S.A. 

N.Y. trains apprentices in electronics, 
automation, 624. 

Elevators : 

Man. — 
amended provisions of Elevator and Hoist 
Act, 724, 1153. 
N.S.: provisions of Elevators and Lifts 
Act, 723, 1026. . 

Employer-Employee Relations: 

See Industrial Relations. 

Employer Organizations : 

I.L.O. reports progress in inquiry into 
employers' and workers' freedom, 175. 

Employment : 

report of Director-General of I.L.O. on 
situation in 1955, 287. 

report of I.L.O. Building, Civil Engineer- 
ing and Public Works Committee, 849. 

Canada 

survey of employment in 1955, 32-36. 

increase in industrial employment, pay- 
rolls and average weekly wages and 
salaries in 1955 — D. B. of S. annual 
review of employment and payrolls, 
1367. 

number of workers on Canadian railways 
in 1954 and 1953, 20, 95. 

effects of plant expansion in 1955 on 
manufacturing employment, 272. 

employment of women on out-of-way pro- 
jects, 1398. 

seasonal variations and current trends in 
the construction industry, 660-669. 

winter employment of 75 per cent of 
labour force on St. Lawrence Seaway, 
predicted, 17. 

employment instability and stability — 
proceedings of Laval University's 11th 
annual industrial relations convention, 
670, 674. 

young people lack knowledge in seeking 
employment — report of Jewish Voca- 
tional Service, Toronto, 627. 

competition from United States employers 
for Canadian university graduates, 797. 



INDEX 



Employment — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 

Hansard references, 165, 802. 

legislative recommendations of T. and 
L.C, 38. 

Central Hiring Bureau — purpose of estab- 
lishment of manpower pool to ensure 
supply of labour for St. Lawrence 
Seaway and St. Lawrence Power Pro- 
jects, 1498. 

Australia 

survey indicates full employment advan- 
tageous to all, 371. 

Germany 

number of women employers in West 
Germany, 1398. 

India 

Second Five Year Plan — review of booklet 
issued by Ministry of Information and 
Broadcasting of the Government of 
India, 500. 

U.S.A. 

2J million more at work than year earlier, 

495. 
shortage of skilled workers reported, 163. 
statistics, 23, 370, 518, 1266, 1365. 
See also Automation; Engineering; Forced 

Labour; Guaranteed Employment; 

Handicapped Persons ; Labour Supply ; 

Older Workers. 



Employment Conditions : 

Canada 

Working and Living Conditions in 
Canada— 5th edition prepared by 
Department of Labour, 257. 

Working and Living Conditions in Agri- 
culture — bulletin issued by Federal 
Department of Labour, 19. 

recent changes in wage rates and other 
conditions of work — study of recent 
collective agreements, 717. 

labourers in manufacturing, 1955 — wage 
rates, 1174. 

plant employees — survey of working con- 
v ditions, 1303. 

police constables, fire fighters and labourers 
in municipal government service — 
salaries and hours of labour, 563. 

Bill 211, "An Act to provide for Annual 
Holidays with Pay for Employees", 
not passed, 1570. 



Employment Conditions — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 
6ill 411, "An Act to provide for Pay for 
Statutory Holidays for Employees 
and for Pay for Work Performed on 
Statutory Holidays", not passed, 1570. 
functions of Labour Relations Association 
re working conditions on St. Lawrence 
Seaway and St. Lawrence Power Pro- 
jects, 1499. 
method of computing vacation pay, 316. 
Hansard reference to D.E.W. line, 383. 
resolution adopted at first constitutional 

convention of C.L.C., 656. 
recommendation of C.C.C.L. re govern- 
ment printing bureau employees, 5.1. 
improved working conditions in coal min- 
ing industry sought by District 26, 
U.M.W.A., 1363. 
working conditions in certain industries — 
i^ motor vehicles and parts, 105. 

office employees in manufacturing, 
1434. 
i primary textile, 432. 
i public utilities, 1052. 
N.B.: regulations under Mining Act, 302; 
improved working conditions in coal 
mining industry sought by District 26, 
U.M.W.A., 1363. 
N.S.: improved working conditions in coal 
mining industry sought by District 26, 
U.M.W.A., 1363. 

United Kingdom 

number of workers covered by payment- 
by-result plans, 632. 

Employment of Older Women: 

See Older Workers; Womanpower. 

Employment Security: 

43rd annual convention of International 
Association of Personnel in Employ- 
ment Security (I.A.P.E.S.), 1003. 

Canada 

appointment of William Thomson, Direc- 
tor, National Employment Service, 
795. 

seasonal unemployment reduced by N.E.S. 
and Department of Labour campaign, 
519, 960. 

manager of Cornwall, Ontario, office of 
N.E.S. , J. Rene Laframboise, runner-up 
for Award of Merit of I.A.P.E.S., 493; 
death of Mr. Laframboise, 794. 



INDEX 



Engine Operators: 

Engineering. 

Engineering: 

fifth session. I.L.O. Building, Civil En- 
gineering and Public Works Com- 
mit tf 847. 

Canada 

Committee named to plan National 
Engineering Manpower Conference, 
958. 

National Conference on Engineering, 
Scientific and Technical Manpower, 
1520. 

examination of engineers regulations under 
Canada Shipping Act, amended, 550, 
1582. 

continued shortage of engineers and scien- 
tists will handicap Canada's economic 
and scientific development, 494. 

engineer shortage slows atomic power 
program, 958. 

proper use of engineers would reduce 
shortage, 1360. 

plans to increase training facilities for 
professional engineers and technicians, 
1110. 

wage increase sought by Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Engineers (C.N.R.), 369. 

new engineering schools needed to meet 
demand for engineers in Canada — 
meeting of deans of universities' 
engineering departments, 621. 

Association of Professional Engineers of 
Ontario urges aid to education by 
government and industry, 1230. 

Canadian Institute of Mining and Metal- 
lurgy, suggests establishment of edu- 
cation fund for mining professions, to 
overcome urgent situation, 495. 

Canadian Westinghouse Company and 
Orenda Engines, Limited, announce 
establishment of training plans to 
increase supply of professional en- 
gineers, 958. 

bulletin on women in science and engineer- 
ing prepared by Department of 
Labour, 1535. 

persuade youth to finish training, C.M.A. 
head urges, 1360. 
Alta.: revised regulations under Boilers and 

Pressure Vessels Act, 88-89. 
Man.: amended regulations under Operating 
Engineers and Firemen Act, 425, 724. 
N.B.: regulations under Stationary En- 
gineers Act, 1042; recommendation of 
Federation of Labour re Stationary 
Engineers Act, 1254. 
X.S.: amended provisions of Engine Opera- 
tors Act, 724, 1028. 



Engineering — Con. 

Ont.: proposed 10-year program of capital 
assistance to provincial universities 
and technical institutes, 1358; Water- 
loo College plan to relieve shortage 
of engineers and technicians, 1230; 
Association of Professional Engineers 
of Ontario urges aid to education by 
government and industry, 1230. 

United Kingdom 

William John Carron elected president of 
Amalgamated Engineering Union, 961. 

See also Automation; Locomotive En- 
gineers. 

Enlisted Personnel: 

See Armed Forces. 

Equal Pay: 

can companies eliminate female wage 
differential in collective agreements 
signed between Continental Can Com- 
pany, American Can Company, and 
U.S.W.A., 1229. 

resolution adopted at 39th Conference 
of I.L.O., 1010. 

Canada 

Female Employees Equal Pay Act pro- 
claimed in force from October 1, 1956, 
1229; provisions of Act, 1568. 

can companies eliminate female wage dif- 
ferential in collective agreements 
signed between Continental Can Com- 
pany, American Can Company, and 
U.S.W.A., 1229. 

recommendation of C.C. of L., 46. 

C.L.C. to seek equal pay for equal work 
for men and women, 644; resolutions 
adopted at first constitutional con- 
vention, 649. 

resolution adopted at 15th biennial con- 
ference of Canadian Federation of 
Business and Professional Women, 
1001. 

resolution adopted by National Council 
of Women, 795. 

legislative request of T. and L.C., 40. 

Hansard references, 164, 165, 1119. 

Alta.: Alberta Federation of Labour (T. 
and L.C.) requests amendment to 
Labour Act, 266; legislative resolution, 
1576. 

B.C.: resolution adopted by B.C. Federation 
of Labour (C.L.C), 1489. 



INDEX 



XXXI 



Equal Pay — Con. 

Man.: enactment of Equal Pay Act, 721; 
provisions of Equal Pay Act, 1146. 

N.B.: resolution adopted by Federation of 
Labour, 1254. 

Nfld.: Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 
requests enactment of legislation, 381; 
establishment of equal pay to equal 
work act to cover all employees recom- 
mended by Newfoundland Federation 
of Labour, 1007. 

N.S.: enactment of Equal Pay Act, 721; 
provisions of Equal Pay Act, 1027. 

Ont.: resolution adopted by Ontario Federa- 
tion of Printing Trades Unions, 628; 
Bill to amend Equal Pay Act, not 
passed, 1412. 

Que.: resolution adopted by C.C.C.L., 1395. 

United Kingdom 

agreement reached on principle of equal 

pay for equal work for men and 

women, 1229. 
expansion of equal pay for equal work 

plan, 375. 
list of professions in which women receive 

equal pay with men, 1229. 

U.S.A. 

can companies eliminate female wage dif- 
ferential in collective agreements 
signed between Continental Can Com- 
pany, American Can Company, and 
U.S.W.A., 1229. 

introduce equal pay bills in Senate and 
Congress, 375. 

Escalator Clauses: 

Canada 

changes in provisions of collective agree- 
ments re cost-of-living escalator 
clauses, 719. 

U.S.A. 

provisions of 3-year agreement signed by 
11 railway unions, 1497. 



Examinations : 



Canada 



examination of engineers' regulations under 
Canada Shipping Act, amended, 1582. 

Excavations : 

B.C.— 

Recommended Practices for Safe Shoring 
of Excavations — booklet issued by 
Workmen's Compensation Board, 886. 
Man.: regulations under Building Trades 
Protection Act re prevention of acci- 
dents in construction and excavation 
work, 1039. 



Excavations — Con. 
Que.: special regulations under Industrial 
and Commercial Establishments Act 
governing safety of employees in con- 
struction and excavation work, 1293. 



Excise Tax: 



Canada 



changes requested by Canadian Chamber 
of Commerce in submission to Minis- 
ters of Finance and National Revenue, 
155. 

recommendation of CM. A. in submission 
to Minister of Finance, 155. 

Expansion: 

See Business Expansion. 



Expenditure: 



Canada 



Private and Public Investment in Canada: 
Outlook, 1956, report prepared by 
D.B. of S. and Economics Branch, 
Department of Trade and Commerce, 
253. 

D.B. of S. survey of family expenditures 
in 1953, 568. 

Exports : 

Canada 

re exports in 1954-55, 17. 



Factories : 



Canada 



effects of plant expansion in 1955 on 
manufacturing employment, 272. 

B.C.: deletion of special provisions of Fac- 
tories Act governing employees in 
laundries, cleaning, dyeing, pressing or 
dressmaking establishments, 722, 872; 
regulations under Factories Act and 
Shops Regulation and Weekly Holiday 
Act, 1162. 

Man.: regulations under Factories Act re 
spray painting, 551. 

Sask.: recommendation of Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.), 29. 

United Kingdom 

factory inspection in 1954 — report of Chief 
Inspector of Factories, 525. 

U.S.A. 

office workers' salaries rise faster than 
plant workers, 1118. 



XXXII 



INDEX 



Fair Accommodation: 

Sask.— 

enactment of Fair Accommodation Prac- 
tices Act, 721; provisions of Act 
replacing Sections 8 and 11 of Bill of 
Rights Act, 1288. 

Fair Employment Practices: 

job discrimination in world — I.L.O. 
report.. 72. 

Canada 

report of committee on human rights — 
resolutions drafted, and adopted at 
first constitutional convention of 
C.L.C., 654. 
legislative recommendation of T. and 
L.C. re Canada Fair Employment 
Practices Act, 41. 

B.C.: enactment of Fair Employment Prac- 
tices Act, 721; provisions of Act, 871. 

Man.: amendments to Fair Employment 
Practices Act, 721, 1151. 

X.B.: enactment of Fair Employment Prac- 
tices Act, 721; provisions of Act, 874. 

Xfld.: Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 
requests enactment of legislation, 381. 

Ont.: recommendation of Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.), 380. 

Que.: adoption of Fair Employment Prac- 
tices Act recommended by Quebec 
Federation of Labour, 1386. 

Sask.: enactment of Fair Employment Prac- 
tices Act, 721; provisions of Act (1956), 
replacing Sections 8 and 11 of Bill 
of Rights Act, 1287. 

U.S.A. 

two N.Y. agencies move to combat dis- 
criminatory practices, 1362. 
recommendation of A.F. of L.-C.I.O., 60. 

Fair Labour Standards Act (U.S.A.) : 

Supreme Court rules that workers must 
be paid for activities that are "integral 
and indispensable" part of job, 422. 

A.F. of L.-C.I.O. seeks extension of Act 
governing wages and hours, 741. 

Fair Remuneration: 

See Equal Pay. 



Fair Wages : 



Canada 



Fair Wages — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 
C.L.C. to seek national Fair Wage Act, 
644 ; resolution adopted at first legisla- 
tive convention of, 656. 
legislative request of T. and L.C, 40. 
Man.: Fair Wage Schedule for 1956-57 under 

Fair Wage Act, 730. 
Nfld.: Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 
recommends fair labour clauses in 
government contracts, 381. 
Ont.: recommendations of Provincial Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C), 501. 

Family Allowances : 

Canada 

C.C.C.L. recommends increase in rates, 50; 
reply of Prime Minister, 52. 

recommendation of C.C. of L., 45. 

resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C, 653. 

International Railway Brotherhoods recom- 
mend increase in benefits, 53. 

legislative recommendations of T. and 
L.C, 41. 

Hansard references, 167, 268, 269, 1119. 
Xfld.: resolution of Newfoundland Federa- 
tion of Labour, 1007. 

Family Expenditure: 

Canada 

D.B. of S. survey of family expenditures 
in 1953, 568. 

Farm Implements: 

See Agricultural Implements. 



Farm Income: 



Canada 



farm income up 13 per cent over 1955, 

1367. 
1955 farm income down, 160, 491. 
P.E.I. : recommendations of Labour Council 
(C.C. of L.), 502. 

U.S.A. 

1955 farm income down, 491. 



Farm Labour: 



Canada 



fair wages conditions in federal Govern- 
ment contracts, 100, 202, 313, 429, 559, 
738, 890, 1048, 1170, 1298, 1428, 1588. 



13th federal-provincial farm labour con- 
ference, 63. 

meeting of Canadian Farm-Labour Eco- 
nomic Council, 263. 

Hansard reference, 633. 



INDEX 



XXXIII 



Farm Labour — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 
formation of farm-labour bloc predicted 
by chairman of Canadian Farm Labour 
Economic Council, 658. 
Working and Living Conditions in Agri- 
culture — bulletin issued by Federal 
Department of Labour, 19. 

Farm Unions: 

See Canadian Farm-Labour Economic 
Council. 

Farming : 

See Agriculture; Farm Income; Farm 
Labour. 

Fatalities: 

See Accidents. 

"Featherbedding": 

U.S.A. 

Supreme Court ruling, 378. 

Female Employees Equal Pay Act: 

proclaimed in force from October 1, 1956, 

1229. 
provisions, 1568. 



Films : 



Canada 

film strips and occupational monographs 
discussed at meeting of Vocational 
Training Advisory Council, 277. 

See also National Film Board. 



Finance: 



Canada 



number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada, 1955, 1565; in 
1946, 1953, and 1954, 83. 

United Kingdom 

resolution adopted by Trades Union Con- 
gress, 1256. 

Financial Administration Act: 

amendment to Prevailing Rate Employees 

General Regulations, 879. 
special leave provisions of Prevailing Rate 

Employees General Regulations, under 

Act, amended, 1582. 
Ships' Officers Regulations under Act, re 

vacation and special leave, amended, 

1582. 

86825—3 



Fire Fighters: 

23rd biennial convention of International 
Association of Fire Fighters, 1114. 

Canada 

salaries and hours of labour in municipal 

government service, 563. 
locomotive firemen (railway and harbour 
board) seek wage increase and other 
fringe benefits, 153. 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
Enginemen to seek affiliation with 
C.L.C. and A.F. of L.-C.I.O., 953. 
23rd biennial convention of International 
Association of Fire Fighters, 1114. 

Alta.: revised regulations under Boilers and 
Pressure Vessels Act, 88-89. 

Man.: amended provisions of Fire Depart- 
ments Arbitration Act, 1150; amended 
regulations under Operating Engineers 
and Firemen Act, 425, 724, 1152; 
amendments to legislation re disputes 
in fire departments, 723. 

Nfld.: Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 
recommends enactment of Fire Depart- 
ment Act, 381. 

Ont.: amended provisions of Fire Depart- 
ment Act, 1410; regulation under 
Workmen's Compensation Act re em- 
ployees of Fire Department of City 
of Hamilton, 95; Provincial Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.) seeks 
amendment to Fire Department Act 
re hours of work, 502; amendments to 
legislation re disputes in fire depart- 
ments, 723. 

U.S.A. 

23rd biennial convention of International 

Association of Fire Fighters, 1114. 
See also Minimum Wages. 

First Aid: 

United Kingdom 

1954 report of Chief Inspector of Fac- 
tories, 530. 

Fisher, Dr., Archbishop of Canterbury: 

message to delegates to British T.U.C., 
1259. 



Fishing: 



Canada 



' Large Fishing Vessel Inspection Regula- 
tions" under Canada Shipping Act, 
1159, 1417. 



INDEX 



Fishing — ( 

: n:ui:i. — Con. 

unemployment insurance coverage for 
fishermen provided under Act by 
amended regulations, 1120, 1568. 

distribution of agreements covering 1,000 
or more employees, 1284. 

number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada, 1955, 1561; in 
1946, 1953 and 1954, 79. 

Hansard reference to unemployment insur- 
ance coverage, 166; to fisheries training 
programs, 381. 



Foreign Policy; 



Five-Dav Week: 



Canada 



plant employees on five-day week, 1303, 
1304. 

Hansard reference to five-day week in 
Public Service, 381. 

recommendation of C.C. of L. re govern- 
ment employees, 45. 
Alta.: recommendation of Alberta Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.), 267. 



Food: 



Canada 



average of $6.94 per person weekly spent 
on food, 162. 
Nfld.: regulations under Food and Drugs 
Act (Counter Freezers Regulations, 
1955), 195. 

U.S.A. 

price to farmer drops, handling costs rise, 
160. 

Footwear : 

See Rubber Footwear. 

Forced Labour: 

proceedings of 39th Conference of I.L.O., 
1010. 

report of I.L.O. Committee on Forced 
Labour, 536. 

establishment of independent ad hoc com- 
mittee on forced labour announced by 
Director-General of I.L.O. , 175. 

United States said unwilling to support 
I.L.O. forced labour convention, 288. 

Ford Motor Company of Canada: 

two-year contracts covering office workers 
and hourly-rated employees signed by 
Company and U.A.W., 959. 

Ford Motor Company (U.S.A.): 

g.u.b. payments commenced on June 1, 
1956, 626. 



Canada 



C.C.C.L. legislative memorandum, 48. 
recommendations of C.C. of L., 43; reply 
of Prime Minister, 47. 

Forest Operations: 

See also Minimum Wages. 



Forestry : 



Canada 



number of workers effected by collective 
agreements in 1946, 1953 and 1954, 79. 

Forty-hour Week: 

Canada 

plant employees on 40-hour week, 1303, 
1304. 

extension of five-day, 40-hour week to all 
Department of Veterans Affairs hospi- 
tals and institutions, 1260. 

United Kingdom 

resolution adopted at convention of T.U.C., 
1258. 

France : 

plan provides increase in pensions for 
persons over 65 years of age, 630. 

enforcement of Holidays with Pay Act, 
1416. 

Francis, J. P., Economics and Research 
Branch, Department of Labour: 
"The Outlook for Professional Manpower" 
— extracts from address to Advisory 
Committee on Professional Manpower, 
393. 

Freedom of Association: 

I.L.O. reports progress in inquiry into 
employers' and workers' freedom, 175. 
B.C.— 

Supreme Court holds that company did 
not violate terms of agreement in 
refusing to dismiss employee for failure 
to join union or pay membership dues, 
190. 

Frictional Unemployment : 

Canada 

frictional unemployment — proceedings of 
Laval University's 11th annual indus- 
trial relations convention, 671. 



INDEX 



XXXV 



Fringe Benefits: 



Canada 



locomotive firemen (railway and harbour 
board) seek wage increase and other 
fringe benefits, 153. 

Stelco and Steelworkers (Hamilton) sign 
two-year contract providing wage 
increases and fringe benefits, 956. 



Gas — Con. 



United Kingdom 



agreement reached on principle of equal 
pay for equal work for men and 
women, 1229. 

Gas Pipeline: 

See Pipeline. 



U.S.A. 

fringe and wage benefits equal to steel 
industry provided under three-year 
agreement between Aluminum Com- 
pany of America and U.S.W.A., 1116. 

Fruit and Vegetable Industry: 

B.C.— 

regulation under Hours of Work Act, 881. 

Full Employment: 

report of I.L.O. Building, Civil Engineer- 
ing and Public Works Committee, 849. 

Canada 

C.L.C. to seek full employment at the 
highest possible standard of living, 
644. 



Geddes, Charles J., Past President, British 
Trades Union Congress: 
address at 1st convention of Canadian 
Labour Congress, 641. 

General Electric Company: 

automation only solution to employment 
problem — President's opinion, 373. 



General Motors: 



Canada 



General Motors strike — provisions of new 

agreement, 277-79. 
s.u.b. plan in collective agreement between 

Company and U.A.W., 516. 
resolution adopted by Ontario Federation 

of Labour (C.C. of L.) re General 

Motors strike, 283. 



Australia 

survey indicates full employment advan- 
tageous to all, 371. 

Furniture Industry: 

U.S.A. 

Upholsterers International Union and 
United Furniture Workers establish 
confederation, 1365. 

Garages : 

Sask.— 
payment of overtime rates to employees 
in garages and automobile service 
stations provided under Hours of 
Work Act, 1585. 



U.S.A. 

s.u.b. payments commenced on June 1, 

1956, 626. 
training program to overcome shortage 

of draftsmen, 1231. 



Germany : 

Court rules illegal to dismiss woman from 
her job when married, 1128. 

Glass Workers: 

See United Glass Workers. 

Gold Mining: 

Ont.— 
I.U.M.M.S.W. certified as bargaining agent 
for employees at four gold mines, 801. 



Gas: 

B.C.- 

amended provisions of Gas Act, 872. 

accident-prevention regulations for oil and 
gas well-drilling, etc., under Work- 
men's Compensation Act, 881. 
Sask.: amended regulations under Boiler 
and Pressure Vessel Act re liquefied 
petroleum gas, 307. 

86825—31 



Gordon Commission: 

brief presented by Canadian Manufac- 
turers' Association, 388. 

statement by Gerard Picard, General 
President, C.C.C.L., 390. 

Gossage, S. M., Manager of Labour Relatiom, 
Canadian Pacific Railway: 
appointment, 499. 



\\\V1 



INDEX 



Government end Civic Employee* Organiz- 
ing Committee,: 
merger with American Federation of State, 
County and Municipal Employees, 
MM, 1232. 

Government Annuities: 

N ■ Annan i: E 

l.o\ eminent Contracts : 
S • Contracts. 

Government Departments: 

Canada 

Conference on Prevention of Work Acci- 
dents in Government Departments and 
Crown Agencies sponsored by Depart- 
ment of Labour and Civil Service 
Commission, 675. 

Government Employees: 

Civil Service; Crown Agencies. 

Government Employees Compensation: 

Canada 

accidents to federal government employees 
reported to Government Employees 
Compensation Branch, 497, 963, 1118, 
1233, 1359. 

Government Printing Bureau: 

recommendation of C.C.C.L. re working 
conditions, 51. 

Grade Crossings: 

See Level Crossings. 

Grain : 

B.C.— 

recommendations of Federation of Labour 
(C.C. of L.), 31. 



Grants: 



Canada 



new system for university grants, con- 
sidered by Federal Government, 1358. 
Ont.: proposed 10-year program of capital 
-tance to provincial universities 
and technical institutes, 1358. 

Great Lakes Seamen: 

See Seamen. 



Greene, George G., Director, Government 
Employees Compensation Branch, 
Department of Labour: 
remarks at first Conference on the Preven- 
tion of Work Accidents in Government 
Departments and Crown Agencies, 675. 

Gregg, Hon. Milton F., Minister of Labour: 
statement on new interpretation of pro- 
vision (convention of contributions) in 
revised Unemployment Insurance Act, 
308. 
announces changes in unemployment insur- 
ance regulations to restore benefits to 
certain workers, 154; correction, 263. 
establishes working committee on seasonal 

unemployment, 519. 
opens joint meeting of Apprenticeship 
Training Advisory Committee with 
provincial Directors of Apprenticeship, 
399. 
House of Commons statement on activi- 
ties concerning professional and tech- 
nical manpower, 803. 
Parliamentary Assistant, J. A. Blanchette, 

M.P., appointed, 254. 
Hansard references, 165, 503, 632, 633. 
messages, addresses, etc. — 

New Year's message, 1485. 
Labour Day message, 968. 
message to Jewish Labour Committee 
of Canada, 1235. 
remarks at convention of Interna- 
tional Association of Machinists 
in San Francisco, 1229. 
1st convention of Canadian Labour 

Congress, 640. 
opening of new C.C. of L. headquar- 
ters, 23. 
convention of New Brunswick Federa- 
tion of Labour, 1250. 
annual meeting of Canadian Construc- 
tion Association, 172. 
Employer-Employee Relations Con- 
ference at annual meeting of 
C.M.A., 816. 
13th federal-provincial farm labour 

conference, 63. 
23rd meeting of Vocational Training 

Advisory Council, 274. 
convention of Quebec and Eastern 
Canada Council, International 
Brotherhood of Paper Mill Unions, 
375. 

Grievance Procedure: 

Canada 

grievances arising under labour contracts- 
proceedings of 85th annual meeting of 
Employer-Employee Relations Con- 
ference of C.M.A., 994. 



INDEX 



Gross National Product : 

Canada 

gross national product at record level in 
1955— D.B. of S., 369. 

Group Hospital-Medical Plans: 

Canada 

plans in public utilities, 1053. 

Group Insurance: 

See Insurance. 

Guaranteed Employment: 

U.S.A. 

number of workers covered by guaranteed 
employment and wage plans in New 
York state, 1110. 

Guaranteed Wage: 

Canada 

annotated bibliography with some his- 
torical notes on guaranteed wages and 
supplemental unemployment benefits, 
1244. 

"guaranteed unemployment insurance" 
plan — a form of guaranteed wage to 
be introduced by Canadian Marconi 
Company, 262. 

longer notice for longer service — alterna- 
tive to guaranteed annual wage sug- 
gested by British industrialist, 959. 

"Guaranteed Wages, Company Unemploy- 
ment Benefits and the New Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Act" — summary of 
article prepared by Instructor in 
Economics, University of Toronto, 
published by Laval University, 492. 

panel discussion at annual meeting of 
C.M.A., 817. 

Hansard references, 167, 270. 
B.C.: extracts from address by T. A. Rice, 
president, to British Columbia division 
of C.M.A., 513. 

United Kingdom 

longer notice for longer service — alterna- 
tive to guaranteed annual wage sug- 
gested by British industrialist, 959. 

U.S.A. 

annotated bibliography with some his- 
torical notes on guaranteed wages and 
supplemental unemployment benefits, 
1244. 



Guaranteed Wage — Con. 

U.S.A.— Con. 

number of workers covered by guaranteed 
employment and wage plans in New 
York state, 1110. 

Latimer Report, 1947, on demands for 
guaranteed annual wage in steel indus- 
try, 1245. 

See also Supplementary Unemployment 
Benefits. 

Hancox, John, Secretary, Ontario Provincial 
Federation of Labour: 
death of, 1433. 

Handicapped Persons: 

Canada 

handicapped only, employed by Montreal 
firm, 532. 

Atlantic Region Rehabilitation Workshop 
— first meeting, 837. 

how rehabilitation pays, 173. 

posters to encourage employment of 
handicapped persons, displayed, 532. 

Conference of World Organizations In- 
terested in the Handicapped — resolu- 
tions, adopted, etc., 410. 

meeting on administration and medical 
aspects of Disabled Persons' Allow- 
ances program, 279. 

The Community and the Rehabilitatio7i 
of its Disabled Citizens — address by 
Dr. F. H. Krusen, Mayo Clinic and 
Mayo Foundation, at inauguration of 
campaign to raise funds for Rehabili- 
tation Institute of Montreal, 285. 

extracts from address of National Co-or- 
dinator, Civilian Rehabilitation, before 
Toilet Goods Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion, Montreal, 173. 

meeting of National Advisory Committee 
on Rehabilitation of Disabled Per- 
sons, 1397. 

increase in number of disabled persons 
receiving allowances under Disabled 
Persons Act, 630. 

payments under Disabled Persons Act, 
1496. 

number of persons receiving allowances 
under Disabled Persons Act during 
last quarter of 1955, 253. 

number of persons receiving allowances 
under Disabled Persons Act as at June 
30, 1956, 966; as at September 30, 
1955, 160. 

Hansard references. 166, 268, 269, 504, 633. 

recommendation of Canadian Federation 
of Mayors and Municipalities, 259. 

resolution re disability pensions adopted 
at first constitutional convention of 
C.L.C., 653. 



XXXVIII 



INDEX 



Handicapped Persons — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 

recommendation of International Railway 
Brotherhoods re allowances under Dis- 
abled Persons Act, 53. 

Alta.: amended provisions of Disabled Per- 
sons' Pensions Act, 1576; activities of 
clinic for rehabilitation of injured 
workmen, opened by Workmen's Com- 
pensation Board, 1397. 

X.S.: resolution adopted by Nova Scotia 
Federation of Labour, 1492. 

Ont.: allowances to handicapped persons 
granted by provincial government, 159 ; 
regulations under Rehabilitation Serv- 
ices Act, 553; recommendation of 
Federation of Labour (C.C. of L.) re 
retarded children, 380. 

P.E.I. : regulations under Disabled Persons' 
Allowances Act, 1163. 

Que.: activities of Unlimited Skills Incor- 
porated, Montreal, 1537. 

United Kingdom 

Services for the Disabled — booklet pub- 
lished by Standing Committee on the 
Rehabilitation and Settlement of Dis- 
abled Persons, 24. 

U.S.A. 

increase in employment of physically- 
handicapped workers, 25. 

planning rehabilitation programs for dis- 
abled persons, 1538. 

Understanding the Disabled — booklet de- 
signed to teach children to adopt 
proper attitude to disabled persons, 
1129. 

study how effectively severely injured 
workers may operate complex modern 
machinery, 1129. 

Haythorne, George V., Assistant Deputy 
Minister of Labour: 
remarks at first Conference on the Preven- 
tion of Work Accidents in Government 
Departments and Crown Agencies, 675. 

Health: 

Alta.— 
amended regulations under Public Health 

Act re plumbing and drainage, 1161. 
Man.: regulations under Public Health Act 

re industrial and construction camps, 

1583. 
Sask.: amendments to plumbing regulations 

under Public Health Act, 1044. 



Health — Con. 

United Kingdom 

committee advises no major change in 

health service, 157. 
1954 report of Chief Inspector of Factories, 

530. 

India 

proposed health plan outlined at meeting 
of Central Council of Health, 371. 

U.S.A. 

removal of industrial medicine from collec- 
tive bargaining, urged, 157. 
See also Occupational Diseases. 

Health Insurance: 

Canada 

plant employees in establishments report- 
ing group hospital-medical insurance 
plans, 1303, 1304. 

health insurance plans in motor vehicles 
and parts industry, 107. 

group hospital-medical plans in public 
utilities, 1053. 

General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement following 
lengthy strike, 279. 

T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. brief to Royal 
Commission on Canada's Economic 
Prospects, 388. 

policy statement of Canadian Chamber of 
Commerce presented to Cabinet, 1531. 

proceedings of Employer-Employee Rela- 
tions Conference, 85th annual meeting 
of C.M.A., 989. 

establishment of national scheme recom- 
mended by C.C.C.L, 50; by C.C. of 
L., 45; by International Railway 
Brotherhoods, 54; and by T. and L.C., 
39. 

resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C., 651. 

partial payment of plans by operators 
sought by C.L.C. unions in shipbuild- 
ing industry, 963. 

recommendation of Canadian Federation 
of Mayors and Municipalities, 258. 

Health Insurance — What Are the Issues? — 
booklet issued by Canadian Welfare 
Council, 1118. 

Hansard references, 164, 165, 270, 383, 633, 
802, 1119. 
Alta.: recommendation of Alberta Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.), 267. 
B.C.: Federation of Labour (C.C. of L.) 
urges national scheme, 31; resolution 
adopted by B.C. Federation of Labour 
(C.L.C.), 1489-90. 



INDEX 



XXXIX 



Health Insurance — Con. 

Man.: adoption of federal government's pro- 
posed plan urged by Manitoba Federa- 
tion of Labour, 1490; recommendations 
of Federation of Labour (T. andL.C), 
30. 

N.B.: resolution adopted at conference of 
Marine Workers' Federation, 1236. 

Ont.: recommendation of Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.), 380; resolution 
adopted by Ontario Federation of 
Printing Trades Unions, 628; establish- 
ment of national plan urged by Pro- 
vincial Federation of Labour (T. and 
L.C.), 501. 

Que.: 96 per cent of office employees in 
Montreal area covered by health 
insurance, 377; C.C.C.L. reiterates 
request for contributory plan, 265, 
1395, reply of Premier Duplessis, 266. 

United Kingdom 

committee advises no major change in 
health service, 157. 

India 

extension of Employees State Insurance 
Act, 1117. 

U.S.A. 

medical benefits granted railway em- 
ployees, 20. 

sickness disability program in N.Y. state, 
497. 

Health League of Canada: 

less time loss by older workers through 
absenteeism — results of study on 
absenteeism, 1495. 

Heartz, Dr. R. E., President, Engineering 
Institute of Canada: 
remarks at meeting of deans of univer- 
sities' engineering departments, 621. 



Hirings: 



Canada 



Highways : 



Canada 



need for better highway systems empha- 
sized in T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. brief 
to Royal Commission on Canada's 
Economic Prospects, 387. 
Alta.: amendment to Highway Traffic Act 
urged by Federation of Labour, 1263; 
recommendations of Alberta Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.) re traffic 
regulations, 267. 



Central Hiring Bureau — purpose of estab- 
lishment of manpower pool to ensure 
supply of labour for St. Lawrence 
Seaway and St. Lawrence Power Pro- 
jects, 1498. 

U.S.A. 

hiring preference to men 40 years of age 
and over given under terms of agree- 
ment reached between United Plant 
Guard Workers of America and Detroit 
industrial police firm, 1495. 

preferential hiring pact signed by United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Na- 
tional Construction Association, 490. 

Hoists : 

Man — 
amended provisions of Elevator and Hoist 

Act, 724, 1153. 
N.S.: provisions of Elevators and Lifts Act, 

723, 1026. 



Holidays : 



Canada 



Bill 441, "An Act to provide for Pay for 

Statutory Holidays for Employees and 

for Pay for Work Performed on 

Statutory Holidays", not passed, 1570. 

changes in collective agreements providing 

statutory holidays, 719. 
demands of locomotive firemen (railway 

and harbour board), 153. 
General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement re statu- 
tory holidays, 279. 
nine statutory holidays sought by C.L.C. 
unions in shipbuilding industiy, 963. 
resolutions adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C. re paid statutory 
holidays, 649. 
statutory holidays in certain industries — 
motor vehicles and parts, 105. 
office workers in manufacturing, 1434. 
plant employees in manufacturing, 

1303, 1304. 
primary textile industry, 433. 
public utilities, 1052. 
Alta.: resolution adopted by Federation of 

Labour re paid holidays, 1262. 

B.C.: provisions of new Annual Holidays 

Act, 870; regulations under Factories 

Act and Shops Regulation and Weekly 

Holiday Act, 1162. 

N.S.: resolution adopted by Federation 

of Labour re statutory holidays, 1492. 

Que.: Roman Catholics may work on Holy 

Days, 1361. 
Sask.: amendment to Annual Holidays Act, 
1289. 



XL 



INDEX 



Holland: 

plan provides increase in pensions for 
persons over G5 years of age, 630. 



Holv Davs: 



Canada 



Supreme Court of Canada finds that 
Legislation requiring retail stores to 
observe Holy Days is beyond provin- 
cial powers, 417. 
Que.: Roman Catholics may work on Holy 
Davs, 1361. 



Home Economics 



Canada 



Careers in Home Economics — monograph 
issued by Department of Labour, 1232. 



Hospitals: 



Canada 



extension of five-day 40-hour week to all 
Department of Veterans Affairs hospi- 
tals and institutions, 1260. 

plant employees in establishments report- 
ing group hospital-medical insurance 
plans, 1303, 1304. 

group hospital-medical plans in public 
utilities, 1053. 

General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement following 
lengthy strike, 279. 
Ont.: hospital construction costs reduced by 

new design, 173. 
Que.: C.C.C.L. requests unemployment in- 
surance coverage for hospital em- 
ployees, 1395. 

See also Minimum Wages. 

Hotels and Restaurants: 

Canada 

collective bargaining in hotel industry — 
analysis of agreements, 867. 

Hours of Work: 

proceedings of 39th Conference of I.L.O., 
1010. 

resolution adopted at 39th Conference of 
I.L.O., 1010. 

recommendation of International Associa- 
tion of Fire Fighters, 1114. 

Canada 

changes in provisions of collective agree- 
ments, 719. 

extension of five-day 40-hour week to all 
department of Veterans Affairs hospi- 
tals and institutions, 1260. 



Hours of Work — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 

functions of Labour Relations Association 
re hours of work on St. Lawrence 
Seaway and St. Lawrence Power Pro- 
jects, 1499. 

police constables, fire fighters and labour- 
ers in municipal government service, 
563. 

survey of clerical workers' wages and hours 
conducted by Montreal Board of 
Trade, 371. 

30-hour week granted to clerical em- 
ployees at headquarters of C.L.C., 795. 

Hansard references to Post Office Depart- 
ment, 270; to work week in veterans' 
hospitals, 967. 

recommendation of C.C. of L. re govern- 
ment employees, 45. 

C.L.C. to seek national Forty-Hour Week 
Act, 644; resolutions adopted at first 
constitutional convention, 649. 

recommendation of International Associa- 
tion of Fire Fighters, 1114. 

recommendation of National Association 
of Broadcast Employees and Tech- 
nicians, 1365. 

reduction in hours of work in steel indus- 
try recommended by U.S.W.A. (Cana- 
dian District), at policy conference, 
624. 

standard work week in certain industries — 
motor vehicles and parts, 105. 
office workers in manufacturing, 1434. 
plant employees in manufacturing, 

1303, 1304. 
primary textile industry, 432. 
public utilities, 1052. 
Alta.: application of Hours of Work and 
Minimum Wage Order No. 18 (1956) 
under Labour Act, to workers in pipe- 
line construction industry, 1420; 
recommendation of Federation of 
Labour (T. and L.C.), 267; Federa- 
tion of Labour seeks amendments to 
Alberta Labour Act re 40-hour week, 
1262; resolution adopted by Federa- 
tion re Hours of Work Act, 1262. 
B.C.: Hours of Work Act — regulations gov- 
erning retail store employees during 
Christmas week, 93, No. 21 (1956) 
fresh fruit and vegetable industry, 881. 
Regulation No. 42 (exemption of per- 
sons employed in pipeline construc- 
tion), 550, Regulation No. 43 (logging 
industry), 730. 

deletion of special sections under Fac- 
tories Act governing persons employed 
in laundries, cleaning, dyeing, press- 
ing or dressmaking establishments, 722, 
872; inclusion of employees in laun- 
dries and dry cleaning establishments 



INDEX 



XLI 



Hours of Work — Con. 
B.C.— Con. 

under Hours of Work Act, 722; 35- 
hour week in 1957 — provisions of two- 
year agreement between Bakery and 
Confectionery Workers' International 
Union and Canadian Bakeries Limited, 
and seven other bakery firms, 626; 
Bill to amend Hours of Work Act not 
passed, 872; resolution adopted by 
Federation of Labour (C.C. of L.), 31; 
resolution adopted by B.C. Federation 
of Labour (C.L.C.), 1489. 

Man.: 40-hour week requested by provincial 
labour bodies in joint submission to 
Winnipeg Chamber of Commerce, 156. 

Nfld.: regulations under St. John's Shops 
Act, 1044. 

N.S.: resolution adopted by N.S. Federation 
of Labour, 1492. 

Ont.: new regulations under Hours of Work 
and Vacations with Pay Act, 1292; 
C.B.R.E. urges enforcement of 48-hour 
week for taxi drivers, in brief to 
Ontario Government, 1029; resolution 
adopted at convention of International 
Union of United Brewery, Flour, 
Cereal, Soft Drink and Distillery 
Workers, 1113; resolution adopted by 

» Ontario Federation of Printing Trades 

Unions, 628; Federation of Labour 
(C.C. of L.) urges "progressive" 
reduction in work week... 283, other 
recommendation, 380; Provincial Fed- 
eration of Labour (T. and L.C.) seeks 
amendments to Fire Department Act, 
502, and to Hours of Work and Vaca- 
tions With Pay Act, 502. 

Que.: survey of clerical workers' wages and 
hours conducted by Montreal Board 
of Trade, 371. 

Sask.: amendment to Hours of Work Act, 
722, 1289; payment of overtime rates 
to employees in garages and automo- 
bile service stations provided under 
Hours of Work Act, 1585; resolution 
adopted at convention of Federation 
of Labour, 1492; Federation of Labour 
(C.C. of L.) recommends amendments 
to Hours of Work Act, 29. 

United Kingdom 

1954 report of Chief Inspector of Fac- 
tories, 531. 

resolution adopted at convention of 
T.U.C, 1258. 

Russia 

work week reduced from 48 to 46 hours, 
377. 

86825—4 



Hours of Work — Con. 

U.S.A. 

s.u.b. plans in automobile industry allow 
short work weeks, 262. 

A.F. of L.-C.I.O. seeks extension of Fair 
Labour Standards Act, governing 
wages and hours, 741. 

resolutions adopted at convention of A.F. 
of L.-C.I.O. Metal Trades Depart- 
ment, 1363. 

recommendation of International Associa- 
tion of Fire Fighters, 1114. 

U.A.W. seeks shorter work week, 625. 

Housing : 

report of I.L.O. Building, Civil Engineer- 
ing and Public Works Committee, 849. 

Canada 

Canadian Housing Statistics — summary of 
quarterly report by Central Mortgage 
and Housing Corporation, 1396. 

residential construction in 1955, 629. 

reduction in house building in 1956 pre- 
dicted by Minister of Public Works, 
407. 

re 1954-56 building programs, 17. 

Private and Public Investment in Canada: 
Outlook, 1956, report prepared by 
D.B. of S. and Department of Trade 
and Commerce, 253. 

1955 a year of record achievement in 
construction — Canadian Construction 
Association, 18. 

report at 38th meeting of Canadian Con- 
struction Association, 172. 

recommendations of Canadian Construc- 
tion Association in brief to federal 
Cabinet, 398. 

T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. brief to Royal 
Commission on Canada's Economic 
Prospects, 387. 

statement by Gerard Picard, General 
President, C.C.C.L., before the Gordon 
Commission, 390. 

Hansard references, 164, 167, 504, 633, 802, 
966. 

statistics, 104, 1118. 

recommendations of C.C. of L., 46. 

Platform of Principles of Canadian Labour 
Congress, 644. 

recommendations of International Railway 
Brotherhoods, 54; reply of. Prime 
Minister, 55. 

resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C., 655. 

legislative request of T. and L.C, 40. 
Man.: resolution adopted by Manitoba 
Federation of Labour, 1490. 



INDEX 



HoUBBIf ' 

Out.: resolution adopted by Ontario Federa- 
tion of Labour (C.C. of L.) re 
National Housing Act, 284; recom- 
mendations of Provincial Federation 
of Labour (T. and L.C.), 501. 

P.E.I. : Labour Council advocates long-term 
loans. 503. 

Que.: C.C.C.L. protests against restrictions 
on credit, 1395. 

U.S.A. 

statistics. 104. 1118. 

Howe. Rt. Hon. C. D., Minister of Trade and 
Commerce and Minister of Defence 
Production: 

predicts economic expansion in 1956, 17. 

tables report in House of Commons — 
Private and Public Investment in 
Canada: Outlook, 1956, 253. 

address to National Conference on En- 
gineering, Scientific and Technical 
Manpower, 1524. 

Hughes, Sam, President, Ontario Federation 
of Labour (C.C. of L.): 
address at 13th annual convention of the 
Federation, 281. 

Human Relations: 

findings of experts on human and indus- 
trial relations from 16 different coun- 
tries — report to Director-General of 
I.L.O, 1132. 

Canadian members of Duke of Edinburgh's 
Study Conference on the Human 
Problems of Industrial Communities 
within the Commonwealth and Em- 
pire, 793. 

proceedings of Duke of Edinburgh's Con- 
ference on Human Problems in Indus- 
try, 1122. 

Human Resources: 

Canada 

utilization of human resources — text of 
paper delivered at conference of 
Institute by J. P. Francis, Federal 
Department of Labour, 1381. 



Human Rights: 



Canada 



report of committee on human rights — 
resolutions drafted, and adopted at 
first constitutional convention of 
C.L.C., 654. 

10th anniversary of appointment of Na- 
tional Director of Jewish Labour 
Committee of Canada, 1235. 

Hansard reference, 270. 



Identification: 

Que.— 
adoption of identity cards for all residents 
in certain cities recommended by 
Quebec Federation of Labour, 1386. 



Immigration: 



Canada 



1955 immigration down, 162. 
recommendations of CCA. in brief to 

federal Cabinet, 399. 
CM .A. brief to Gordon Commission, 388. 
T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. brief to Royal 

Commission on Canada's Economic 

Prospects, 386. 
Hansard references, 167, 383. 

Implements: 

See Agricultural Implements. 



Imports : 



Canada 



statistics, 259. 

extinction of rubber footwear industry 
foreseen unless imports checked, 259. 

resolution re import tax adopted by Cana- 
dian Federation of International 
Printing Pressmen, 629. 

Hansard reference to imports of coal from 
United States, 967; to import of motor 
vehicle parts, 967. 
Que.: resolution adopted by C.C.C.L. re 
Japanese imports, 1395. 



Income : 



Canada 



1955 increase in net operating revenues 
of principal railway systems, 154. 

gross revenues of Canadian railways 
doubled from 1954, 20. 

United Kingdom 

output must keep pace with income rise, 
371. 

India 

Second Five Year Plan — review of booklet 
issued by Minister of Information and 
Broadcasting of the Government of 
India, 500. 



U.S.A. 



results of studies on employment 

income of older people, 965. 
See also Farm Income ; Labour Income. 



and 



INDEX 



XLIII 



Income Security 



U.S.A. 



Ohio approves company-financed individual 
income security plan for unemployed 
workers, 959. 



Income Tax: 



Canada 



1955 tax on corporation profits, 491. 

CM .A. brief to Gordon Commission, 390. 

C.M.A. suggests reduction in income tax 
rates, in submission to Minister of 
Finance, 155. 

Platform of Principles of C.L.C., 644. 

resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C., 649. 

changes requested by Canadian Chamber 
of Commerce in submission to Minis- 
ters of Finance and National Revenue, 
155. 

recommendations of C.C.C.L., 51; of C.C. 
of L., 46. 

resolution adopted at conference of Cana- 
dian Federation of Business and Pro- 
fessional Women, 1001. 

recommendations of International Railway 
Brotherhoods, 54; reply of Prime 
Minister, 55. 

Hansard references, 269, 383. 
N.B.: recommendation of Federation of 

Labour re exemptions, 1254. 
Que.: C.C.C.L. reiterates claim re income 
tax exemptions, 1395. 

U.S.A. 

recommendation of A.F. of L.-C.I.O. con- 
tained in economic report, 378. 

Income Tax Act : 

amendments to Act re supplementary 
unemployment benefit plans, 1570. 



Indians: 

Que.— 
Superior Court finds that Canadian Indians 
are entitled to protection of province's 
Labour Relations Act, 877. 

Indigenous Persons: 

proceedings of 39th Conference of I.L.O., 
1010. 

Individual Income Security: 

See Income Security. 

Industrial Accident Prevention Associations 
(Ontario) : 

annual safety conference of I.A.P.A., 800. 

Industrial and Commercial Establishments: 

Que — 
special regulations under Act governing 
safety of employees in construction 
and excavation work, 1293. 

Industrial Communities : 

Canadian members of Duke of Edinburgh's 
Study Conference on the Human 
Problems of Industrial Communities 
within the Commonwealth and Em- 
pire, 793; proceedings of Conference, 
1122. 

Industrial Councils: 

Canada 
C.C. of L. urges establishment of, 46. 

Industrial Development: 

United Kingdom 

1954 report of Chief Inspector of Fac- 
tories, 526. 

Industrial Diseases: 

See Diseases, Industrial. 



India 



extension of social security scheme — Em- 
ployees Provident Funds Act; Com- 
pulsory Contributory Provident Fund; 
Employees State Insurance Act, 1117. 

proposed establishment of joint manage- 
ment councils, 373. 

proposed health plan outlined at meeting 
of Central Council of Health, 371. 

Second Five Year Plan — review of book- 
let issued by Ministry of Information 
and Broadcasting of the Government 
of India, 500. 

86825— 4i 



[ndustrial Disputes: 

report of Director-General of I.L.O. on 
situation in 1955, 287. 

Canada 

functions of Labour Relations Association 
re settlement of disputes on St. Law- 
rence Seaway and St. Lawrence Power 
Projects, 1501. 

recommendation of C.C. of L. re injunc- 
tions, 47. 

resolutions adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C., 644, 648. 



XI. IV 



INDEX 



Industrial Disputes — Con. 

Canada. — Con. 
legislative requests of T. and L.C., 40; 

reply oi Prime Minister, 41-42. 
railway employees should be allowed to 

strike if negotiations fail — Member of 

Parliament, 261. 
Hansa <! references to railway dispute, 503, 

Aha.: amended provisions of Police Act, 723, 
1575; Federation of Labour (T. and 
requests amendment to Labour 
\ 266. 

B.C.: The Labour Injunction in British 
Columbia 1946-1956 — digest of book 
prepared by Prof. A. W. R. Carrothers, 
1502. 

Man.: amended provisions of Fire Depart- 
ments Arbitration Act, 723, 1150; 
amended provisions of Public Schools 
Act, 723, 1147-48. 

N.B.: recommendations of Federation of 
Labour re injunctions, 1254. 

Ont.: amended provisions of Fire Depart- 
ment Act, 723, 1410, of Police Act, 723 ; 
teachers and board agree to future 
arbitration — provision of agreement 
between Port Arthur Board of Educa- 
tion and Teachers' Federation, 21; 
Federation of Labour (C.C. of L.) 
criticizes Federal Government for cur- 
rent railway dispute, 283; resolution 
adopted by Federation re General 
Motors strike, 283; Provincial Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.) requests 
amendments to Labour Relations Act, 
501. 

Que.: resolutions adopted by Quebec Federa- 
tion of Labour, 1386. 

United Kingdom 

"first automation strike" ends — walkout 
of employees of Standard Motor Com- 
pany, Coventry, when man laid off 
for plant conversion, 622. 

Ceylon 

principles for settlement of industrial dis- 
putes outlined by Minister of Labour, 
1496. 

U.S.A. 

settlement of jurisdictional disputes estab- 
lished in agreement reached between 
International Association of Machi- 
nists and International Brotherhood of 
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders, Black- 
smiths, Forgers and Helpers, 1116. 

settlement of jurisdictional dispute be- 
tween United Steelworkers of America 
and the United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters and Joiners, 625. 



Industrial Disputes — Con. 
USA.— Con. 

"labour and management rely too much 
on government" — remarks of Director 
of Federal Mediation and Conciliation 
Service, 22. 

"negotiation by research" to settle future 
differences urged by Executive Direc- 
tor of Industrial Council of Cloak, 
Suit and Skirt Manufacturers, 22. 

Industrial Employment: 

Canada 

increase in industrial employment, pay- 
rolls and average weekly wages and 
salaries in 1955 — D.B. of S. annual 
review of employment and payrolls, 
1367. 

Industrial Fatalities: 

See Accidents. 

Industrial Federation of Labour of Alberta 
(C.C. of L.) : 

merger with Alberta Federation of Labour 
(T. and L.C), 1261. 

Industrial Foundation on Education: 

establishment, 1520. 

Industrial Injuries: 

See Accidents. 

Industrial Medicine: 

U.S.A. 

removal of industrial medicine from col- 
lective bargaining, urged, 157. 

Industrial Relations: 

Canadian members of Duke of Edinburgh's 
Study Conference on the Human 
Problems of Industrial Communities 
within the Commonwealth and Empire, 
793; proceedings of Conference, 1122. 

employer participation in I.L.O. for one 
more year, voted by Industrial Rela- 
tions Committee of the National 
Association of Manufacturers, 214. 

resolutions adopted by labour-management 
relations committee at sixth regional 
conference of American states mem- 
bers of I.L.O., 1400. 

findings of experts on human and industrial 
relations from 16 different countries — 
report to Director-General of I.L.O. , 
1132. 



INDEX 



Industrial Relations — Con, 



Canada 



conciliation and other proceedings before 
the Minister of Labour— 77, 180, 291, 
414, 541, 684, 854, 1025, 1136, 1272, 
1405, 1545. 
certification and other proceedings before 
the Canada Labour Relations Board — 
74, 178, 290, 414, 540, 683, 853, 1022, 
1134, 1270, 1404, 1543. 
conciliation board in railway dispute fully 
constituted — appointment of concilia- 
tion officer by-passed, 20. 
Supreme Court of Canada rules that Trade 
Union Act does not prohibit employees 
of competitor from acting on bargain- 
ing committee, 1155. 
despite altered status, Mine-Mill union 
retains rights — decision of Ontario 
Labour Relations Board, 628. 
survey of clerical workers' wages and hours 
conducted by Montreal Board of 
Trade, 371. 
functions of Labour Relations Association 
re maintenance of harmonious con- 
tractor-employee relations on St. Law- 
rence Seaway and St. Lawrence Power 
Projects, 1498. 
appointment of S. M. Gossage, Manager 

of Labour Relations, C.P.R., 499. 
summary of book by Prof. Harold A. 
Logan, on State Intervention and 
Assistance in Collective Bargaining in 
Canada, 1943-1954, 1239, 1240. 
policy statement of Canadian Chamber of 
Commerce presented to Cabinet, 1532. 
Canadian Construction Association — report 
of Labour Relations Committee, 172; 
recommendations in brief to Federal 
Cabinet, 398. 
Canadian Labour Congress — to seek enact- 
ment of National Labour Relations 
Act, 644; resolutions adopted at first 
constitutional convention re Canada 
Labour Relations Board, 649. 
Canadian Manufacturers Association — pro- 
ceedings of Employer-Employee Rela- 
tions Conference, 816, 989. 
Laval University's 11th annual industrial 

relations convention, 669. 
McGill University's 8th industrial relations 
conference, 822; conference on labour 
arbitration, 396. 
Personnel Association of Toronto — 14th 

annual convention, 677. 
Trades and Labour Congress — legislative 
requests, 40; reply of Prime Minister, 
41. 
Hansard references, 167, 270, 503, 802, 967, 
1119. 



I mlustrial Relations — Con. 
Alta.: amended provisions of Police Act, 
1575; remarks of chairman of provin- 
cial Board of Industrial Relations at 
convention of Federation of Labour, 
1263. 
B.C.: Regulation 9A under Labour Relations 
Act, 93; Bill to amend Labour Rela- 
tions Act, not passed, 872; Court of 
Appeal finds Labour Relations Board 
must settle voters' list in advance of 
representation vote, 724. 
Man.: amendment to Labour Relations Act, 
722-23; amended provisions of Public 
Schools Act, 1147-48; Court of Queen's 
Bench finds that Labour Board ex- 
ceeded its jurisdiction by certifying 
union before making proper inquiry, 
727; Flin Flon L.M.P.C. completes ten 
years of operation, 1538. 
N.B.: amended provisions of Labour Rela- 
tions Act, 722-23, 875; Supreme Court 
holds members of city police force 
not to be "employees" as defined in 
Labour Relations Act, 86; resolution 
adopted at convention of Federation 
of Labour, seeks amendments to 
Labour Relations Act, 1254. 
Nfld.: Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 
recommends amendments to Labour 
Relations Act, 381. 
Ont.: amendments to Labour Relations Act, 
722-23, 734, 1410; 14th annual con- 
vention of Personnel Association of 
Toronto, 677; decisions of Labour Re- 
lations Board — despite altered status, 
Mine-Mill union retains rights, 628, 
mass overtime refusal while negotia- 
tions in progress, ruled illegal strike, 
1116, same union may bargain for office 
or plant employees, 292; Supreme 
Court of Ontario holds Labour Re- 
lations Board exceeded jurisdiction in 
certifying bargaining agent for "mana- 
gerial" employees, 1032; Supreme 
Court rules Labour Relations Board 
within its rights in considering appli- 
cation of union in trusteeship, 1415; 
unions may seek legislation permitting 
right to strike during life of agree- 
ment, 21; Bill to amend Labour Rela- 
tions Act re representation vote, not 
passed, 1412; Federation of Labour 
(C.C. of L.) requests amendments to 
Labour Relations Act, 283, 379; "con- 
ciliation in Ontario takes thrice legal 
time" — statement by Ontario Federa- 
tion of Labour (C.C. of L.), 21; views 
on administration, etc., of Labour 
Relations Act presented by special 
committee of Provincial Federation of 
Labour at public hearings in various 



XLVI 



INDEX 



ndustrial Relations — Con. 

Oiu.— Con. 

cities, 794. public hearings by special 
committee, 972; Provincial Federation 
of Labour (T. and L.C.) requests 
amendments to Labour Relations Act, 
501; G. W. T. Reed, appointed Vice- 
chairman. Ontario Labour Relations 
Board, 1495; Labour Relations Act 
criticized at convention of Interna- 
tional Union of United Brewery, Flour. 
Cereal, Soft Drink and Distillery 
Workers. 1112; changes in Labour 
Relations Act suggested by M.L.A., 
372. 

Que.: Laval University's 11th annual indus- 
trial relations convention, 669; McGill 
University's 8th industrial relations 
conference, 822; conference on labour 
arbitration arranged by McGill Indus- 
trial Relations Centre, 396; Superior 
Court finds that Canadian Indians are 
entitled to protection of province's 
Labour Relations Act, 877; Court of 
Queen's Bench finds that Labour Rela- 
tions Board is required to produce 
documents when so ordered by a court, 
1030; survey of clerical workers' wages 
and hours conducted by Montreal 
Board of Trade, 371; delay in arbitra- 
tion procedure protested by C.C.C.L., 
264; reply of Premier Duplessis, 266; 
Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 
requests right to strike when employer 
does not bargain in good faith, 28, 
other recommendations, 28-29. 

Sask.: amendment to Labour Relations Act, 
722-23; amendments to Trade Union 
Act, 1288; Supreme Court of Canada 
rules that Trade Union Act does not 
prohibit employees of competitor from 
acting on bargaining committee, 1155; 
Court of Appeal rules Labour Rela- 
tions Board cannot order the condi- 
tional reinstatement of discharged 
employee, 1031. 

United Kingdom 

automation must be kept in field of indus- 
trial relations — conference of T.U.C. 
white-collar unions, 256. 

U.S.A. 

recommendations of A.F. of L. — C.I.O., 60. 

representation election set aside by Labour 
Relations Board on ground employer- 
required employees to wear ribbons. . . 
"I'm Voting No", 1383. 

A Trade Union Library — revised edition 
published by Industrial Relations Sec- 
tion, Department of Economics and 
Sociology, Princeton University, 376. 



Industrial Relations — Con. 
U.S.A.— Con. 

labour-management relations discussed by 
President, I.A.M., in address to Min- 
nesota Society of Industrial Engineers, 
496. 

"labour and management rely too much 
on government" — remarks of Director 
of Federal Mediation and Conciliation 
Service, 22. 

"negotiation by research" to settle future 
differences urged by Executive Direc- 
tor of Industrial Council of Cloak, 
Suit and Skirt Manufacturers, 22. 

Empire in Wood — history of carpenter's 
union published by N.Y. State School 
of Industrial and Labour Relations, 
378. 

Industrial Relations and Disputes Investi- 
gation Act: 

agreement reached between Association of 
Lake Carriers and employees (Great 
Lakes and St. Lawrence shipping), 626. 

amendments recommended by C.C. of L., 
45. 

resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C. re check-off of 
union dues, 648. 

amendments recommended by Interna- 
tional Railway Brotherhoods, 55. 

legislative requests of T. and L.C, 40; 
reply of Prime Minister, 41. 

Hansard reference to check-off, 271; to 
certification of unions under Act, 503. 

Proceedings Under the Industrial Relations 
and Disputes Investigation Act: 

Abitibi Power and Paper Company Limited, 
Port Arthur, and certain employees, 
1544. 

Abitibi Power and Paper Company Limited, 
Toronto, and certain employees, 77, 
856, 857. 

Algoma Central and Hudson Bay Railway 
Company, Sault Ste. Marie, and 
certain employees, 853, 1022. 

Algoma Steamships Limited, Sault Ste. 
Marie, and certain employees, 853, 
1022. 

Algoma Uranium Mines Limited, Algoma 
Mills, Ont., and certain employees, 
290, 291, 1544. 

Association of Lake Carriers, Port Col- 
borne, (Canada Steamship Lines Lim- 
ited; N. M. Paterson and Sons 
Limited ; Colonial Steamships Limited ; 
Hall Corporation of Canada Limited), 
and certain employees, 414, 541, 686, 
856. 



INDEX 



Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act — Con. 

Association of Lake Carriers, Port Col- 
borne, (Canada Steamship Lines 
Limited; Upper Lakes and St. 
Lawrence Transportation Company 
Limited; N. M. Paterson and Sons 
Limited ; Colonial Steamships Limited ; 
Misencr Holdings Limited; Hall 
Corporation of Canada Limited; 
Norris Transportation Company 
Limited ; Mohawk Navigation Com- 
pany Limited; Beaconsfield Steam- 
ships Limited) and certain employees, 
291-92, 416, 542, 686, 713, 856. 

Atlantic Broadcasters Limited (Radio 
Station CJFX), Antigonish, and cer- 
tain employees, 74, 180. 

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk 
River, and certain employees, 77, 1136, 
1272, 1544. 

Beaconsfield Steamships Limited, Montreal, 
and certain employees, 75. 

Branch Lines Limited, Sorel, and certain 
employees (Canadian Merchant Serv- 
ice Guild), 1544. 

Branch Lines Limited, Sorel, and certain 
employees (on the Cedarbranch, Elm- 
branch, Firbranch, Sprucebranch, and 
Willowbranch — National Association 
of Marine Engineers of Canada, Inc.), 
683, 853. 

Brett-Young Seeds Limited, Winnipeg, and 
certain employees, 540-41, 853, 1136, 
1406, 1546, 1551. 

British Columbia Coast Steamship Service 
(C.P.R.), and certain employees, 76, 
1023-24. 

British Columbia Telephone Company, and 
certain employees, 1136, 1272. 

British Overseas Airways Corporation 
(Montreal and Dorval), and certain 
employees, 1543, 1544. 

British Yukon Navigation Company 
Limited, Whitehorse, Y.T., and certain 
employees, 414, 540. 

British Yukon Railway Company, White- 
horse, Y.T., and certain employees, 74, 
290. 

Buntain and Bell Company Limited, Char- 
lottetown, and certain employees, 77, 
684. 

Cadwell Marine Limited, Niagara Falls, and 
certain employees, 1134, 1270. 

Caledon Terminals Limited, Hamilton, and 
certain employees, 854, 1023, 1024. 

Caledon Terminals Limited, Toronto, and 
certain employees, 1024, 1543. 

Canada Steamship Lines Limited, Fort 
William and Port Arthur, and certain 
employees, 1024, 1134. 



Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act — Ct>n. 

Canada Steamship Lines Limited, Montreal, 
and certain employees, 683, 684, 854, 
1022, 1272, 15H; 

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Mont- 
real, and certain employees, 75, 178, 
541, 854, 1272, 1406. 

Canadian Marconi Company, Montreal, and 
certain employees, l 15, 511. 

Canadian National Railways and certain 
employees (Brotherhood of Railroad 
Trainmen), 684, 855, 1137, 1273. 

Canadian National Railways (Atlantic, 
Centra] and Western Regions, includ- 
ing the Newfoundland district), and 
certain employees, 854, 856, 1025. 

Canadian National Railways, and certain 
employees (on SS. Blue no sc — 
Yarmouth-Bar Harbour Ferry Ser- 
vice), 414, 540, 683, 853, 1022. 

Canadian National Railways (Port Mann 
mikI Okanagan Lake Barge and Ferry 
Service) and Canadian National 
Steamships, and certain employees, 
684, 854, 1025. 

Canadian National Railways (Regional 
Accounting Office), and certain 
employees, 77. 

Canadian National Railways; Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company; Toronto, 
Hamilton and Buffalo Railway Com- 
pany; Ontario Northland Railway; 
and Al^oina Central and Hudson Bay 
Railway, and certain employees (non- 
operating), 180, 686, 687, 856. 

Canadian National (West Indies) Steam- 
ships, Limited, Montreal, and certain 
employees, 1405, 1544. 

Canadian Oil Companies Limited, Toronto, 
and certain employees, 71. 

Canadian Pacific Air Lines Limited, and 
certain employees, 76, 290, 416, 1136, 
1406, 1546. 

Canadian Pacific Railway Company (British 
Columbia Coast, Steamship Service), 
and certain employees, 76, 178, 1023- 
24, 1543. 

Canadian Pacific Railway Company (Eastern 
Region), and certain employees, 540, 
684. 

Canadian Pacific Railway Company (Eastern, 
Prairie and Pacific Regions, includ- 
ing Quebec Central Railway and 
Dominion Atlantic Railway), and 
certain employees, 684, 855, 1546. 

Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and 
certain employees (on SS. Assiniboia 
and SS. Keewatin), 1271, 1543. 

Canadian Pacific Railway Company and 
certain employees in various Cana- 
dian cities, 1024. 



XLVIII 



INDEX 



Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act — Con. 

Canadian Pacific Railway Company and 
tain employees (Brotherhood of 

Railroad Trainmen), 685, 856, 1273, 

1279. 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and 
tain employees (female cleaners 

and ianit resscs. Windsor St. Station 

offices). 6S3, 1022. 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company and 

employees (dining, cafe and buffet 

car), 541, 854, 1273, 1281. 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and 

employees (motor messengers), 1404. 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and 

certain employees (on SS. Princess 

Helene), ISO. 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and 

certain employees (Commercial 

Telegraphers' Union — Canadian Pacific 

Division No. 1), 1134. 
Canadian Pacific Transport Company, 

Limited, Winnipeg, and certain 

employees, 180, 186, 543. 
Canadian Transit Company, Windsor, and 

certain employees, 179. 
Cape Breton Broadcasters Limited, Sydney, 

and employees (at Radio Stations 

CJCB and CJCX), 76, 290. 
Clarke Steamship Company, Limited, Mont- 
real, and certain empk^ees, 1544. 
Clarke Steamship Company, Limited, Sept- 

Iles, and certain employees, 74. 
Consolidated Dennison Mines Limited, 

Spragge, Ont., and certain employees, 

1404, 1544. 
Cullen Stevedoring Company, Limited, 

Hamilton, and certain employees, 1023, 

1134. 
Cullen Stevedoring Company, Limited, 

and certain employees, 854, 1024, 1404. 
Davie Transportation Limited, Montreal, 

and certain employees, 74. 
Davie Transportation Limited and Guy 

Tombs Marine Services Limited, 

Montreal, and certain employees, 292. 
Detroit and Canada Tunnel Corporation, 

Detroit, Michigan, and certain 

employees, 1545. 
Dominion Coal Company Limited, Sydney, 
and certain employees (on tug 

Empire John), 1023, 1134. 
Dominion Coal Company Limited, Sydney, 
and certain employees, 1272 

1273, 1406. 
Dominion Coal Company; A. T. O'Leary 

and Company, Limited; S. Cunard 

and Company, Limited; and R. E. 

Archibald Company, Limited, Halifax, 

and certain employees, 180. 



Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act — Con. 

Dominion Shipping Company, Limited, 
Sydney, N.S., and certain employees, 
1544. 

Dominion Steel and Coal Company, Limited, 
Sydney, N.S., and certain employees, 
1272, 1546, 1548. 

Eastboard Shipping Limited, Toronto, and 
certain employees, 1270, 1271. 

Eastern Air Lines, Inc., New York, N.Y., 
and certain employees (in Canada), 
1404, 1543. 

Eastern Canada Stevedoring Company, 
Limited, Halifax, and certain 
employees, 292, 1025, 1136, 1273, 1546 : 

Eastern Canada Stevedoring Company, 
Limited, Hamilton, and certain 
employees, 1022, 1024. 

Eastern Canada Stevedoring Company, 
Montreal, and certain employees, 684, 
1136. 

Eastern Canada Stevedoring Company, 
Limited, Toronto, and certain 
employees, 853, 1024, 1404. 

Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited, 
Port Hope, and certain employees, 
1025. 

Elk Falls Company, Limited, Duncan Bay, 
B.C., and certain employees, 540, 684, 
1134, 1270. 

Empire Stevedoring Company, Limited, 
Vancouver, and certain employees, 
1134-35, 1404, 1543. 

Empire Stevedoring Company, Limited; 
Louis Wolfe and Sons (Vancouver) 
Limited; Canadian Stevedoring Com- 
pany Limited; Victoria and Van- 
couver Stevedoring Company, Limited ; 
Western Stevedoring Company (1951) 
Limited; and certain employees, 1025, 
1136, 1406, 1407. 

Expressway Truck Lines (Canada) Limited, 
Vancouver, and certain employees, 77, 
415. 

Federal Commerce and Navigation Com- 
pany, Limited, Montreal, and certain 
employees (on Eastide), 1134, 1271. 

Giant Yellowknife Gold Mines Limited, 
Yellowknife, N.W.T., and certain 
employees, 541. 

Hamilton Shipping Company, Limited, 
Hamilton, and certain employees, 854, 
1022, 1024, 1134. 

Hamilton Tug Boat Company, Limited, 
Hamilton, and certain employees (on 
tug Prudence), 1024, 1270-71, 1543. 

Harbour Services Limited, Vancouver, and 
certain employees, 1135, 1271. 

Hill the Mover (Canada) Limited, Toronto, 
and certain employees, 854, 1134, 1272, 
1544. 



INDEX 



Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act — Con. 
Holden Sand and Gravel Limited, Toronto, 

and certain employees, 76, 178, 292, 

541, 685, 856, 858. 
Iron Ore Company of Canada, Sept-Iles, 

and certain employees, 75. 
Iron Ore Transport Company, Limited, 

Montreal, and certain employees, 

1404. 
Island Tug and Barge Limited, Victoria, 

and certain employees, 414, 683, 684. 
, Kawartha Broadcasting Company, Limited 

(Radio Station CHEX), Peterborough, 

and certain employees, 180, 416, 1137. 
La Tribune Ltee (Radio Station CHLT), 

Sherbrooke, Que., and certain 

employees, 180, 416, 541, 1273, 1274. 
Walter Little Limited, and certain 

employees at Toronto, Sundridge, 

North Bay, New Liskeard, and Kirk- 
land Lake, Ont., and Rouyn, Que., 

1135, 1404, 1544. 
Macdonald Hotel (C.N.R.), Edmonton, and 

certain employees, 76, 179, 290, 540. 
Marathon Corporation of Canada Limited, 

Port Arthur, and certain employees, 

1404, 1543. 
Marine Industries Limited, Montreal, and 

certain employees, 1136, 1271. 
Marine Industries Limited, Sorel, and 

certain employees, 76. 
Minshull Storage and Van Limited, Halifax, 

and certain employees, 683, 1022, 1272, 

1405. 
Mohawk Navigation Company, Limited, 

Montreal, and certain employees, 76, 

178. 
Motorways (Quebec) Limited, Montreal, 

and certain employees, 1272, 1404, 

1544. 
Napierville Junction Railway, Montreal, 

and certain employees, 1544. 
National Harbours Board, Halifax, and 

certain employees, 1404. 
Newfoundland Employers' Association 

Limited, St. John's, Newfoundland, 

and certain employees, 684, 854, 1136. 
Niagara, St. Catharines and Toronto Rail- 
way, and certain employees, 1136, 1405. 
Northern Construction Company and J. W. 

Stewart Limited, and certain 

employees, 74, 75, 76, 178, 179, 291, 

540, 683, 1022. 
Northern Transportation Company, Limited, 

Edmonton, and certain employees, 

1134, 1270. 
Northland Navigation Company, Limited, 

Vancouver, and certain employees, 

1272, 1543. 



Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act — Con. 

Northwest Freightways Limited, Dawson 
Creek, B.C., and certain employees, 
853. 

Nova Scotian Hotel (C.N.R.), Halifax, and 
certain employees, 77, 180, 292, 686, 
710, 1137. 

Oka Sand and Gravel, Inc., Montreal, and 
certain employees, 77, 543, 1274. 

Ontario Northland Railway, and certain 
employees, 77. 

Ottawa Transportation Commission, Ottawa, 
and certain employees, 77, 292. 

Owen Sound Transportation Company 
Limited, Owen Sound, and certain 
employees (on Norgoma, Norisle and 
Normac), 1024, 1134. 

Pacific Tanker Company, Limited, Van- 
couver, and certain employees, 1135, 
1271. 

Pacific Western Air Lines Limited, Van- 
couver, and certain employees, 414, 
853. 

Packers Steamship Company, Limited, Van- 
couver, and certain employees, 1270, 
1272. 

Patricia Transportation Company, Limited, 
and certain employees (in Ontario), 
1024, 1134. 

Patricia Transportation Company, Limited, 
and certain employees (in Winnipeg), 

1024, 1134. 

John F. Phair, Edmonton, and certain 
employees, 540, 1270. 

Polymer Corporation Limited, Sarnia, and 
certain employees, 1545. 

Pronto Uranium Mines Limited, Algoma 
Mills, Ont., and certain employees, 
541, 1544. 

Quebec and Ontario Transportation Com- 
pany Limited, Montreal, and certain 
employees, 76, 178, 414, 684, 1270, 1272. 

Quebec Central Transportation Limited, 
Sherbrooke, and certain employees, 
1545, 1546. 

Quebec North Shore and Labrador Rail- 
way, Sept-Iles, and certain employees, 
74, 75, 76, 178, 1135, 1270. 

Quebec Paper Sales and Transportation 
Company, Limited, Donnacona, and 
certain employees, 74, 415, 541, 542, 
686, 1136, 1274. 

Radio Saguenay Limited, Jonquiere, and 
certain employees, 683, 1022, 1272. 

Radio Saint Boniface Limitee, and 
employees (at Radio Station CKSB), 
76, 179. 

Railway Express Agency, Inc., New York, 
N.Y., and certain employees, 179, 

1025, 1136. 



INDEX 



Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act — Con. 

J. Herve Ravary. Montreal, and certain 
employees (cleaners in buildings of 
C.B.C. m Montreal), 1272, 1543. 

Saguenay Terminals Limited, Port Alfred, 
and certain employees, 854, 1025. 
1272-73. 1273. 1406, 1408, 1409. 

St. Charles Transportation Company, 
Limited. Montreal, and certain 
employees, 1544. 

St. Charles Transportation Company, 
Limited, Quebec, and certain 
employees, 180, 182, 686. 

Sea Traders, Limited, Halifax, and certain 
employees, 74. 

Security Storage Company, Limited, Winni- 
peg, and certain employees (Highway 
Division), 76, 290. 

Shawinigan Falls Broadcasting Company, 
Limited, and certain employees, 684, 
1272, 1406. 

Shawinigan Falls Railway Terminal, 
Shawinigan Falls, and certain 
employees, 1022, 1134. 

Shell Canadian Tankers Limited, Toronto, 
and certain employees (on MV 
Western Shell), 1270, 1272. 

Sherbrooke Telegram Printing and Pub- 
lishing Company (Radio Station 
CKTS), Sherbrooke, and certain 
employees, 180, 1545. 

Shipping Federation of British Columbia, 
Vancouver, and certain employees, 
415, 541, 686, 716, 856, 1405. 

Shipping Federation of Canada, Inc., and 
certain employees, 77, 292. 

Sincennes-McNaughton Lines, Limited, 
Montreal, and certain employees, 76, 
178. 

Terminal Warehouses Limited, Toronto, and 
certain employees, 1024, 1404. 

Guy Tombs Marine Services Limited, and 
Davie Transportation Limited, Mont- 
real, and certain employees, 74, 292, 
541, 686. 

Toronto Terminals Railway Company, 
Toronto, and certain employees, 76, 
178. 

Toronto Towing and Salvage Company, 
Limited, and certain employees (on 
tugs H. J . Dixon, J . C. .Stewart and 
H. J. D. No. 1), 1135. 

Toronto Towing and Salvage Company, 
Limited, Toronto, and certain 
employees (Great Lakes and Eastern 
District), 1404. 

Trans-Canada Air Lines, and certain 
employees, 684, 854. 

Transit Tankers and Terminals Limited, 
and certain employees, 75. 



Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act — Con. 

Valley Camp Coal Company of Canada 
Limited, Toronto, and certain 
employees (on Valley Camp), 1135, 
1270. 

Vancouver Hotel Company, Limited (C.N.R. 
and C.P.R.), and certain employees, 
77, 1272. 

Wabash Railroad Company (Buffalo Divi- 
sion, Lines East of Detroit), and 
certain employees, 1544. 

West Indies Wharf, Vancouver, and certain 
employees (United Keno Hill Mines 
Limited, and Cassiar Asbestos Cor- 
poration Limited), 414, 1543. 

Western Ontario Broadcasting Company, 
Limited, and certain employees, 
(CKLW and CKLW-TV), Windsor, 
683, 853, 1023, 1270, 1543. 

Westriver Ore Transports, Limited, Mont- 
real, and certain employees, 1404. 

Westward Shipping Limited, Vancouver, and 
certain employees, 77, 415. 

Winnipeg Electric Company, Winnipeg, and 
certain employees, 540. 

Wyandotte Chemicals Corporation, Wyan- 
dotte, Michigan, and certain employees 
(on Fighting Island), 74. 

F. M. Yorke and Sons, Limited, Vancouver, 
and certain employees, 683, 853. 

Yorkwood Shipping Company, Limited, 
Hamilton, and certain employees, 854, 
1023, 1024. 

Young and Gore Tugboats Limited, Van- 
couver, and certain employees, 414, 
683, 684. 

Agreements Resulting from Proceedings 
Under the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act: 

Abitibi Power and Paper Company, Limited, 
Toronto, and employees, 856. 

Association of Lake Carriers, and employees 
(Great Lakes and St. Lawrence shipp- 
ing), 626. 

Association of Lake Carriers, Port Col- 
borne, (Canada Steamship Lines Lim- 
ited, N. M. Paterson and Sons 
Limited; Colonial Steamships Limited 
and Hall Corporation of Canada Lim- 
ited), and employees, 626, 856. 

Association of Lake Carriers, Port Colborne, 
(Canada Steamship Lines Limited; 
Upper Lakes and St. Lawrence Trans- 
portation Company Limited; N. M. 
Paterson and Sons Limited; Colonial 
Steamships Limited; Misener Hold- 
ings Limited; Hall Corporation of 
Canada Limited; Norris Transporta- 



INDEX 



Agreements Resulting from Proceedings 
Under the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act — Con. 

Association of Lake Carriers — Con. 

tion Company Limited; Mohawk 
Navigation Company, and Beacons- 
field Steamships Limited), and em- 
ployees, 626, 856. 

Atlantic Broadcasters Limited (Radio Sta- 
tion CJFX), Antigonish, N.S., and 
certain employees, 292. 

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk 
River, and certain employees, 77. 

Buntain and Bell Company, Limited, Char- 
lottetown, and certain employees, 77. 

Canada Steamship Lines, Limited, Montreal, 
and certain employees, 854. 

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, and 
certain employees, 541, 854. 

Canadian Marconi Company, Montreal, and 
certain employees, 541. 

Canadian National Railways (Atlantic, Cen- 
tral and Western Regions, including 
Newfoundland District), and certain 
empk^ees, 1025. 

Canadian National Railways (Port Mann 
and Okanagan Lake Barge and Ferry 
Service), 854, 1025. 

Canadian National Railways (Regional 
Accounting Office), and certain em- 
ployees, 77. 

Canadian National Railways; Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company; Toronto, 
Hamilton and Buffalo Railway Com- 
pany; Ontario Northland Railway; 
and Algoma Central and Hudson Bay 
Railway, and certain employees, 856. 

Canadian Pacific Air Lines Limited, and cer- 
tain employees, 416. 

Canadian Pacific Railway Company and 
certain employees (on SS. Princess 
Helene), 180. 

Canadian Pacific Transport Company, Lim- 
ited, (C.P.R.) Winnipeg, and certain 
employees, 543. 

Cape Breton Broadcasters Limited, and cer- 
tain employees, 1025, 1405. 

Clarke Steamships Limited, Montreal; 
Albert G. Baker Limited, Quebec; 
Quebec Terminals Limited, Quebec, 
and certain employees, 1025. 

Dominion Coal Company, Limited, A. T. 
O'Leary and Company, S. Cunard and 
Company, Limited, and R. E. Archi- 
bald Company, Limited, Halifax, and 
certain employees, 292. 

Eastern Canada Stevedoring Company, Lim- 
ited, Halifax, and certain employees, 
292. 

Eastern Canada Stevedoring Company, 
Limited, Montreal, and certain em- 
ployees, 1136. 



Agreements Resulting from Proceedings 
Under the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act — Con. 

Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited, 
Port Hope, and employees, 1025. 

Empire Stevedoring Company, Limited; 
Louis Wolfe and Sons (Vancouver) 
Limited; Canada Stevedoring Com- 
pany Limited; Western Stevedoring 
Company Limited ; Victoria-Vancou- 
ver Stevedoring Company Limited; 
and certain employees, 1406. 

Expressway Truck Lines (Canada) Limited, 
Vancouver, and employees, 415. 

Giant Yellowknife Gold Mines Limited, 
Yellowknife, N.W.T., and certain 
employees, 541. 

Holden Sand and Gravel Limited, Toronto, 
and employees, 856. 

Kawartha Broadcasting Company Limited 
(Radio Station CHEX), Peterborough, 
and certain employees, 1137. 

La Tribune Limitee (Radio Station CHLT), 
Sherbrooke, and certain employees, 
1546. 

Minshull Storage and Van Lines, Halifax, 
and certain employees, 1405. 

Newfoundland Employers' Association Lim- 
ited (coal and salt boats), St. John's, 
and certain employees, 1136. 

Newfoundland Employers' Association Lim- 
ited (general cargo operators), St. 
John's, and certain employees, 1136. 

Newfoundland Employers' Association Lim- 
ited (Newfoundland Coal Company 
Limited), and employees, 854. 

Niagara, St. Catharines and Toronto Rail- 
way, and certain employees, 1405. 

Nova Scotian Hotel, Halifax (Canadian 
National Hotels Limited), and cer- 
tain employees, 1137. 

Ontario Northland Railways, and certain 
employees, 77. 

Ottawa Transportation Commission, and 
certain employees, 292. 

Quebec and Ontario Transportation Com- 
pany Limited, Montreal, and certain 
employees, 684. 

St. Charles Transportation Company Lim- 
ited, Quebec, and certain employees, 
686. 

Sherbrooke Telegram Printing and Publish- 
ing Company (Radio Station CKTS), 
Sherbrooke, and certain employees, 
1545. 

Shipping Federation of British .Columbia 
and employees, 856. 

Shipping Federation of Canada, Inc., Saint 
John, N.B., and certain employees, 
292. 

Guy Tombs Marine Services Limited, and 
Davie Transportation Limited, Mont- 
real, and certain employees, 1546. 



1.11 



INDEX 



igreementa Resulting from Proceedings 
Under the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act — Con. 
Trans-Canada Air Lines and certain em- 
ployees, 854, 1025, 1136. 
Vancouver Hotel Company, Limited (C.N.R. 
and C.P.R.). and certain employees, 
77. 
Westward Shipping Limited. Vancouver, 
and certain employees, 415. 

Industrial Standards: 

Nfld.— 

enactment of Act recommended by Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.), 381. 

Industrial Standards Act (Alberta): 

summary of agreements, 1567. 

Industrial Standards Act (New Brunswick) : 

summary of agreements, 1567. 

Industrial Standards Act (Nova Scotia) : 

summary of agreements, 85, 1567. 

Industrial Standards Act (Ontario) : 

summary of agreements, 85, 1145, 1567. 

amendments to Act re representation for 
labour and management recommended 
by Provincial Federation of Labour 
(T. and L.C.), 502. 

Industrial Standards Act (Saskatchewan) : 

summary of agreements, 869. 

Industrial Transportation: 

See Transportation. 

Industrial Welfare: 

of I.L.O. recommendation concerning 
welfare facilities for workers, 1018. 

Canada 

changes in collective agreements providing 
pension and welfare plans, 719. 

partial payment of plans by operators 
sought by C.L.C. unions in shipbuild- 
ing industry, 963. 

United Kingdom 

1954 report of Chief Inspector of Fac- 
tories, 530. 

U.S.A. 

office workers' salaries rise faster than 
plant workers, 1118. 



Industry : 

Canadian members of Duke of Edinburgh's 
Study Conference on the Human 
Problems of Industrial Communities 
within the Commonwealth and Em- 
pire, 154, 793. 

Canada 

concern over "increased American control 
of Canadian industries" expressed in 
T. and L.C.— C.C. of L. brief to Royal 
Commission on Canada's Economic 
Prospects, 387. 

Hansard reference to decentralization of 
industry, 382. 

industrialization's impact studied at con- 
ference arranged by School of Social 
Work, University of Toronto, 1366. 

number of women employed in 1954, 70. 

shift in job opportunities from agriculture 
to industry, 428. 
Que.: proceedings of study meeting of Pro- 
fessional Association of Industrialists, 
971. 



Inflation: 

United Kingdom 

rail workers granted wage increase, 153, 



Injunctions: 



Canada 



recommendation of C.C. of L., 47. 
C.L.C. to seek prohibition of, 644; resolu- 
tion adopted at first constitutional 
convention, 648. 

B.C.: The Labour Injunction in British 
Columbia 1946-1955 — digest of book 
prepared by Prof. A. W. R. Carrothers, 
1502 ; resolution adopted by Federation 
of Labour (C.L.C), 1490. 

N.B.: recommendation of Federation of 
Labour re labour disputes, 1254. 

Nfld.: Supreme Court refuses injunction to 
restrain truckers' union from inter- 
fering with member's "right to work", 
421. 

Installations: 

See Electrical Installations. 

Institute of Public Administration of 
Canada : 

utilization of human resources — text of 
paper delivered at conference of In- 
stitute by J. P. Francis, Federal 
Department of Labour, 1381. 



INDEX 



Insurance: 



Canada 



number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada, 1955, 1565; in 
1946, 1953 and 1954, 83. 

group life insurance provisions for em- 
ployees in motor vehicles and parts 
industry, 107; in public utilities, 1053. 

plant employees in establishments report- 
ing pension and insurance plans, 1303, 
1304. 

insurance plans in certain industries — 
motor vehicles and parts, 107. 
office workers in manufacturing, 1434. 
primary textile industry, 433. 
Que.: 96 per cent of office employees in 
Montreal area covered by health in- 
surance, 377. 

U.S.A. 

provisions of new agreement reached be- 
tween steel companies and United 
Steelworkers, 956. 



Interest Rates: 



Canada 



recommendations of C.C. of L. re small 
personal, farm improvement and fisher- 
men's boat loans, 47. 

International Affairs: 

Canada 

C.C.C.L. legislative memorandum, 48. 

recommendations of C.C. of L., 43; reply 
of Prime Minister, 47. 

"International Policy" — resolutions adopt- 
ed at first constitutional convention 
of C.L.C., 655. 

International Association of Fire Fighters: 

23rd biennial convention, 1114. 

International Association of Machinists: 

24th convention, 1365. 

settlement of jurisdictional disputes estab- 
lished in agreement reached between 
International Association of Machi- 
nists and International Brotherhood of 
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders, Black- 
smiths, Forgers and Helpers, 1116. 

no union opposition to automation — 
remarks of Hon. Milton F. Gregg, 
Canadian Minister of Labour, at con- 
vention of I.A.M., 1229. 



International Association of Machinists — 

Con. 

labour-management relations discussed by 
President, I.A.M., in address to Min- 
nesota Society of Industrial Engineers, 
496. 

"labour must share in fruits of progress" — 
president's address to Minnesota 
Society of Industrial Engineers, 514. 

International Association of Personnel in 
Employment Security: 

43rd annual convention, 1003. 

manager of Cornwall, Ontario office of 

N.E.S. runner-up for Award of Merit 

of I.A.P.E.S., 493. 

International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, 
Iron Shipbuilders, Blacksmiths, For- 
gers and Helpers: 

settlement of jurisdictional disputes estab- 
lished in agreement reached between 
International Association of Machi- 
nists and International Brotherhood of 
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders, Black- 
smiths, Forgers and Helpers, 1116. 

International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers : 

U.S.A. 

clauses to protect public utility workers 
against job displacement by automa- 
tion, won by two unions, 953. 

International Brotherhood of Paper Makers : 

merger with United Paperworkers of 
America, 1493. 

International Brotherhood of Paper Mill 
Unions : 

convention proceedings of Quebec and 
Eastern Canada Council, 375. 

International Brotherhood of Teamsters: 

"underhanded domination" of Canadian 
union by United States leaders pro- 
tested by president of Toronto local 
938 — resignation rejected, 491. 

local that violates no-strike edict of Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Teamsters 
within N.Y. state council area liable to 
fine, 886. 

provisions of four-year agreement signed 
by N.Y. local of Brotherhood, 1117. 

withdrawal of International Longshore- 
men's Association from "working alli- 
ance" with... International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters, 491. 

Teamsters and Mine-Mill sign mutual 
assistance pact, 27. 



L1V 



INDEX 



International Confederation of Free Trade 
Unions: 

C II. Millard, Vice-president, C.L.C., etc., 
appointed Director of Organization, 
9C1. 

comprehensive study of economic and 
social repercussions of automation 
requested by I.C.F.T.U., 257. 

requests discussion of automation's social 
and economic repercussions by E.C.O. 
S.O.C. of the United Nations, 514. 

full support by C.L.C., 644; resolution 
adopted at first constitutional conven- 
tion, 655. 

resolution on international trade union 
relations, defeated at convention of 
British T.U.C., 1260. 

International Congress of Business and 
Professional Women: 

re first International Congress, 631. 

International Federation of Business and 
Professional Women: 

seventh triennial conference, 1000. 
seminar on relations of the I.F.B.P.W. 
with the United Nations, 1001. 

International Federation of Christian Trade 
Unions : 

remarks of Dr. Gerard Thormann, repre- 
sentative with C.C.C.L., at 35th con- 
vention of C.C.C.L., 1389. 

International Fibre Board Limited: 

wage increases and other benefits won by 
Company in two-year labour agree- 
ment, 369. 

International Labour Organization: 

1955 another good year for world labour — 
review of labour scene by David A. 
Morse, Director-General, 287. 

"Employment and Unemployment: Gov- 
ernment Policies since 1950" — I.L.O. 
studies governments' unemployment 
measures, 1238. 

ratification of Convention concerning food 
and catering for crews on board ship, 
1541. 

findings of experts on human and indus- 
trial relations from 16 different coun- 
tries — report to Director-General of 
I.L.O., 1132. 

Jordan becomes 71st member of I.L.O., 176. 

Paraguay becomes 77th member of ILO, 
1229. 

opposition voiced to suggested United 
States withdrawal, 538. 

report of I.L.O. Committee on Forced 
Labour, 536. 



International Labour Organization — Con. 

independent ad hoc committee on forced 
labour established, 175. 

United States said unwilling to support 
forced labour convention, 288. 

Sixth Regional Conference of American 
States Members, 1268, 1400. 

I.L.O. establishes basic list of dangerous 
substances that should be labelled 
uniformly throughout the world, 1541. 

meeting of experts on women's employ- 
ment from 11 countries — recommenda- 
tions re vocational training, 1540. 

I.L.O. seminar discusses vocational train- 
ing, 851. 

I.L.O. reports progress in inquiry into 
employers' and workers' freedom, 175. 

U.N. Committee to discuss discrimination 
in employment, 176. 

employer participation in I.L.O. for one 
more year, voted by Industrial Rela- 
tions Committee of N.A.M., 214. 

Director of Apprenticeship, New Bruns- 
wick Department of Labour, to act 
as I.L.O. technical adviser on appren- 
ticeship to Government of Burma, 955. 

pamphlet Canada and the I.L.O., written 
by V. C. Phelan, Director, Canada 
Branch, I.L.O., 1494. 

performers' rights convention drafted by 
group of I.L.O. experts, 1132. 

appointment of Ernest Bell as Chief of 
I.L.O. Workers' Relations Service, 176. 

appointment of Francis Blanchard, of 
France, as Assistant Director-General 
of I.L.O., 1132. 

Dr. Francis Wolf, of France, named Chief 
of Legal Division, 288. 

recommendations of C.C.C.L. re Interna- 
tional Labour Conference, 50; reply of 
Prime Minister, 52. 

Governing Body — 
130th session, 72. 
131st session — proceedings, 535. 
132nd session — proceedings, 1131. 

Thirty-ninth Conference — 
agenda, 534, 681. 

summary of proceedings, 839, 1009. 
Canadian delegation, 681, 842. 
three new members — Tunisia, the 
Sudan and Morocco, admitted to 
I.L.O., 847. 

Preparatory Technical Maritime Con- 
ference — 
Canadian delegates, 1268. 

Industrial Committees — 

Building, Civil Engineering and Public 
Works : 

fifth session, 847. 
Coal Mines: 

sixth session, 850; correction, 1118. 
Petroleum : 

fifth session, 537. 



INDEX 



LV 



International Labour Organization — Con. 
Publications and Reports — 

vocational guidance and training of 

women, 1536. 
additional list of publications issued 
by International Labour Office, 
176. 

International Longshoremen's Association: 

withdrawal of I.L.A. from "working alli- 
ance" with... International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters, 491. 

International Molders' and Foundry Work- 
ers' Union of North America: 

convention, 1115. 

International Nickel Company: 

jobless pay plan rejected by U.S.W.A., 
373. 

International Nickel Company of Canada: 

despite altered status, Mine-Mill union 
retains rights — decision of Ontario 
Labour Relations Board, 628. 

International Photo Engravers' Union of 
North America: 

55th annual convention, 1114. 

International Railway Brotherhoods: 

Dominion legislative program of National 
Legislative Committee, 52. 

Labour Day message of J. G. McLean, 
Chairman, National Legislative Com- 
mittee, 970. 

number of workers under agreement, 294. 

International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers: 

despite altered status, Mine-Mill union 
retains rights — decision of Ontario 
Labour Relations Board, 628. 

certification as bargaining agent for em- 
ployees at four gold mines, 801. 

Teamsters and Mine-Mill sign mutual 
assistance pact, 27. 

International Union of United Brewery, 
Flour, Cereal, Soft Drink and Dis- 
tillery Workers: 

34th biennial convention, 1112. 



Investment : 



Canada 



Private and Public Investment in Canada: 
Outlook, 1956, report prepared by 
D.B. of S. and Department of Trade 
and Commerce, 253. 



Ireland: 

national trade union centre proposed by 
Irish Trades Union Congress and Con- 
gress of Irish Unions, 28. 

Italy: 

Third International Congress of the Inter- 
national Catholic Secretariat for 
Technologists, Agriculturists and Eco- 
nomists, held at Montallegro, 376. 

Jewish Labour Committee of Canada: 

10th anniversary of appointment of Na- 
tional Director, 1235. 

Jewish Vocational Service: 

Canada 

reports young people lack knowledge in 
seeking employment, 627. 

Job Discrimination: 

See Discrimination. 

Job Displacement: 

Canada 

lack of trained workers delays automa- 
tion — article published in Toronto 
Telegram, 954. 

U.S.A. 

clauses to protect public utility workers, 
won by two unions — International 
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers and 
Utility Workers Union of America, 
953. 



Job Seeking : 



Canada 



young people lack knowledge in seeking 
employment — report of Jewish Voca- 
tional Service, Toronto, 627. 

Job Transfer: 

See Labour Transference. 



Jobless Benefits 



U.S.A. 



legal decisions on payment of severance 

pay and jobless benefits, 1266. 
See also Unemployment Insurance. 

Jobless Insurance : 

See Unemployment Insurance. 



I.VI 



INDEX 



Jodoin, Claude, P tident, Canadian Labour 

initial presidential address at convention 

oi Canadian Labour Congress, 637. 
proposes federal-provincial conference on 
educational problems, 1358. 
■ i I ssag %9. 

1 186. 
remarks at convention of New Brunswick 
ration of Labour, 1252; of Quebec 
Federation of Labour, 1386. 
extracts from address at 39th session of 
International Labour Conference, 840. 

Jordan: 

becomes 71st member of I.L.O., 176. 

Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers, Cosme- 
tologists and Proprietors' Union 
(A.F. of L.) : 

consolidation with Barber and Beauty- 
Union (C.I.O.), 964. 

Jurisdictional Disputes: 

See Industrial Disputes. 

Jurisdictional Problems: 

U.S.A. 

A.F. of L.-C.I.O. seeks policy on jurisdic- 
tional problems, affecting affiliates of 
Industrial Union Department and 
Building and Construction Trades 
Department, 963. 

Juvenile Employment: 

Canada 

young people lack knowledge in seeking 
employment — report of Jewish Voca- 
tional Service, Toronto, 627. 

Man.: recommendation of provincial labour 
bodies in joint submission to Winnipeg 
Chamber of Commerce, 156. 

N.B.: regulations under Mining Act re em- 
ployment of girls, 303. 

Krusen, Dr. Frank H., Mayo Clinic and 
Mayo Foundation : 
The Community and the Rehabilitation 
of its Disabled Citizens— address at 
inauguration of campaign to raise 
funds for Rehabilitation Institute of 
Montreal, 285. 



Labour Acts: 

Alta.— 
new Regulation No. 1 (1956) under Alberta 
Labour Act re change of name by 
certified trade union, 1583; Alberta 
Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 
requests amendments to Labour Act, 
266. 

Labour Briefs: 

See Trade Unions; various subject head- 
ings. 

Labour Code : 

See National Labour Code; Provincial 
Labour Code. 

Labour Councils: 

Canada 

mergers of trades and labour councils, 490, 

963, 1113, 1233, 1362, 1493. 
B.C.: merger of T. and L.C. and C.C. of L. 

labour councils into Vancouver — 

Lower Mainland Trades and Labour 

Council, 490. 
Ont.: merger of Oshawa and district labour 

councils, 674. 
Sask.: merger terms approved by Saskatoon 

labour councils, 797. 

Labour Contracts: 

See Agreements; Fair Wages. 



Labour Day: 



Canada 



Labour Day message of Hon. Milton F. 
Gregg, Minister of Labour, 968. 

messages of labour leaders — Claude Jodoin, 
President, C.L.C., 969; J. G. McLean, 
chairman, National Legislative Com- 
mittee, International Railway Brother- 
hoods, 970; Gerard Picard, General 
President, C.C.C.L., 971. 

Labour Departments and Bureaus: 

Canada 

establishment and functions of federal 
Department of Labour Library, 168. 

material on automation in books and 
periodicals in Department of Labour 
Library, 906. 

selected bibliography on labour literature 
(novels, plays, poetry) in Department 
of Labour Library, 1067. 

1956 research grants under Labour Depart- 
ment — University Research Program, 
834. 



INDEX 



LVII 



Labour Departments and Bureaus — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 

Conference on Prevention of Work Acci- 
dents in Government Departments and 
Crown Agencies sponsored by Depart- 
ment of Labour and Civil Service 
Commission, 675. 

Occupations of University Women — results 
of questionnaire addressed by Women's 
Bureau, Department of Labour, to 
members of Canadian Federation of 
University Women, 1511. 

J. A. Blanchette, M.P., appointed Parlia- 
mentary Assistant to Minister of 
Labour, 254. 

Advisory Committee on Professional Man- 
power convened to study subject of 
professional and scientific manpower, 
254. 
N.S.: appointment of Stephen T. Pyke, as 
Minister of Labour and Minister of 
Public Works, 1495. 

Australia 

report of Department of Labour Advisory 
Council, on productivity, 376. 



Labour Force: 



Canada 



survey of employment in 1955, 32-36. 

winter employment of 75 per cent of 
labour force on St. Lawrence Seaway, 
predicted, 17. 

demands of civilization outrunning labour 
force — Donald P. Campbell, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, in 
address to C.M.A., 953. 

U.S.A. 

employment in 1955, 370. 

1954-1955 statistics, 23. 

45 per cent increase in number of working 

women in 15 years, 631. 
shortage of skilled workers reported, 163. 



Labour Income: 



Canada 



statistics, 161, 499, 1361. 

increase in labour income in 1955, 17, 255. 

Hansard reference, 383. 

Labour Legislation: 

implications of technological progress — text 
of address by Deputy Assistant Secre- 
tary for Standards and Statistics, 
United States Department of Labour, 
to C.A.A.L.L., 1375. 



Labour Legislation — Con. 

Canada 
'legislation enacted by Parliament at 1956 

session, 1568. 
highlights of labour laws enacted by pro- 
vincial legislatures (N.B., Sask., B.C., 
N.S., and Man.), in 1956, 721. 
recent regulations, Federal and/or Provin- 
cial legislation, 88, 193, 298, 424, 549, 
728, 879, 1037, 1159, 1290, 1417, 1581. 
conference of C.A.A.L.L., 1423. 
implications of technological progress — text 
of address by Deputy Assistant Secre- 
tary for Standards and Statistics, 
United States Department of Labour, 
to C.A.A.L.L., 1375. 
summary of book by Prof. Harold A. 
Logan, on State Intervention and 
Assistance in Collective Bargaining in 
Canada, 1943-1954, 1239, 1242. 
Hansard reference, 166. 
establishment of National Labour Code 

urged by C.C. of L., 45. 
C.L.C. to seek uniform legislation through- 
out Canada, 644. 
legislative recommendations of T. and 
L.C., 40. 
Alta.: legislation enacted in 1956, 1571. 
B.C.: highlights of labour laws enacted in 
1956, 721; legislation enacted in 1956, 
870. 
Man.: highlights of labour laws enacted in 
1956, 721; legislation enacted in 1956, 
1146. 
N.B.: highlights of labour laws enacted in 
1956, 721; legislation enacted in 1956, 
874. 
Nfld.: legislation enacted in 1956, 1412; 
legislative proposals before Labour 
Legislation Review Committee, 380. 
N.S.: highlights of labour laws enacted in 
1956, 721; legislation enacted in 1956, 
1026. 
Ont.: legislation enacted in 1956, 1410; 
changes in Labour Relations Act sug- 
gested by M.L.A., 372. 
P.E.I.: legislation enacted in 1956, 1413. 
Que.: legislation enacted in 1955-56, 1289; 
labour laws must not favour one 
party — Professional Association of In- 
dustrialists, 1496. 
Sask.: highlights of labour laws enacted in 
1956, 721; legislation enacted in 1956, 
1286. 

U.S.A. 

enactment of recommendations to Con- 
gress urged by President Eisenhower, 
164. 



INDEX 



Labour Legislation — Con. 
Y.S.A.—Con. 
implications of technological progress — text 
oi address by Deputy Assistant Secre- 
tary for Standards and Statistics, 
United States Department of Labor, 
to Canadian Association of Adminis- 
trators of Labour Legislation, 1375. 
See also various subject headings. 



Labour-Management Production Commit- 
tees: 



Canada 

Teamwork in Industry — monthly report on 
activities of L.M.P.C.s— 73, 177, 289, 
413, 539, 682, 852, 1133, 1269, 1403, 1542. 



Labour-Management Co-operation: 

annotated bibliography with some his- 
torical notes on guaranteed wages and 
supplemental unemployment benefits 
in Canada and the United States, 1244. 



Labour Officials: 



Canada 



resignations, appointments and deaths, 500. 



Canada 

14th annual convention of Personnel Asso- 
ciation of Toronto, 677. 
annotated bibliography with some his- 
torical notes on guaranteed wages and 
supplemental unemployment benefits 
in Canada and the United States, pre- 
pared by federal Department of 
Labour, 1244. 

B.C.: Labour-Management Safety Conference 
held by paper industry, 374. 

Man.: Flin Flon L.M.P.C. completes ten 
years of operation, 1538. 

Ont.: 14th annual convention of Personnel 
Association of Toronto, 677. 

Que.: recommendation of C.C.C.L. re ship- 
building, 1395. 

India 

proposed establishment of joint manage- 
ment councils, 373. 

U.S.A. 

annotated bibliography with some his- 
torical notes on guaranteed wages and 
supplemental unemployment benefits, 
1244. 

labour-management relations discussed by 
President, I.A.M., in address to Min- 
nesota Society of Industrial Engineers, 
496. 

"negotiation by research" to settle future 
differences urged by Executive Direc- 
tor of Industrial Council of Cloak, Suit 
and Skirt Manufacturers, 22. 

"labour and management rely too much on 
government"— remarks of Director of 
Federal Mediation and Conciliation 
Service, 22. 



Labour Organization: 



Canada 

recommendations of C.C. 
ment employees, 45. 

resolutions adopted by 
by Committee on 



of L. 



re govern- 



C.L.C. directed 
Organization at 
C.C.C.L., U.M.W.A. and O.B.U., 650. 

re organization of office workers — proceed- 
ings of policy conference of U.S.W.A. 
(Canadian district), 624, 625. 



U.S.A. 



dealt with at 
-C.I.O. Execu- 



problems of organization 

meeting of A.F. of L 

tive Council, 797. 
recommendation of A.F. of L. — C.I.O., 60. 

Labour Organizations: 

See Trade Unions. 

Labour Papers: 

See Publications. 

Labour Permits: 

Man — 
recommendations of provincial labour 
bodies in joint submission to Winnipeg 
Chamber of Commerce, 156. 

Labour Publications: 

See Publications. 

Labour Relations: 

See Industrial Relations. 



INDEX 



LIX 



Labour Representation: 

Canada 

C.L.C. to seek adequate representation for 

Labour on all Government Boards, 

etc., 644. 
recommendation of International Railway 

Brotherhoods, 55. 
B.C.: resolution adopted by Federation of 

Labour (C.L.C), 1489. 

Labour Standards: 

Canada 

summary of 1955 edition of Provincial La- 
bour Standards, published by Federal 
Department of Labour, 284. 

Labour Supply: 

See Employment; Engineering; Man- 
power; Technical Education. 

Labour Transference: 

Canada 

shift in job opportunities from agriculture 
to industry, 428. 

General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement re inter- 
plant job transfer, 279. 

international movement of farm labour 
discussed at 13th federal-provincial 
farm labour conference, 64. 

L-abour Unions: 

See Trade Unions. 

Labour Unity: 

several union mergers expected in 1956, 
in Canada and the United States, 260. 

Canada 

merger creates Canadian Labour Congress 
— founding convention, 489. 

C.C.C.L. in favour of principle of affi- 
liation to C.L.C, 370, 1387, 1390. 

Civil Service merger talks — preliminary 
negotiations towards union of federal 
civil servants, 799. 

mergers of trades and labour councils, 490, 
963, 1113, 1233, 1362, 1493. 

resolutions adopted by C.L.C directed by 
Committee on Organization at C.C.- 
C.L., U.M.W.A. and O.B.U., 650. 

CC of L. approves merger of National 
Union of Public Service Employees 
and Ontario Hydro Electric Em- 
ployees' Association, 162. 



Labour Unity — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 
several union mergers expected in 1956, 
260. 

Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
Enginemen to seek affiliation with 
C.L.C and A.F. of L.— C.I.O., 953. 
merger of Ontario Hydro Employees' As- 
sociation with National Union of 
Public Service Employees (CC of 
L.), 27. 
affiliation agreement between Radio and 
Television Employees of Canada and 
National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians, 163. 
Teamsters and Mine Mill sign mutual as- 
sistance pact, 27. 
Hansard references to certification of 
unions under I.R.D.I. Act, 503. 

Alta.: formation of Alberta Federation of 
Labour — merger of T. and L.C. Alberta 
Federation of Labour and CC of L. 
Industrial Federation of Labour of 
Alberta, 1261. 

B.C.: merger convention of Federation of 
Labour (C.L.C), 1489; resolution 
adopted by Federation of Labour 
(CC. of L.) re T. and L.C— 'CC. of 
L. merger, 31; merger of T. and L.C. 
and CC of L. labour councils into 
Vancouver — Lower Mainland Trades 
and Labour Council, 490. 

Man.: merger of local bodies of C.C.L. and 
O.B.U. into Manitoba Federation of 
Labour, 1490. 

N.B.: merger of four city police unions into 
provincial body — New Brunswick As- 
sociation of Policemen, 1233; resolu- 
tion adopted at convention of N.B. 
Council of Labour, 1125; at N.B. 
Federation of Labour, 1253. 

Nfld.: convention proceedings of Newfound- 
land Federation of Labour, 1006. 

N.S.: merger of N. S. Provincial Federation 
of Labour (T. and L.C.) with N.S. 
Federation of Labour (CC of L.), 
1491 ; convention report of N.S. Fed- 
eration of Labour, 1126. 

Ont.: merger with Ontario Provincial Fed- 
eration of Labour (T. and L.C), voted 
at convention of Ontario Federation 
of Labour (CC of L.), 282; merger 
of Ontario Hydro Employees Associa- 
ation with National Union of Public 
Service Employees (CC. of L.), 27, 
162; merger of Oshawa and district 
labour councils, 674. 

Que.: approval of merger agreement be- 
tween Federation of Labour and Fed- 
eration of Industrial Unions, 1384. 



IX 



INDEX 



Labour Unity — Con. 

3 - - of Saskatchewan Federation 

of Labour (C.C. of L.) and Saskat- 
chewan Provincial Federation of 

Labour (T. and LAY). 30. 1492; mcr- 
terme approved by Saskatoon 
labour councils, 797. 

Ireland 

national trade union centre proposed by 
Irish Trades Union Congress and Con- 
_ - : Irish Unions, 28. 



Latimer Report: 

1947 report on demands for guaranteed 
annual wage in United States steel 
industry, 1245. 

Laundries : 

See Hours of Work. 

Laval University: 

11th annual industrial relations convention, 
669. 



U.S.A. 

chronology oi events leading to unitv of 
A.F. of L. and C.I.O., 61. 

A.F. of L. — C.I.O. merger consummated — 
amalgamation of major segments of 
organized labour in United States 
effected at convention, 56. 

anti-trust aspect of A.F. of L— C.I.O. 
merger, 260. 

unity convention planned by independent 
unions, 27. 

merger of C.I.O. and A.F. of L. state or- 
ganizations, progresses, 490. 
ral union mergers expected in 1956. 
260. 

withdrawal of International Longshore- 
men's Association from "working 
alliance" with. . .International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters, 491. 

re merger of — Amalgamated Meat Cutters 
and Butcher Workmen of North Ame- 
rica (A.F. of L.) and United Packing- 
house Workers of America (C.I.O.) 
(meat workers' unions), 370. 

American Federation of State, County and 
Municipal Employees, and Govern- 
ment and Civic Employees Organizing 
Committee (public employee unions), 
964, 1232. 

Barber and Beauty Lmion (C.I.O.) and 
Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers, 
Cosmetologists and Proprietors Union 
(A.F. of L.), 964. 

paperworkers' unions, 1493. 

United Packinghou^r Workers Union and 
Amalgamated Meat Cutters and 
Butcher Workmen, cancelled, 629. 

Upholsterers International Union and 
Luned Furniture Workers, 1365. 



Lav-off s : 



Canada 



Labourers: 



Canada 



salaries and hours of labour in municipal 

government service, 563. 
wage rates for labourers in manufacturing, 

1955, 1174. 



General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement following 
lengthy strike, 278. 

lay-offs in automobile and agricultural 
implement fields caused by automa- 
tion, etc., studied by LLA.WL, 794. 

Hansard reference to lay-offs in farm 
implement and automotive industries, 
802. 
N.B.: proceedings of conference of Marine 
Workers' Education, 1236. 

U.S.A. 

lay-off benefit plan of Colgate-Palmolive 
Company, 159. 

lay-offs in automobile and agricultural 
implement fields caused by automa- 
tion, etc., studied by U.A.W., 794. 

more than one million auto workers 
covered by supplemental unemploy- 
ment compensation plans at end of 
1955, 85. 

s.u.b. provisions in contracts reached 
between U.A.W. and Studebaker Pack- 
ard Corporation and Willys Motors, 
Inc., 19. 



Legal Decisions: 



Canada 



Supreme Court of Canada — 

finds that legislation requiring retail 
stores to observe Holy Days is 
beyond provincial powers, 417. 

holds board failed to perform statutory 
duties in refusing decertification 
on irrelevant grounds, 419. 

rules on conclusiveness of N.B. Com- 
pensation Board finding in subse- 
quent negligence action, 1154. 

rules that Trade Union Act does not 
prohibit employees of competitor 
from acting on bargaining com- 
mittee, 1155. 



INDEX 



Legal Decisions — Con. 

B.C.: Supreme Court of British Columbia 
finds — crew's refusal to cross picket 
line does not excuse railway's breach 
of statutory duties, 726, owner-drivers 
of taxi-cabs are employers and there- 
fore can not become members of 
union, 547, Labour Relations Board 
must settle voters' list in advance of 
representation vote, 724, picketing of 
Vancouver bakery illegal and rules 
picketers be held liable for damages. 
1157, union not justified in picketing 
simply because of employment of 
members of rival union, 548, that com- 
pany did not violate terms of agree- 
ment in refusing to dismiss employee 
for failure to join union or pay mem- 
bership dues, 190. 

Man.: Court of Appeal upholds validity of 
Winnipeg by-law requiring service 
stations to close Sunday for part of 
year, 1156; Court of Queen's Bench 
finds — one year appropriate notice of 
dismissal for branch manager hired for 
an indefinite term, 1576, that Board 
exceeded its jurisdiction by certifying 
union before making proper inquiry, 
727. 

N.B.: Supreme Court holds members of city 
police force not to be "employees" as 
defined in Labour Relations Act, 86, 
rules on conclusiveness of Compensa- 
tion Board finding in subsequent 
negligence action, 1154. 

Nfld.: Supreme Court refuses injunction to 
restrain truckers' union from interfer- 
ing with member's "right to work", 
421; wage claim of employee of 
Department of Transport at Gander 
Airport, Nfld., dismissed by Exchequer 
Court of Canada, 1413. 

Ont.: High Court rules decisions of arbitra- 
tion board set up by collective agree- 
ment not reviewable by courts, 877; 
Court of Appeal rules courts may 
review decision of arbitration board 
established under collective agreement, 
1155; High Court of Justice finds pro- 
vincial board lacked jurisdiction to 
certify a union for uranium mining 
employees, 1578; Supreme Court holds 
Labour Relations Board exceeded 
jurisdiction in certifying bargaining 
agent for "managerial" employees, 
1032; Supreme Court rules Labour 
Relations Board within its rights in 
considering application of union in 
trusteeship, 1415. 



,<»gal Decisions — Con. 

P.E.T.: Supreme Court finds that town of 
Summerside and its employees not 
subject to Trade Union Act... illegal 
in province, 296. 

Que.: Court of Queen's Bench £ T ids that 
Labour Relations Board is required to 
produce documents when so ordered 
by a court, 1030; Superior Court, 
because time limit expired, dismisses 
action against third party in workmen's 
compensation case, 1034; Superior 
Court finds — Canadian Indians are 
entitled to protection of province's 
Labour Relations Act, 877, check-off 
clause in collective agreement is invalid 
under Quebec law, 1579, legislation 
requiring retail stores to observe Holy 
Days is beyond provincial powers, 417, 
province's Minimum Wage Act does 
not prohibit employer from making 
payment in kind, 878. 

Sask.: Court of Appeal — holds employer 
can't refuse to bargain because per- 
sons employed by competitor among 
negotiators, 419, quashes reinstatement 
order because dismissed worker's 
monetary loss was incorrectly assessed, 
875, rules Labour Relations Board can- 
not order the conditional reinstatement 
of discharged employee, 1031 ; Supreme 
Court of Canada — holds board failed 
to perform statutory duties in refusing 
decertification on irrelevant grounds, 
419, rules that Trade Union Act does 
not prohibit employees of competitor 
from acting on bargaining committee, 
1155. 

Germany 

Court rules illegal to dismiss woman from 
her job when married, 1128. 

U.S.A. 

bearded bus driver dismissed — case not 
heard because it lacked jurisdiction 
under Civil Rights Act, 1117. 

Court of Appeals, District of Columbia 
circuit . . . upholds authority of Secre- 
tary of Labour to fix minimum wage 
rates on government contracts on 
industry rather than geographic basis. 
191. 

s.u.b. plans challenged in Connecticut 
court, 495. 



INDEX 



Legal Decisions — Con. 

V.<.A~Con. 
Supreme Court rules that — railway union 
shops valid. 621; union shop agree- 
ment under Railway Labour Act not 
invalidated by "right-to-work" law, 
1035; deriving bargaining status from 
Taft-Hartley Act has duty to repre- 
sent whole unit, 87; workers must be 
paid for activities that are "integral 
and indispensable" part of job, 422. 

Lermer, Prof. Arthur, Department of Eco- 
nomics. Sir George Williams College: 
comments on automation, 257. 

Lesage, Hon. Jean, Minister of Northern 
Affairs: 
remarks at 43rd annual convention of 
IA.P.E.S., 1004. 



Level Crossings: 



Canada 



amendments to Railway Act re grade 
crossings, commended by International 
Railway Brotherhoods; other requests, 
54. 

T. and L.C. urges elimination of railway 
level crossings, 41. 

Libby-Owens-Ford : 

s.u.b. plan in agreement between United 
Glass Workers and Company, 518. 



Libraries: 



Canada 



establishment and functions of federal 
Department of Labour library, 168. 

U.S.A. 

A Trade Union Library — revised edition 
published by Industrial Relations Sec- 
tion, Department of Economics and 
Sociology, Princeton University, 376. 

See also Publications. 



Licensing of Workmen — Con. 

Man.: amended provisions of Electricians 
Licence Act and Manitoba Power 
Commission Act, 1152; amended pro- 
visions of Operating Engineers and 
Firemen Act, 724; regulations under 
Power Commission Act, 425. 

N.B.: amended regulations under Plumbing 
Trade Act, 875. 

N.S.: provisions of Elevators and Lifts Act, 
1026; amended provisions of Engine 
Operators Act, 724. 

Lifts: 

See Hoists. 

Liquor : 

N.B.— 

recommendation of Federation of Labour 
re Liquor Act, 1254 ; resolution adopted 
at convention of Council of Labour, 
1125. 
N.S.: regulation under Liquor Control Act, 
95. 

Living Conditions: 

See Standard of Living. 



Loans: 



Canada 



assisted passage loan plan extended to new 

categories and families, 95. 
Hansard references to Small Loans Act,. 

382, 504. 
recommendations of C.C. of L. re small 

personal, farm improvement and fisher- 
men's boat loans, 47. 
resolution re N.H.A. loans adopted at first 

constitutional convention of C.L.C., 

655. 
P.E.I. : Labour Council advocates long-term 

loans, 503. 

Lockouts : 

See Strikes and Lockouts. 



Licensing of Workmen: 

Canada 

examination of engineers' regulations under 
Canada Shipping Act, amended, 1582. 

Alta.: regulations under Alberta Amuse- 
ments Act, 1290; amended regulations 
under Tradesmen's Qualification Act, 
1038. 

B.C.: amended provisions of Gas Act re 
inspection of equipment, 872. 



Locomotive Engineers: 

See Engineering. 

Locomotive Firemen: 

See Firemen. 

Logan, Prof. Harold A.: 

summary of book on State Intervention 
and Assistance in Collective Bargaining 
in Canada. 1948-1954, 1239. 



INDEX 



LXIIl 



Logging : 



Manpower: 



Canada 



Canada 



distribution of agreements covering 1,000 
or more employees, 1284. 

number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in 1946, 1953 and 1954, 79. 
B.C.: Regulation No. 43 governing logging 
industry, 730; Supreme Court holds 
crew's refusal to cross picket line does 
not excuse railway's breach of statu- 
tory duties, 726. 

Lord's Day Act (Canada) : 

Bill to amend Act, not passed by Manitoba 
Legislature, 1153. 

Lotteries : 

Canada 
Hansard reference, 381. 



Machinery: 



U.S.A. 



study how effectively severely injured 
workers may operate complex modern 
machinery, 1129. 
Alta.: regulations under Apprenticeship Act 
re machinist trade, 1038, 1417. 

Macleod, Iain, Minister of Labour, United 

Kingdom : 

on automation, 623. 

Mahoney, William, Vice-President, Canadian 
Labour Congress: 

appointment, 1111. 

Management Councils: 

India 

proposed establishment of joint manage- 
ment councils, 373. 

Manitoba Federation of Labour: 

convention proceedings, 1490. 

Manitoba Federation of Labour (T. and 
L.C.) : 

provincial legislative proposals, 29. 



Advisory Committee on Professional Man- 
power — convened to study subject of 
professional and scientific manpower, 
254 ; first meeting, 391 ; second meeting, 
1517; "The Outlook for Professional 
Manpower" — extracts from address by 
J. P. Francis, Economics and Research 
Branch, Department of Labour, to the 
Advisory Committee, 393. 

Central Hiring Bureau — purpose of estab- 
lishment of manpower pool to ensure 
supply of labour for St. Lawrence 
Seaway and St. Lawrence Power Proj- 
ects, 1498. 

composition of work force on St. Lawrence 
Seaway and St. Lawrence Power Proj- 
ect, 1500. 

National Conference on Engineering, Scien- 
tific and Technical Manpower, 1520. 

utilization of human resources — text of 
paper delivered at conference of In- 
stitute of Public Administration of 
Canada, by J. P. Francis, Federal 
Department of Labour, 1381. 

Committee named to plan National En- 
gineering Manpower Conference, 958. 

statement of Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minis- 
ter of Labour on activities concerning 
professional and technical manpower, 
803. 

apprentices, immigrants and older workers, 
needed to relieve manpower shortage, 
1232. 

engineer shortage slows atomic power pro- 
gram, 958. 

establishment of training plans to increase 
supply of professional engineers an- 
nounced by Canadian Westinghouse 
Company and Orenda Engines Lim- 
ited, 958. 

Hansard reference to professional and 
technical manpower, 802. 
Ont.: apprentices, immigrants and older 
workers, needed to relieve manpower 
shortage, 1232. 

U.S.A. 

General Motors Corporation training pro- 
gram to overcome shortage of drafts- 
men, 1231. 

automation indirect cause of clerk shortage, 
624. 

development of skilled manpower,' urged 
by Assistant to Secretary of Labour, 
1109. 

critical shortage of office workers, pre- 
dicted, 1361. 

See ako Professional Manpower; Scien- 
tific Manpower. 



I. XIV 



INDEX 



Manufacturing : 



Canada 



distribution of agreements covering 1,000 
or more employees. 12S4. 

number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada in 1955, 1561. 

number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in 1946, 1953, and 1954, 79. 

average weekly salaries for selected office 
occupations, in four cities, October 
1955, 1302. 

wage rates for labourers in manufacturing 
in 1955, 1174. 

wage increases and other benefits won by 
four paper manufacturing plants in 
two-year labour agreements, 369. 

methods of wage payment in Canadian 
manufacturing, October 1954, 435. 

effects of plant expansion in 1955 on manu- 
facturing employment, 272. 

profit-sharing plans in manufacturing, 896. 

shift work in Canadian manufacturing, 894. 

survey of working conditions of office em- 
ployees as at April 1, 1956, 1434. 

survey of working conditions of plant 
employees, 1303. 

average profit of goods sold in manufac- 
turing industry in 1955, 1367. 

survey of employment in 1955, 32-36. 

need for better education stressed by Pre- 
sident, CM .A., 255. 

CM. A. suggests reduction in income tax 
rates, in submission to Minister of 
Finance, 155. 
B.C.: minimum wages of employees in manu- 
facturing industry, increased under 
Male and Female Minimum Wage 
Acts, 550. 

U.S.A. 

automation foreseen as more extensive in 
office operations than in manufactur- 
ing, 157. 

See also Aircraft Manufacturing. 



Marshall, Herbert, Dominion Statistician: 
retirement, 1234. 

Masonite Company of Canada Limited: 

wage increase and other benefits won by 
Company in two-year labour agree- 
ment, 369. 

Massey, Rt. Hon. Vincent, Governor-General 
of Canada: 
address at 85th annual meeting of CM .A.. 
995. 

Mayors : 

See Canadian Federation of Mayors and 
Municipalities. 

McClelland, J. A., O.B.E., former Vice-presi- 
dent, International Association of 
Machinists : 
death of, 158. 

McGill University: 

8th annual industrial relations conference, 

822. 
conference on labour arbitration arranged 

by Industrial Relations Centre, 396. 

McGregor, James, Director of Unemployment 

Insurance : 
appointment, 955. 

McLean, J. G., Chairman, National Legisla- 
tive Committee, International Railway 
Brotherhoods : 
Labour Day message, 970. 
New Year's message, 1487. 

Meany, George, President, A.F. of L.-C.LO.: 
election, 56, 57. 

address at first convention of Canadian 
Labour Congress, 640. 



Marine Engineers: 

Canada 

plans to increase training facilities for 
professional engineers and technicians, 
1110. 

Marine Workers' Federation (New Bruns- 
wick) : 

conference, 1236. 

Marketing: 
B.C.— 

recommendations of Federation of Labour 
(C.C. of L.), 31. 



Meat Processing: 



U.S.A. 



merger of meat worker unions — Amal- 
gamated Meat Cutters and Butcher 
Workmen of North America (A.F. of 
L.) and United Packinghouse Workers 
of America (C.I.O.), 370. 

Mechanics : 

Sask.— 
amended regulations under Apprenticeship 
and Tradesmen's Qualification Act re 
motor vehicle mechanics repair trade, 
884. 



INDEX 



Medical Examinations: 

Que — 
regulations under Mining Act, 1421. 

Medical Services: 

Canada 

General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement following 
lengthy strike, 279. 

group hospital-medical plans in public 
utilities, 1053. 
Alta.: amended regulations under Work- 
men's Compensation Act, 1572. 

United Kingdom 

committee advises no major change in 
health service, 157. 



India 

proposed health plan outlined at meeting 
of Central Council of Health, 371. 



U.S.A. 

medical benefits granted railway employees, 
20. 

removal of industrial medicine from col- 
lective bargaining, urged, 157. 

Meier, Richard L., University of Chicago: 

effects of automation on Canadian employ- 
ment — comments of University of Chi- 
cago scientist, 257. 

Mercantile Industry: 

B.C.— 

provisions of Order No. 24 (1956) under 
Male and Female Minimum Wage 
Act, 1291. 



Merchant Marine: 

Canada 

resolution referred to Executive at first 
constitutional convention of C.L.C., 
658. 

Mergers : 

See Labour Councils; Labour Unity. 



Metal Trades: 



U.S.A. 



A.F. of L.-C.I.O. Metal Trades Depart- 
ment's 47th annual convention, 1363. 

86825—5 



Metalliferous Mining: 

B.C.— 

amended provisions of Metalliferous Mines 
Regulation Act, 724, 872. 

Metallurgy: 

N.B.— 

regulations under Mining Act, 306. 

Migration and Settlement: 

Canada 

assistance to immigrants — Family Assist- 
ance plan under Appropriations Act, 
1570. 

assisted passage loan plan extended to 
new categories and families, 95. 

statistics, 629. 

Canada seeking skilled immigrants from 
United States, 1357. 

over one million Canadians now living in 
U.S.A., 1357. 

skilled immigrants needed to relieve man- 
power shortage, 1232. 

Hansard references, 271, 1119. 

recommendations of C.C. of L., 45. 

recommendation of Canadian Federation 
of Mayors and Municipalities, 258. 

Canadian Labour Congress to seek planned 
immigration, etc., 644; resolutions 
adopted at first constitutional con- 
vention, 655. 

recommendations of International Rail- 
way Brotherhoods, 53; reply of Prime 
Minister, 55. 

legislative recommendations of T. and L.C., 
39. 

policy statement of Canadian Chamber of 
Commerce presented to Cabinet, 1532. 
Ont.: skilled immigrants needed to relieve 
manpower shortage, 1232; resolution 
adopted by Federation of Labour 
(C.C. of L.), 284. 

U.S.A. 

Canada seeking skilled immigrants from 

United States, 1357. 
over one million Canadians now living in 

U.S.A., 1357. 

Millard, C. H., Vice-president, Canadian La- 
bour Congress: 
appointed Director of Organization for 
I.C.F.T.U., 961. 

Mine Rescue Stations: 

Que. — 
regulations under Mining Act provide for 
establishment of, 883. 



INDEX 



Minimum \\ agi s \ 

Canada 

Canadian Labour Congress to seek national 
legal minimum wage, C44; resolution 
at first constitutional con- 
vention, 647. 

dative request of T. and L.C., 40. 
Aha.: application of Hours of Work and 
Minimum "Wage Order No. 18 (1956) 
under Labour Act, to workers in pipe- 
line construction industry, 1420; male 
and female minimum wage orders 
rescinded under Labour Act, 1421 ; 
Alberta Federation of Labour (T. and 
L.C.) requests amendment to Labour 
Act. 266; revised female minimum 
wage orders wider Labour Act — Order 
No. 1 (1956) and Order No. 17 (1956) 
minimum rates, overtime and public 
holidays, piecework, 1419-1420; revised 
male minimum wage orders under 
Labour Act— Order No. 1 (1956) and 
Order No. 17 (1956) minimum rates, 
overtime and public holidays, piece 
work, 1418-1420. 

B.C.— 

resolution adopted by Federation of Labour 

(C.L.C.), 1489. 
Female Minimum Wage Act — 

Order No. 4 (cook and bunkhouse 
occupation), 1162. 

Order No. 7 (electronics), 1291-92. 

Order No. 13 (55), 193. 

Order No. 24 (mercantile industry), 
1291. 

Order No. 25 (manufacturing indus- 
try), 550. 

Order No. 28 (pipeline, construction), 
551. 

Order No. 29 (1956) (bicycle-riders 
and foot-messengers employed ex- 
clusively on delivery), 730. 
Male Minimum Wage Act — 

Order No. 4 (cook and bunkhouse 
occupation), 1162. 

Order No. 7 (electronics), 1291-92. 

Order No. 13 (55), 193. 

Order No. 24 (mercantile industry), 
1291. 

Order No. 25 (manufacturing indus- 
try), 550. 

Order No. 28 (pipeline -construction), 
551. 

Order No. 29 (1956) (bicycle-riders 
and foot-messengers employed ex- 
clusively on delivery), 730. 
Man.: 85-cent minimum wage requested by 

provincial labour bodies in joint sub- 
mission to Winnipeg Chamber of Com- 
merce, 156. 



Minimum Wages — Con. 
N.B.: minimum wage for male employees in 
canning or processing of fish, vegetables 
or fruits, under Minimum Wage Act, 
1292. 
Ont.: resolution adopted by Ontario Federa- 
tion of Printing Trades Unions, 628; 
recommendation of Provincial Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.) re mini- 
mum wage for women, 502. 
P.E.I. : resolution passed at 1956 session of 

Legislature, 1413. 
Que.: Quebec Federation of Labour recom- 
mends amendment to Minimum Wage 
Act, 1386; Superior Court holds that 
province's Minimum Wage Act does 
not prohibit employer from making 
payment in kind, 878. 
Orders under Minimum Wage Act — 
No. 3 (holidays with pay), 734. 
No. 3 A (holidays with pay in con- 
struction industry), 734. 
No. 4 (general order), 734. 
No. 11 (charitable institutions, hospi- 
tals and homes), 734. 
No. 26 A (taxicabs and automobiles for 

hire, Montreal district), 734. 
No. 29 (taxicabs and automobiles for 

hire, Quebec and Levis), 734. 
No. 39 (forest operations), 734. 
No. 41 (municipal and school corpora- 
tions), 734. 
No. 42 (stationary enginemen and fire- 
men), 734. 
Sask.: amended provisions of Minimum 
Wage Act, 722, 1289; Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.) requests minimum 
hourly wage of $1.00, 29; resolution 
adopted at convention of Federation 
of Labour, 1492. 

U.S.A. 

Court of Appeals, District of Columbia 
circuit... upholds authority of Secre- 
tary of Labor to fix minimum wage 
rates on government contracts on 
industry rather than geographic basis, 
191. 

enactment of recommendations to Congress 
urged by President Eisenhower, 164. 

recommendation of A.F. of L.-C.I.O. con- 
tained in economic report, 378; other 
recommendation, 60. 

Mining: 

sixth session of I.L.O. Coal Mines Com- 
mittee, 850. 

Canada 

number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada, 1955, 1561; in 
1946, 1953 and 1954, 79. 



INDEX 



Mining — Con. 

Canada. — Con. 
distribution of agreements covering 1,000 

or more employees, 1284. 
convention proceedings of District 26, 

U.M.W.A., 1363. 
establishment of education fund for min- 
ing professions — to overcome urgent 
situation — suggested at convention of 
Canadian Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgy, 495. 

Alta.: regulations under Coal Mines Regula- 
tion Act, 729. 

B.C.: amended provisions of Metalliferous 
Mines Regulation Act, 724, 872; 
amended regulations under Coal Mines 
Regulation Act, 872. 

X.B.: regulations under Mining Act, 302; 
convention proceedings of District 26, 
U.M.W.A, 1363. 

N.S.: convention proceedings of District 26, 
U.M.W.A., 1363; special training facili- 
ties for unemployed miners provided 
by federal and provincial departments 
of labour, 156. 

Ont.: amended provisions of Mining Act, 
1411; I.U.M.M.S.W. certified as bar- 
gaining agent for employees at four 
gold mines, 801; High Court of Jus- 
tice finds provincial board lacked 
jurisdiction to certify a union for 
uranium mining employees, 1578. 

Que.: regulations under Mining Act, 883, 
1421; provisions of Regulation No. 20, 
under Workmen's Compensation Act, 
re mine rescue stations, 1585. 

Montreal Chamber of Commerce: 
formation, 263. 

Morocco : 

admitted to membership in I.L.O., 847. 

Morse, David A., Director-General, Interna- 
tional Labour Organization: 
annual report, 1011. 

reports 1955 another good year for world 
labour, in review of labour scene, 287. 



Mortgages : 



Canada 



Canadian Housing Statistics — summary of 
quarterly report by Central Mortgage 
and Housing Corporation, 1396. 

establishment of education mortgage plan 
urged by Canadian Association of Real 
Estate Boards, 1232. 

86825—5* 



Mosher, A. R., President, Canadian Congress 
o] Labour: 

remarks at presentation of Dominion 
legislative proposals of C.C. of L., 47. 

address at 13th annual convention of 
Ontario Federation of Labour (C.C. 
of L.), 281. 

remarks at opening of new C.C. of L. head- 
quarters, 23. 

extracts from address at Woodsworth 
School of Labour — remarks on auto- 
mation, 257. 

Mothers' Allowances: 

Canada 

C.C.F. suggest government pay mothers 
who don't work outside home, 1163. 

Alta.: amendment to Mothers' Allowances 
Act, 1576. 

N.B.: amendment to Mothers' Allowances 
Act, 875. 

Ont.: amended provisions of Mothers' Allow- 
ances Act, 1412. 

Motor Transportation : 

Alta.— 
recommendations of Alberta Federation of 
Labour (T. and L.C.) re traffic regula- 
tions, 267. 



Motor Vehicles: 



Canada 



working conditions in motor vehicles and 

parts industries, 105. 
Hansard reference to imports, 967. 

Alta.: amended regulations under Appren- 
ticeship Act re motor vehicle repair 
trade, 729; amendment to Highway 
Traffic Act urged by Federation of 
Labour, 1263. 

B.C.: regulations under Industrial Trans- 
portation Act, 299. 

Man.: regulations under Taxicab Act, 194. 

N.B.: regulations under Motor Carrier Act, 
93. 

Ont.: C.B.R.E. urges enforcement of 48-hour 
week for taxi drivers, in brief to 
Ontario government, 1029. 

Sask.: amended regulations under Appren- 
ticeship and Tradesmen's Qualification 
Act re motor vehicle repair trade, 884, 
1294. 

U.S.A. 

bearded bus driver dismissed — case not 
heard because it lacked jurisdiction 
under Civil Rights Act, 1117. 



LXV1II 



INDEX 



Municipal Employees : 

U.S.A. 

public employee unions merge — American 
Federation of State, County and 
Municipal Employees, and Govern- 
ment and Employees Organizing Com- 
mittee, 1232. 

Municipal Government Service: 

Canada 

salaries and hours of labour of police 
constables, fire fighters and labourers, 
563. 

Municipalities: 

See Canadian Federation of Mayors and 
Municipalities. 

Murchison, C. A. L., Commissioner, Unem- 
ployment Insurance Commission: 
remarks at 43rd annual convention of 
I.A.P.E.S, 1004. 

National Advisory Committee on Rehabilita- 
tion of Disabled Persons: 

meeting, 1397. 

National Association of Broadcast Employees 
and Technicians: 

triennial convention, 1365. 

National Association of Manufacturers: 

employer participation in I.L.O. for one 
more year, voted by Industrial Rela- 
tions Committee of N.A.M., 214. 

National Conference of Canadian Univer- 
sities: 

proceedings, 1109, 1526. 

National Conference on Engineering, Scien- 
tific and Technical Manpower: 

proceedings, 1520. 

National Conference of Forty Plus Clubs: 

formation to assist older unemployed men, 
1234. 



National Employment Service: 

See Employment Service. 

National Engineering Manpower Conference : 

committee named to plan conference, 958. 

National Film Board: 

recommendation of C.C.C.L. re French 

labour films, 1395. 
C.C. of L. criticizes distribution of N.F.B. 

films in U.S.A., 47. 

National Health Program: 

See Health Insurance. 

National Housing Act: 

discrimination against certain persons in 
opportunities to purchase housing 
under Act, disapproved by Canadian 
Federation of Mayors and Municipali- 
ties, 259. 

recommendations of Canadian Construc- 
tion Association in brief to federal 
Cabinet, 398. 

resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C., 655. 

resolution adopted by Ontario Federation 
of Labour (C.C. of L.), 284. 

Hansard references, 164, 167, 381. 

National Income: 

See Income. 

National Labour Code: 

resolution referred to Executive at first 
constitutional convention of C.L.C., 
657. 

establishment urged by C.C. of L., 45. 



National Product: 



Canada 



increase in gross national product in 1956 
predicted by Minister of Trade and 
Commerce, 17. 

gross national product at record level in 
1955— D.B. of S., 369. 



National Council of Women: 

presentation of brief to Federal Cabinet, 

259. 
urges employment of older men and 

women, 259. 
resolution adopted re equal opportunities 

for employment and advancement and 

need for vocational training, 795. 



National Service: 

United Kingdom 
resolution adopted by T.U.C., 1260. 

National Transportation : 

See Transportation and Communication. 



INDEX 



LXIX 



Nationalization : 



Canada 



C.L.C. to seek nationalization of banking, 
credit, and public utilities, 644. 

International Railway Brotherhoods recom- 
mend public ownership and govern- 
ment control of radio broadcasting and 
telecasting, 55; reply of Prime Minis- 
ter, 56. 

Natural Resources: 

Canada 

C.C.C.L. legislative memorandum re utili- 
zation of natural resources, 49; reply 
of Prime Minister, 52. 

C.L.C. to seek conservation and develop- 
ment of, 644. 

legislative recommendation of T. and L.C., 
41. 
Que.: recommendations of C.C.C.L., 265; 
reply of Premier Duplessis, 266. 

The Netherlands: 

plan provides increase in pensions for 
persons over 65 years of age, 630. 



Newfoundland Federation of Labour (T, 
and L.C.) : 

legislative proposals before Labour Legis- 
lation Review Committee, 380. 

Newspapers : 

Ont.— 
American Newspaper Guild will limit con- 
tracts between publishers and locals to 
two-year duration, 964. 

Newsprint: 

Que.— 
legislative brief of C.C.C.L., 265; remarks 
of Premier Duplessis to Federation of 
Labour (T. and L.C), 28. 

New Zealand: 

six problems and six advantages of auto- 
mation, 24. 



No-raiding : 



Canada 



C.B.R.E. given support in fight to repeal 
U.M.W. raid of Montreal Transporta- 
tion Commission's workers' union, 163. 



New Brunswick Association of Policemen: 

formation, 1233. 

New Brunswick Council of Carpenters and 
Millmen : 

formation, 1233. 

New Brunswick Council of Labour: 

annual convention, 1125. 

New Brunswick Federation of Labour: 

44th annual convention, 1250. 

New Brunswick International Paper Com- 
pany: 

wage increase and other benefits won by 
Company in two-year labour agree- 
ment, 369. 

New Year's Messages: 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour, 
1485. 

Claude Jodoin, President, Canadian Labour 
Congress, 1486. 

J. G. McLean, Chairman, National Legis- 
lative Committee, International Rail- 
way Brotherhoods, 1487. 

Gerard Picard, President, C.C.C.L., 1488. 

Newfoundland Federation of Labour: 

20th annual convention, 1006. 



Notaries : 

Que. — 
legal recognition to women, 263. 

Nova Scotia Federation of Labour: 

inaugural convention, 1491. 

Nova Scotia Federation of Labour (C.C. 
of L.) : 

merger with Nova Scotia Provincial 
Federation of Labour (T. and L.C), 
1491. 

resignation of Sid Oram, President, 500. 

Nova Scotia Provincial Federation of Labour 
(T. and L.C.) : 

merger with Nova Scotia Federation of 

Labour (C.C of L.), 1491. 
2nd annual convention, 1126. 

Nuclear Research: 

Canada 

engineer shortage slows atomic power pro- 
gram, 958. 



Nursing : 



Canada 



extracts from address by National Co-or- 
dinator, Civilian Rehabilitation, before 
Ottawa Area Chapter of the Regis- 
tered Nurses of Ontario, 173. 



LXX 



INDEX 



Occupational Diseases: 

Canada 

increase in problems of occupational dis- 
eases, 161. 

Occupational Hazards: 

U.S.A. 

New York state adopts safety code deal- 
ing with radiation protection, 885. 

Occupational Monographs : 

Canada 

monographs issued by Department of 
Labour — Careers in Home Economics ; 
Occupations in the Aircraft Manufac- 
turing Industry, 1232. 

film strips and occupational monographs 
discussed at meeting of Vocational 
Training Advisory Council, 277. 

Office Employees: 

I.L.O. preliminary report on weekly rest 
in commerce and offices to be dis- 
cussed at 39th Conference, 681. 

women in majority in offices— survey con- 
ducted in Canada and U.S.A. by 
National Office Management Associa- 
tion, 1128. 

Canada 

average weekly salaries for selected office 
occupations, in four cities, October 
1955, 1302. 

survey of working conditions of office 
employees in manufacturing as at 
April 1, 1956, 1434. 

survey of clerical workers' wages and hours 
conducted by Montreal Board of 
Trade, 371. 

provisions of agreement between C.L.C. 
and Office Employees' International 
Union, 795. 

women in majority in offices — survey con- 
ducted in Canada and U.S.A. by 
National Office Management Associa- 
tion, 1128. 

"Compensation of Office Workers in 1955" 
— summary of article prepared by 
Steinberg's Limited, Montreal, 498. 

re organization of office workers — proceed- 
ings of policy conference of U.S.W.A. 
(Canadian district), 624, 625. 

automation in offices within ten years 
predicted by Sir Robert Watson-Watt, 
at Seventh Annual Management Con- 
ference hi Montreal, 373. 



Office Employees — Con.. 

Ont.: same union may bargain for office or 
plant employees — decision of Labour 
Relations Board, 292. 

Que.: 96 per cent of office employees in 
Montreal area covered by health 
insurance, 377; survey of clerical 
workers' wages and hours conducted 
by Montreal Board of Trade, 371. 

United Kingdom 

automation must be kept in field of indus- 
trial relations — conference of T.U.C. 
white-collar unions, 256. 

gains from automation should be used to 
reduce consumer prices — report of' 
T.U.C. on automation in offices, 798. 

re-distribution of workers as outcome of 
office automation foreseen by speaker 
at meeting of Trade Union Council's 
Non-Manual Workers' Advisory Coun- 
cil, 258. 

U.S.A. 

office workers' salaries rise faster than 
plant workers, 1118. 

automation indirect cause of clerk shortage, 
624. 

automation foreseen as more extensive in 
office operations than in manufactur- 
ing, 157. 

critical shortage of office workers, pre- 
dicted, 1361. 

women in majority in offices — survey con- 
ducted in Canada and U.S.A. by 
National Office Management Associa- 
tion, 1128. 

Office Employees' International Union: 

provisions of agreement between Union 
and C.L.C, 795. 

Oil: 

B.C.- 

accident-prevention regulations for oil and 
gas well-drilling, etc., under Workmen's 
Compensation Act, 881. 

Old Age Assistance: 

See Pensions. 

Older Workers: 

Prudential Insurance Company of America 
extends age of retirement, 264. 

Canada 

one-half retired persons prefer to con- 
tinue working, 799. 



INDEX 



LXXI 



Older Workers — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 

National Council of Women urges employ- 
ment of older men and women, 259. 

"Women go to Work at any Age" — panel 
discussion sponsored by five women's 
service clubs in Toronto metropolitan 
area, 806. 

retirement should be voluntary — D.V.A. 
doctor, 375. 

less time loss by older workers through 
absenteeism — findings of committee of 
Health League of Canada, 1495. 

older workers needed to relieve manpower 
shortage, 1232. 

Prudential Insurance Company of America 
extends age of retirement, 264. 

retirement counselling program for em- 
ployees of Swift Canadian Co. Ltd., 
374. 

recommendations of C.C.C.L., 51. 

resolutions adopted, and defeated, at first 
constitutional convention of C.L.C., 
653, 656. 
Ont.: older workers needed to relieve man- 
power shortage, 1232. 

United Kingdom 

decline in practice of fixing upper age 
limits reported by National Advisory 
Committee on the Employment of 
Older Men and Women, 264. 

U.S.A. 

pension plans should not bar older job 
seekers, 1235. 

results of studies on employment and 
income of older people, 965. 

employment statistics, 375. 

hiring preference to men 40 years of age 
and over given under terms of agree- 
ment reached between United Plant 
Guard Workers of America and Detroit 
industrial police firm, 1495. 

employment opportunities for mature 
workers — address by Commissioner of 
Labour Statistics, Department of La- 
bour, at meeting of Older Workers' 
Section of American Personnel and 
Guidance Association, 498. 

Prudential Insurance Company of America 
extends age of retirement, 264. 

formation of National Conference of Forty 
Plus Clubs to aid older unemployed 
men, 1234. 

activities of "Earning Opportunities 
Forum", 1398. 

New York state legislative committee urges 
government action to assist aged, 264. 

two New York agencies move to combat 
discriminatory practices, 1362. 



One Big Union: 

unification with C.L.C. — resolution adopted 
at first constitutional convention of 
C.L.C, 650. 

One Day's Rest in Seven: 

proceedings of 39th Conference of I.L.O., 
1010. 

I.L.O. preliminary report on weekly rest 
in commerce and offices to be dis- 
cussed at 39th Conference, 681. 

Ontario Federation of Labour: 

public hearings by Committee on Labour 
Relations established by Federation 
of Labour — criticism of Act, 972. 

Ontario Federation of Labour (C.C. of L.) : 

13th annual convention, 281. 

provincial legislative proposals, 379. 

merger with Ontario Provincial Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.), voted 
at convention, 282. 

"conciliation in Ontario takes thrice legal 
time" — statement by Ontario Federa- 
tion of Labour, 21. 

Ontario Federation of Printing Trades 
Unions : 

12th annual conference, 628. 

Ontario Hydro Employees' Association: 

merger of Association with National Union 
of Public Service Employees (C.C. of 

L.), 27. 

Ontario Labour Relations Act: 

public hearings by Committee on Labour 
Relations established by Ontario 
Federation of Labour — criticism of 
Act, 972. 

Ontario Labour Relations Board: 

See Industrial Relations. 

Ontario Northland Railway: 

conciliation board in railway dispute fully 
constituted — appointment of concilia- 
tion officer by-passed, 20. 

Ontario Provincial Federation of Labour 
(T. and L.C.) : 

provincial legislative proposals, 501. 
re merger with Ontario Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.), 282. 



LXXII 



INDEX 



Ontario Pro\ facial Federation of Labour: 

views on administration, etc., of Labour 
Relations Act presented by special 
commit toe at public hearings in 
various cities. 794. 

death of John Hancox, Secretary, 1433. 



Painting and Decorating: 

Alta.— 
amended regulations under Apprenticeship 
Act, 193. 

Man.: amended regulations under Appren- 
ticeship Act, 194. 



Operating Engineers: 

Man.— 

amended regulations under Operating 
Engineers and Firemen Act, 425, 724, 
1152. 

Operating Revenue: 

See Revenue. 

Orenda Engines, Limited: 

establishment of training plan to increase 
supply of professional engineers, 958. 

Out-of-Work Benefit: 

See Supplemental Unemployment Benefit; 
Unemployment Insurance. 



Overtime : 



Canada 



functions of Labour Relations Association 
re overtime rates on St. Lawrence 
Seaway and St. Lawrence Power Pro- 
jects, 1499. 
amendment to Prevailing Rate Employees 
General Regulations under Financial 
Administration Act, 879. 
overtime rates of pay in public utilities, 
1055. 

B.C.: regulation under Hours of Work Act, 
881. 

Ont.: mass overtime refusal while negotia- 
tions in progress, ruled illegal strike, 
1116. 

Sask.: payment of overtime rates to em- 
ployees in garages and automobile 
service stations provided under Hours 
of Work Act, 1585. 

U.S.A. 

provisions of new agreement reached 
between steel companies and United 
Steelworkers, 956. 



Oxford Study Conference: 

Canadian members of Duke of Edinburgh's 
Study Conference on the Human 
Problems of Industrial Communities 
within the Commonwealth and Em- 
pire, 154, 793. 



Paper Manufacturing: 

Canada 

w 7 age increases and other benefits won by 
four paper manufacturing plants in 
two-year labour agreements, 369. 

convention proceedings of Quebec and 
Eastern Canada Council, International 
Brotherhood of Paper Mill Unions, 
375. 
B.C.: Labour-Management Safety Confer- 
ence held by paper industry, 374. 

U.S.A. 

two paperworkers' unions approve plan to 
merge, 1493. 

Parliamentary Assistants : 

J. A. Blanchette, M.P., appointed Parlia- 
mentary Assistant to Minister of 
Labour, 254. 

Pay Practice: 

See Wages. 

Payment by Results: 

United Kingdom 

number of workers covered by plans, 632. 



Payrolls : 



Canada 



increase in industrial employment, pay- 
rolls and average weekly wages and 
salaries in 1955 — D.B. of S. annual 
review of employment and payrolls, 
1367. 



Pensions : 



Canada 



old age assistance statistics, 158, 261, 630, 
966. 

changes in collective agreements providing 
pension and welfare plans, 719. 

General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement following 
lengthy strike, 278. 

retirement counselling program for em- 
ployees of Swift Canadian Co. Ltd., 
374. 



INDEX 



LXXIII 



Pensions— Con. 
Canada. — Con. 

retirement should be voluntary — D.V.A. 
doctor, 375. 

Hansard references, 167, 268, 967. 

recommendations of C.C.C.L., 50; reply 
of Prime Minister, 52. 

recommendations of C.C. of L., 45, 46. 

increase in old age assistance requested by 
Canadian Federation of Mayors and 
Municipalities, 259. 

partial payment of plans by operators 
sought by C.L.C. unions in shipbuild- 
ing industry, 963. 

resolutions adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C, 652, 653. 

recommendations of International Bail- 
way Brotherhoods, 53. 

legislative recommendations of T. and L.C., 
41. 

pension -plans for — 

motor vehicles and parts, 107. 
office workers in manufacturing, 1434. 
plant employees, 1303, 1304. 
primary textile industry, 433. 
public utilities, 1053. 
Alta.: amended provisions of Disabled Per- 
sons' Pensions Act, 1576; Federation 
of Labour recommends establishment 
of contributory plan for all workers, 
and increase in federal old-age pen- 
sions, 1263. 
Man.: resolution adopted by Manitoba 
Federation of Labour re old age 
assistance, 1491. 
N.B.: resolution adopted by Federation of 

Labour, 1254. 
Nfld.: resolution of Federation of Labour, 

1007. 
N.S.: resolution adopted by Federation of 

Labour, 1492. 
Ont.: Federation of Labour (C.C. of L.) 
urges supplementary allotment to old 
age pensioners, 380; recommendation 
of Provincial Federation of Labour 
(T. and L.C.), 502; pensions for 
women at age 60 requested by Federa- 
tion of Printing Trades Unions, 628. 
Que.: resolution adopted by Quebec Federa- 
tion of Labour, 1386. 

France 

plan provides increase in pensions for 
persons over 65 years of age, 630. 

Holland 

plan provides increase in pensions for 

persons over 65 years of age, 630. 
86825—6 



Pensions — Con. 

The Netherlands 

plan provides increase in pensions for 
persons over 65 years of age, 630. 

U.S.A. 

A Study of Industrial Retirement Plans — 
1956 Edition, 1112. 

inadequate disability retirement provi- 
sions, 446. 

pension plans should not bar older job 
seekers, 1235. 

provisions of new agreement reached 
between steel companies and United 
Steelworkers, 956. 

Per Capita Tax: 

Ont.— 
resolution increasing per capita tax, 
adopted by International Union of 
United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, Soft 
Drink and Distillery Workers, 1113. 

Performers' Rights: 

performers' rights convention drafted by 
group of I.L.O. experts, 1132. 

Periodicals : 

See Publications. 

Personnel Association of Toronto: 

14th annual convention, 677. 

Peterborough Labour Council (C.L.C.) : 

formation by merger, 963. 

Petroleum : 

fifth session of I.L.O. Petroleum Com- 
mittee, 537. 

Petroleum Gas: 

See Gas. 

Photo Engravers: 

55th convention of International Photo 
Engravers' Union of North America, 
1114. 

Picard, Gerard, General President, Canadian 
and Catholic Confederation of Labour: 
Labour Day message, 971. 
New Year's message, 1488. 
report to 35th convention of C.C.C.L., 1388. 
statement before Gordon Commission, 390. 



LXXIV 



INDEX 



Picketing: 

B.C.— 

outline of the law of picketing — summary 
of Part 11 of The Labour Injunction 
in British Columbia 1946-1955—1504; 
Supreme Court finds picketing of 
Vancouver bakery illegal and rules 
picketers be held liable for damages, 
1157; crew's refusal to cross picket 
line does not excuse railway's breach 
of statutory duties, 726; union not 
justified in picketing simply because 
of employment of members of rival 
union, 54S. 

Pipeline: 

Alta.— 
application of Hours of Work and Mini- 
mum Wage Order No. 18 (1956) under 
Labour Act, to workers in pipeline 
construction industry, 1420. 

B.C.: amended regulations under Boiler and 
Pressure-Vessel Act, 299; minimum 
wage orders for pipeline construction 
industry, under Male and Female 
Minimum Wage Acts, 551. 

Man.: recommendation of Federation of 
Labour (T. and L.C.), 30. 

Ont.: Federation of Labour (C.C. of L.) 
urges establishment of Crown corpora- 
tion to distribute natural gas within 
province, 380. 

Pittsburgh Plate Glass: 

s.u.b. plan in agreement between Company 
and United Glass Workers, 518. 



Plant Employees: 



Canada 



survey of working conditions of plant 
employees, 1303. 
Ont.: same union may bargain for office or 
plant employees — decision of Labour 
Relations Board, 292. 

U.S.A. 

office workers' salaries rise faster than 
plant workers, 1118. 



Plant Expansion 



Canada 



effects of plant expansion in 1955 on 
manufacturing employment, 272. 

Plasterers : 

Ont.— 
regulations under Apprenticeship Act re 
carpenters and plasterers, 431. 



Plumbing, Steamfitting and Gas Fitting: 

Alta.— 
amended regulations under Apprentice- 
ship Act, 729; amended regulations 
under Public Health Act re plumbing 
and drainage, 1161. 

N.B.: amended regulations under Plumbing 
Trade Act, 875. 

Sask.: amended regulations under Appren- 
ticeship and Tradesmen's Qualification 
Act re plumbing trade, 884; amend- 
ments to plumbing regulations under 
Public Health Act, 1044. 



Police : 



Canada 



salaries and hours of labour in municipal 
government service, 563. 

Alta.: amended provisions of Police Act, 723, 
1575. 

B.C.: formation of B.C. Provincial Federa- 
tion of Peace Officers, 1362. 

N.B.: amended provisions of Labour Rela- 
tions Act, 875; merger of four city 
police unions into provincial body — 
New Brunswick Association of Police- 
men, 1233; Supreme Court holds mem- 
bers of city police force not to be 
"employees" as defined in Labour 
Relations Act, 86. 

Ont.: amended provisions of Police Act, 723, 
1411. 



Political Action: 



Canada 



C.L.C. compromise plan of political 

activity, 646-47. 
resolution re C.L.C, adopted by Canadian 
Federation of International Printing 
Pressmen, 629. 
Alta.: program of Federation of Labour, 

1263. 
Ont.: continued support of C.C.F. by Fed- 
eration of Labour (C.C. of L.), 282. 

U.S.A. 
recommendation of A.F. of L.-C.I.O., 60. 

Political Education: 

Canada 

C.L.C. compromise plan of political 
activity, 646-47. 



Post Office Department: 

Hansard reference to labour relations, 270. 



INDEX 



Power Commission: 

Man- 
regulations under Power Commission Act, 
425. 

Preferential Miring: 

U.S.A. 

preferential hiring pact signed by United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Na- 
tional Contractors Association, 490. 



Premium Pay: 



Canada 



General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement, 279. 
U.S.A. 

provisions of new agreement reached 
between steel companies and United 
Steelworkers, 956. 



Prices : 

report of Director-General of I.L.O. on 
, situation in 1955, 287. 

Canada 

monthly summary of prices and the cost 
of living— 108, 207, 318, 439, 567, 742, 
900, 1056, 1176, 1305, 1436. 

average of $6.94 per person weekly spent 
on food, 162. 

C.C.C.L. requests establishment of per- 
manent commission on prices, 51. 

make steel firms justify price boosts* — 
resolution adopted at policy confer- 
ence, Canadian district, U.S.W.A., 624. 

T. and L.C. urges enquiry into price 
spreads on food and clothing, 41. 
N.B.: Marine Workers' Federation urges 
amendment to Combines Investigation 
Act re price fixing, 1236. 



Pressure Vessels: 

Alta.— 
revised regulations under Boilers and Pres- 
sure Vessels Act, 88; new regulations 
under Part 1 of Boiler and Pressure 
Vessels Act, 1160; regulations re-issued 
under Boilers and Pressure Vessels Act 
governing pressure welders, 880. 

B.C.: amended regulations under Boiler and 
Pressure-Vessel Act, 299. 

N.B.: regulations under Stationary Engineers 
Act, 1042. 

Que.: new regulations under Pressure Ves- 
sels Act, 196. 

Sask.: amended regulations under Boiler 
and Pressure Vessel Act, 307, 554. 



Prevailing Rate Employees: 

Canada 

special leave provisions of Prevailing Rate 
Employees General Regulations, un- 
der Financial Administration Act, 
amended, 1582. 

amendment to Prevailing Rate Employees 
General Regulations under Financial 
Administration Act, 879. 

recommendation of C.C. of L., 45. 
N.B.: resolution adopted by Federation of 
Labour, 1254. 



Price Control: 



Argentina 



government decree bans price increases, 

377. 
86825— 6i 



United Kingdom 

gains from automation should be used to 
reduce consumer prices — report of 
T.U.C. on automation in offices, 798. 

U.S.A. 

pricing of automobiles according to sea- 
sonal demand, suggested, 794. 

price to farmer drops, handling costs of 
food rise, 160. 

See also Cost of living. 

Primary Textile Industry : 

Canada 
working conditions, April (1955), 432. 

Prince Edward Island Labour Council (C.C. 
of L.) : 

legislative proposals, 502. 

Printing and Publishing: 

Ont.— 
American Newspaper Guild will limit con- 
tracts between publishers and locals 
to two-year duration, 964. 

Printing Pressmen: 

Canada 

12th annual conference of Canadian Fed- 
eration of International Printing Press- 
men, 629. 



1 XXV] 



INDEX 



Printing Trade: 

55th convention of International Photo 
Engravers' Union of North America, 

llli. 
Ont.— 

12th annual conference of Ontario Federa- 
tion of Printing Trades Unions, 628. 

Private Investment: 

Investment. 

Product: 

See National Product. 

Productivity : 

resolutions adopted by productivity com- 
mittee at sixth regional conference of 
American states members of I.L.O., 
1401. 

Third International Congress of the Inter- 
national Catholic Secretariat for Tech- 
nologists, Agriculturists and Econo- 
mists, held at Montallegro, Italy, 376. 

Canada 

gross national product at record level in 

1955— D.B. of S., 369. 
C.M.A. brief to Gordon Commission, 389. 
B.C.: extracts from address by T. A. Rice, 

president, to British Columbia division 

of C.M.A, 513. 

United Kingdom 

output must keep pace with income rise, 
371. 

extracts from address on Automation and 
Higher Living Standards by President 
of the Institution of Production En- 
gineers, 256. 

Australia 

right economic climate needed for produc- 
tivity — Department of Labour Advi- 
sory Council, 376. 

Denmark 

sharing increased productivity benefits, 446. 

Italy 

Third International Congress of the Inter- 
national Catholic Secretariat for Tech- 
nologists, Agriculturists and Econo- 
mists, held at Montallegro, 376. 

U.S.A. 

"labour must share in fruits of progress" — 
I.A.M. president's address to Min- 
nesota Society of Industrial Engineers, 
514. 



Professional Association of Industrialists: 

proceedings of study meeting, 971. 
annual brief to Quebec Government, 1496. 

Professional Manpower: 

re first International Congress of Business 
and Professional Women, 631. 

Canada 

meetings of Advisory Committee on Pro- 
fessional Manpower, 391, 1517. 

statement of Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minis- 
ter of Labour, on activities concerning 
professional and technical manpower, 
803. 

National Conference of Canadian Univer- 
sities, 1526. 

"The Outlook for Professional Manpower" 
— extracts from address by J. P. Fran- 
cis, Department of Labour, to Advisory 
Committee on Professional Manpower, 
393. 

bulletin on women in science and engineer- 
ing prepared by Department of La- 
bour, 1535. 

real earnings of professional workers below 
those of wage-earners, 1359. 

Hansard reference, 802. 
Que.: legal recognition to women in two 
professions, 263. 

See also Manpower. 

Professional Women: 

See International Federation of Business 
and Professional Women. 



Profit-Sharing : 



Canada 



profit-sharing plans in manufacturing, 896. 

recommendation of National Association 
of Broadcast Employees and Techni- 
cians, 1365. 



United Kingdom 

summary of "Profit-Sharing and 
Partnership Schemes", 961. 



Co- 



Profits: 



Canada 



average profit of goods sold in manufac- 
turing industry in 1955, 1367. 

1955 corporation profits up 35 per cent 
after taxes, 491. 
Que.: proceedings of study meeting of Pro- 
fessional Association of Industrialists, 
971. 



INDEX 



LXXVII 



Projectionists: 

Alfa.— 
regulations under Alberta Amusements 

Act, 1290. 
Sask.: amended regulations under Theatres 

and Cinematographs Act, 562. 

Provincial Labour Code: 

Que. — 
provincial draft labour code prepared by 
Gerard Picard, President, C.C.C.L., 
1369. 

Prudential Insurance Company of America: 

extends age of retirement, 264. 

Public Assistance: 

See Unemployment Assistance. 



Public Employees: 



U.S.A. 



public employee unions merge — American 
Federation of State, County and 
Municipal Employees, and Govern- 
ment and Civic Employees Organizing 
Committee, 1232. 

Public Health: 

See Health. 

Public Investment: 

See Investment. 



Public Ownership: 



Canada 



International Railway Brotherhoods recom- 
mend public ownership and govern- 
ment control of radio broadcasting 
and telecasting, 55; reply of Prime 
Minister, 56. 
B.C.: resolution adopted by Federation of 
Labour (T. and L.C.) re B.C. Electric 
Company, 1489. 



Public Service — Con. 
Ont„: C.C. of L. approves merger of National 
Union of Public Service Employees 
and Ontario Hydro Electric Em- 
ployees' Association, 162. 
Sask.: recommendation of Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.) re Public Service 
Act and Regulations, 29. 



Public Utilities: 



Canada 



number of workers affected by collective 

agreements in Canada, 1955, 1564; in 

1946, 1953 and 1954, 83. 
distribution of agreements covering 1,000 

or more employees, 1284. 
working conditions in public utilities, 1052. 
C.L.C. to seek public ownership of, 644. 
B.C.: provisions of Order under Public 

Utilities Act, 1292. 

U.S.A. 

clauses to protect public utility workers 
against job displacement by automa- 
tion, won by two unions — Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Electrical Work- 
ers and Utility Workers Union of 
America, 953. 

Public Works: 

fifth session, I.L.O. Building, Civil En- 
gineering and Public Works Commit- 
tee, 847. 

Canada 

construction of public works projects con- 
tinues during winter, 153. 
program to aid seasonal unemployment 
commended by Canadian Federation 
of Mayors and Municipalities, 258. 
B.C.: resolution adopted by Federation of 

Labour (C.L.C), 1490. 
Que.: recommendation of C.C.C.L., 1395. 



Public Schools: 

See Schools. 

Public Service: 

Canada 

C.C. of L. approves merger of National 
Union of Public Service Employees 
and Ontario Hydro Electric Em- 
ployees' Association, 162. 

Hansard reference to five-day week in 
Public Service, 381; to Public Service 
Superannuation Act, 966. 



Publications : 

additional list of I.L.O. publications, 176. 

Canada 

publications in Library of federal Depart- 
ment of Labour— 110, 209, 320, 442, 
569, 745, 901, 1058, 1178, 1308, 1438, 
1595. 

annotated bibliography with some his- 
torical notes on guaranteed wages and 
supplemental unemployment benefits, 
(Canada and United States), 1244. 



LXXVIII 



INDEX 



Publications — I 
C m. 

material on automation in books and 
periodicals in Department of Labour 
Library. 569, 906. 

cted bibliography on labour literature 
(novels, plays, poetry) in Department 
of Labour Library, 1067. 

re publication of book Women at Work 
in Canada, by Women's Bureau, 
federal Department of Labour, 1362. 
Que.: The Asbestos Strike — publication of 
book on historic strike in 1949, 799. 

U.S.A. 

A Trade Union Library — revised edition 
published by Industrial Relations Sec- 
tion, Department of Economics and 
Sociology, Princeton University, 376. 

guide to labour union periodicals published 
by Cornell University, 1186. 

Pulp and Paper Industry: 

Canada 

wage increases and other benefits won by 
four paper manufacturing plants in 
two-year labour agreements, 369. 

convention proceedings of Quebec and 
Eastern Canada Council, International 
Brotherhood of Paper Mill Unions, 
375. 
B.C.: Labour-Management Safety Confer- 
ence held by paper industry, 374. 

U.S.A. 

two paperworkers' unions approve plan 
to merge, 1493. 

Punishment : 

See Capital Punishment. 

Pyke, Stephen T., Minister of Labour and 
Minister of Public Works (Nova 
Scotia) : 
appointment, 1495. 

Quarries : 

N.B.— 

regulations under Mining Act, 306. 

Quebec Federation of Industrial Unions: 

approval of merger agreement between 
Q.F.I.U. and Quebec Federation of 
Labour, 1384, 1385. 

Quebec Federation of Labour: 

19th annual convention, 1384. 

approval of merger agreement between 
Q.F.L. and Quebec Federation of 
industrial Unions, 1384, 1385. 



Quebec Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) : 

provincial legislative proposals, 28. 

Racial Discrimination : 

Canada 

report of Committee on human rights — 
resolutions drafted, and adopted at first 
constitutional convention of C.L.C., 
654. 



Radiation: 



U.S.A. 



N.Y. state adopts safety code dealing with 
radiation protection, 885. 

Radio Broadcasting: 

performers' rights convention drafted by 
group of I.L.O. experts, 1132. 

Canada 

Council of Broadcasting Unions (C.L.C.), 

formed, 964. 
affiliation agreement between Radio and 
Television Employees of Canada and 
National Association of Broadcast Em- 
ployees and Technicians, 163. 
International Railway Brotherhoods recom- 
mend public ownership and govern- 
ment control of radio broadcasting 
and telecasting, 55; reply of Prime 
Minister, 56. 
recommendations of C.C. of L., 46. 
legislative recommendations of T. and 
L.C, 41. 
B.C. ".regulations under Apprenticeship and 

Tradesmen's Qualification Act, 1290. 
Ont.: resolutions adopted by Federation of 

Labour (C.C. of L.), 284. 
Que.: resolutions adopted by C.C.C.L., 1395. 



Raiding: 



Canada 



C.B.R.E. given support in fight to repel 
U.M.W. raid of Montreal Transporta- 
tion Commission's workers' union, 163. 



Railways : 



Canada 



conciliation board in railway dispute fully 
constituted — appointment of concilia- 
tion officer by-passed, 20. 

Hansard references to dispute, 503, 632. 

railway employees should be allowed to 
strike if negotiations fail — Member of 
Parliament, 261. 



INDEX 



LXXIX 



Railways — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 

number of coal-burning steam locomotives 
in service, 325. 

1955 increase in net operating revenues of 
principal railway systems, 154. 

operating expenses rise faster than revenue 
in 1955, 499. 

gross revenues doubled from 1954, 20. 

number of employees in 1954, 20. 

employees' earnings in 1954, 20. 

employment and earnings in 1954 and 
1953, 95. 

locomotive firemen (railway and harbour 
board) seek wage increase and other 
fringe benefits, 153. 

wage increase sought by Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Engineers (C.N.R.), 369; 
and by Brotherhood of Railroad Train- 
men, 261. 

resolutions adopted at triennial conference 
of C.B.R.E., 1236. 

unification of railway running trades with 
C.L.C. — resolution adopted at first 
constitutional convention of C.L.C, 
650. 

Dominion legislative proposals of Inter- 
national Railway Brotherhoods, 52. 

amendments to Railway Act re grade 
crossings, commended by International 
Railway Brotherhoods; other requests, 
54; recommendations of Brotherhoods 
re national transportation policy, 54; 
reply of Prime Minister, 56. 

legislative requests of T. and L.C., 40; 
reply of Prime Minister, 41-42. 

retirement of U. W. Carpenter, and elec- 
tion of 0. J. Travis, as senior grand 
officers, Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers, 962. 
B.C.: Supreme Court holds crew's refusal to 
cross picket line does not excuse rail- 
way's breach of statutory duties, 726. 
Ont.: Federation of Labour (C.C. of L.) 
criticizes federal Government for cur- 
rent railway dispute, 283. 

United Kingdom 
rail workers granted wage increase, 153. 

U.S.A. 

eleven railway unions sign 3-year agree- 
ment, 1497. 

wage increases granted railway employees, 
20, 261. 

Supreme Court rules that union shop 
agreement under Railway Labour Act 
not invalidated by "right-to-work" law, 
1035. 

railway union shops valid — Supreme Court, 
621. 



Rand Formula: 

Alta.'— 

recommendation of Federation of Labour, 
1262. 



Real Estate: 



Canada 



number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada, 1955, 1565. 

Canadian Association of Real Estate 
Boards urges establishment of educa- 
tion mortgage plan, 1232. 
Ont.: re licensing of women as real estate 
brokers, 1537. 

Recovery of Wages: 

See Wages. 

Reed, G. W. T., Vice-chairman, Ontario Labour 
Relations Board: 
appointment, 1495. 

Refrigeration Trade: 

B.C.— 
regulations under Apprenticeship and 
Tradesmen's Qualification Act, 424. 

Rehabilitation : 

rehabilitation in Europe studied by On- 
tario officials, 27. 

Conference of World Organizations In- 
terested in the Handicapped — resolu- 
tions adopted, etc., 410. 

Canada 

meeting of National Advisory Committee 
on Rehabilitation of Disabled Per- 
sons, 1397. 

how rehabilitation pays — progress of 
federal-provincial programs, 173. 

Atlantic Region Rehabilitation Work- 
shop — first meeting, 837. 

handicapped only, employed by Montreal 
firm, 532. 

The Community and the Rehabilitation 
of its Disabled Citizens — address by 
Dr. F. H. Krusen, Mayo Clinic and 
Mayo Foundation, at inauguration of 
campaign to raise funds for Rehabili- 
tation Institute of Montreal, 285. 

activities of Unlimited Skills Incorporated, 
Montreal, 1537. 

construction of rehabilitation centres pro- 
ceeding, 532. 

need for education of handicapped per- 
sons, 532. 

posters to encourage employment of handi- 
capped persons, displayed, 532. 



LXXX 



INDEX 



Rehabilitation — Con. 

oada. — Con. 

extracts from address of National Co-or- 
dinator, Civilian Rehabilitation, before 
Toilet Goods Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion, Montreal. 173. 

report of National Co-ordinator of Civilian 
Rehabilitation to 23rd meeting of 
Vocational Training Advisory Coun- 
cil, 277. 

recommendation of International Railway 
Brotherhoods, 55. 

Hansard reference, 383. 
Alta.: activities of clinic for rehabilitation of 
injured workmen, opened by Work- 
men's Compensation Board, 1397. 

Ont.: regulations under Rehabilitation Serv- 
ices Act, 553; allowances to handi- 
capped persons granted by provincial 
government, 159; rehabilitation in 
Europe studied by Ontario officials, 27. 

United Kingdom 

Services for the Disabled — booklet pub- 
lished by Standing Committee on the 
Rehabilitation and Settlement of Dis- 
abled Persons, 24. 

U.S.A. 

increase in employment of phj r sically- 
handicapped workers, 25. 

planning rehabilitation programs for dis- 
abled persons, 1538. 

"Understanding the Disabled" — booklet 
designed to teach children to adopt 
proper attitude to disabled persons. 
1129. 



Reinstatement : 

Sask.— 

Court of Appeal rules Labour Relations 
Board cannot order the conditional 
reinstatement of discharged employee, 
1031. 



Representation : 

Ont,— 
Provincial Federation of Labour (T. and 
L.C.) urges amendment to Industrial 
Standards Act, 502. 

Representation Votes: 

Ont.— 
Bill to amend Labour Relations Act re 
representation vote, not passed, 1412. 
See also Legal Decisions. 



Research : 



Canada 



engineer shortage slows atomic power- 
program, 958. 

research projects discussed at 23rd meeting 
of Vocational Training Advisory Coun- 
cil, 276. 

1956 research grants under Labour Depart- 
ment-University Research Program, 
834. 



Rest Periods 



Canada 



plant employees in establishments report- 
ing rest periods, 1303, 1304. 
Alta.: resolution adopted by Federation of 
Labour re weekly rest, 1263. 



Retail Trade: 



Canada 



Supreme Court of Canada finds that legis- 
lation requiring retail stores to Observe 
Holy Days is beyond provincial 
powers, 417. 

Ont.: re inclusion of retail trade em- 
ployees under Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Board, 1422. 

Que.: Supreme Court of Canada finds that 
legislation requiring retail stores to 
observe Holy Days is beyond provin- 
cial powers, 417. 



Religious Discrimination: 

Canada 

report of committee on human rights — 
resolutions drafted, and adopted at first 
constitutional convention of C.L.C., 
654. 

Religious Holidays: 

Que.— 

Roman Catholics may work on Holy Days, 
1361. 



Retarded Children: 

See Handicapped Persons. 

Retirement : 

Prudential Insurance Company of America 
extends age of retirement, 264. 

Canada 

one-half retired persons prefer to con- 
tinue working, 799. 

retirement should be voluntary — D.V.A. 
doctor, 375. 



INDEX 



Retirement — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 
"Women go to Work at any Age" — panel 

discussion sponsored by five women's 

service clubs in Toronto metropolitan 

area, 806. 
Prudential Insurance Company of America 

extends age of retirement, 264. 
retirement counselling program for em- 
ployees of Swift Canadian Co. Ltd., 

374. 
Hansard reference re automatic retirement 

at 65 years, 167; to Public Service 

Superannuation Act, 966. 
resolutions adopted, and defeated, at first 

constitutional convention of C.L.C., 

653. 

U.S.A. 

inadequate disability retirement provisions, 

446. 
Prudential Insurance Company of America 

extends age of retirement, 264. 
A Study of Industrial Retirement Plans — 

1956 Edition, 1112. 



Revenue : 



Canada 



operating revenues of Canadian railways 

in 1955, 154, 499. 
gross revenues of Canadian railways 

doubled from 1954, 20. 

Rice, T. A., President, Canadian Manufac- 
turers' Association: 

presidential address at 85th annual general 
meeting, 814. 

address before British Columbia division 
of C.M.A., 513. 

"must show shoppers Canadian goods 
best" — extracts from address at Owen 
Sound, Ontario, 379. 

Right of Association: 

Canada 
recommendation of C.C.C.L., 51. 

Right to Strike: 

See Strikes and Lockouts. 



Right-to- Work: 



U.S.A. 



Supreme Court rules that union shop 
agreement under Railway Labour Act 
not invalidated by "right-to-work" law, 
1035. 

campaigns forbidding compulsory union 
membership agreements planned by 
National "Right-to-Work" Committee, 



Rights of Performers: 

See Performers' Rights. 

Ross, S. R., Supervisor of Trade Training, 
Department of Labour: 
remarks at joint meeting of Apprentice- 
ship Training Advisory Committee 
with provincial Directors of Appren- 
ticeship, 399. 

Royal Commissions: 

T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. Brief to Royal 
Commission on Canada's Economic 
Prospects, 384. 

Royce, Miss Marion V., Director, Women's 
Bureau, Federal Department of La- 
bour: 
"Women go to Work at Any Age" — intro- 
duction to panel discussion sponsored 
by five women's service clubs in 
Toronto metropolitan area, 806. 

Rubber Footwear: 

Canada 

extinction of rubber footwear industry 
foreseen unless imports checked, 259. 

Russia: 

work week reduced from 48 to 46 hours, 
377. 

Safety: 

report of I.L.O. Building, Civil Engineer- 
ing and Public Works Committee, 847. 

Canada 

safety program in force on St. Lawrence 
Power Project, 1500. 

Alta.: recommendations of Alberta Federa- 
tion of Labour, 1261. 

B.C.: amendments to safety provisions in 
Metalliferous Mines Regulation Act, 
724 ; accident-prevention regulations 
for oil and gas well-drilling, etc., under 
Workmen's Compensation Act, 881 ; 
Labour-Management Safety Confer- 
ence held by paper industry, 374; 
Recommended Practices for Safe Shor- 
ing of Excavations — booklet issued by 
Workmen's Compensation Board, 886. 

Man.: amended provisions of Electricians 
Licence Act and Manitoba Power 
Commission Act, 1152; amended pro- 
visions of Elevator and Hoist Act, 
724 ; regulations under Building Trades 
Protection Act re prevention of acci- 
dents in construction and excavation 
work, 1039. 



LXXXII 



INDEX 



Safety — Con. 

NJB.: regulations under Mining Act, 305; 
recommendation of Federation of La- 
bour re safety standards for the con- 
struction industry, 1254. 

X.S.: provisions of Elevators and Lifts Act, 
723, 1026. 

Ont.: amended provisions of Mining Act, 
1411: annual safety conference of 
I. A .P. A., 800. 

Que.: special regulations under Industrial 
and Commercial Establishments Act 
governing safety of employees in con- 
struction and excavation work, 1293; 
regulations under Mining Act provide 
for establishment of mine rescue sta- 
tions, 883. 

United Kingdom 

1954 report of Chief Inspector of Factories, 
527. 

U.S.A. 

New York state adopts safety code dealing 
with radiation protection, 885. 

St. Laurent, Rt. Hon. Louis, Prime Minister 
of Canada: 
reply to Dominion legislative proposals 
of C.C.C.L., 51. 

address at first convention of Canadian 
Labour Congress, 638. 

reply to legislative proposals — C.C. of L., 
47; National Legislative Committee 
of International Railway Brother- 
hoods, 55; T. and L.C., 41. 

St. Lawrence Seaway: 

importance of three organizations in con- 
struction of Canada's share of St. 
Lawrence Seaway and St. Lawrence 
Power Projects — Central Hiring Bur- 
eau, 1498; Labour Relations Associa- 
tion, 1498, 1501; Allied Construction 
Council, 1498. 

winter employment of 75 per cent of 
labour force on St. Lawrence Seaway, 
predicted, 17. 

resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C., 656. 



Salaries: 



Canada 



average annual salaries and wages of 

railway employees in 1954 and 1953, 95. 
average weekly salaries for selected office 

occupations, in four cities, October 

1955, 1302. 
police constables, fire fighters and labourers 

in municipal government service, 563 



Salaries — Con . 

Canada. — Con. 

increase in industrial employment, payrolls 
and average weekly wages and salaries 
in 1955 — D.B. of S. annual review of 
employment and payrolls, 1367. 

''Compensation of Office Workers in 1955" 
— summary of article prepared by 
Steinberg's Limited, Montreal, 498. 
Nfld. : salary increase for civil servants sought 
in resolution adopted by Federation 
of Labour, 1007. 

U.S.A. 

office workers' salaries rise faster than 
plant workers, 1118. 

Sales Tax: 

N.B.— 

resolution adopted by Federation of La- 
bour, 1254. 

"Sandwich" Courses: 

United Kingdom 

development of "sandwich" courses in 
technical education, 1231. 

Saskatchewan Federation of Labour (C.C. 
of L.) : 

provincial legislative proposals, 29. 

seeks merger with Saskatchewan Provin- 
cial Federation of Labour (T. and 
L.C.), 30. 

merger with Saskatchewan Provincial 
Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.), 
1492. 

Saskatchewan Federation of Labour (C. 
L.C.) : 

unity convention, 1492. 

Saskatchewan Provincial Federation of La- 
bour (T. and L.C.) : 

annual convention, 30. 
merger with Saskatchewan Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.), 1492. 

Scaffolding: 

Man — 
regulations under Building Trades Protec- 
tion Act re prevention of accidents in 
construction and excavation work, 
1039, 1041. 



INDEX 



Scholarships: 

N.B.— 

resolution adopted at convention of Fed- 
eration of Labour, 1254. 

United Kingdom 

increase in number of state scholarships 
granted, to ease shortage of tech- 
nologists, 796. 

Schools: 

Man- 
amended provisions of Public Schools Act, 
723, 1147-48. 
Ont.: school for advanced technical training 
to be established in Ottawa area, 1495. 
See also Technical Schools; Vocational 
Schools. 

Scientific Manpower: 

Canada 

Advisory Committee on Professional Man- 
power convened to study subject of 
professional and scientific manpower, 
254. 

National Conference on Engineering, 
Scientific and Technical Manpower, 
1520. 

automation a stumbling block to scien- 
tists and engineers — Assistant Superin- 
tendent of Ontario Secondary Schools, 
623. 

continued shortage of scientists and engi- 
neers will handicap Canada's economic 
and scientific development, 494. 

bulletin on women in science and engineer- 
ing prepared by Department of La- 
bour, 1535. 

effects of automation on Canadian em- 
ployment — comments of University of 
Chicago scientist, 257. 
Ont.: automation a stumbling block to scien- 
tists and engineers — Assistant Superin- 
tendent of Ontario Secondary Schools, 
623. 

See also Manpower. 



Seamen: 



Canada 



Hansard reference to seamen's strike on 
Great Lakes, 633. 

Seasonal Unemployment: 

Canada 

annual campaign of Federal Department 

of Labour, 1368. 
seasonal unemployment reduced by N.E.S. 

and Depnrtment of Labour campaign, 

960. 



Seasonal Unemployment — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 

plan now for building next winter — 
extracts from address of president, 
Canadian Construction Association, 
800. 

CM. A. brief to Gordon Commission, 389. 

proceedings of Laval University's 11th 
annual industrial relations convention, 
671. 

progress in battle against seasonal unem- 
ployment reported by N.E.S. , 519. 

members of working committee on sea- 
sonal unemployment established by 
Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of 
Labour, 519. 

federal program to aid seasonal unem- 
ployment commended by Canadian 
Federation of Mayors and Municipali- 
ties, 258. 
B.C.: extracts from address by T. A. Rice, 
president, to British Columbia division 
of C.M.A., 513. 

Scandinavia 

seasonal employment fluctuations in build- 
ing industry in Sweden, Norway and 
Denmark, 1370. 



The Senate: 



Canada 



inquiry by Senate Committee into sale of 
government annuities, suggested, 262. 

recommendation of Canadian Federation 
of Business and Professional Women, 
1001. 

Seniority : 

Canada 

General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement following 
lengthy strike, 279. 

Service Stations: 

Man — 

Court of Appeal upholds validity of 
Winnipeg by-law requiring service 
stations to close Sunday for part of 
year, 1156. 

Sask.: payment of overtime rates to em- 
ployees in garages and automobile 
service stations provided under Hours 
of Work Act, 1585. 



Services : 



Canada 



number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada, 1955, 1565; in 
1946, 1953 and 1954, 83. 

distribution of agreements covering 1,000 
or more employees, 1284. 



INDEX 



Settlements: 



Agreements. 



Severance Pai : 



U.S.A. 



legal decisions on payment of severance 
pay and jobless benefits, 1266. 

Shoot Metal Trade: 

Alta.— 
amended regulations under Apprenticeship 
Act, 193, 1160. 

Sask.: amended regulations under Appren- 
ticeship and Tradesmen's Qualifica- 
tion Act, 1294. 

Shift Premium: 

See Premium Pav. 



Shift Work: 



Canada 



shift work in Canadian manufacturing, 
894; in public utilities, 1055. 



Shipbuilding: 



Canada 



"Large Fishing Vessel Inspection Regula- 
tions" under Canada Shipping Act, 
1159. 

C.L.C. shipbuilding unions adopt common 
wage policy, 963. 
Que.: recommendation of C.C.C.L. re labour- 
management relations, 1395. 

Shipping: 

ratification of I.L.O. Convention concern- 
ing food and catering for crews on 
board ship, 1541. 

Canada 

examination of engineers' regulations under 
Canada Shipping Act, amended, 1582. 

Ships' Officers Regulations under Financial 
Administration Act re vacation and 
special leave, amended, 1582. 

agreement reached between Association of 
Lake Carriers and employees (Great 
Lakes and St. Lawrence shipping), 626. 

Hansard reference to seamen's strike on 
Great Lakes, 633. 
X.S.: recommendation of Federation of La- 
bour, 1492. 
P.E.I. : recommendation of Labour Council 
(C.C. of L.) re drydock facilities, 503. 

U.S.A. 

recommendation of A.F. of L.-C.I.O., 60. 



Shops : 

B.C.— 

regulations under Factories Act and Shops 
Regulation and Weekly Holiday Act, 
1162. 

Man.: Court of Appeal upholds validity of 
Winnipeg by-law requiring service 
stations to close Sunday for part of 
year, 1156. 

Nfld.: regulations under St. John's Shops 
Act, 1044. 

Showier, Birt, M.B.E., former Vice-president, 
T. and L.C.: 
death of, 159. 



Sick Leave: 



Canada 



sickness absence provisions for employees 
in motor vehicles and parts industry, 
107; in public utilities, 1052. 
Alta.: Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 
requests amendment to Labour Act, 
266. 

Sickness Disability: 

See Health Insurance. 

Sinclair, Hon. James, Minister of Fisheries: 
on encouragement of skilled immigrants 
from U.S.A., 1357. 



Skilled Labour: 



Canada 



apprentices, immigrants and older workers, 
needed to relieve manpower shortage, 
1232. 

Canada seeking skilled immigrants from 
United States, 1357. 

lack of trained workers delays automa- 
tion — article published in Toronto 
Telegram, 954. 

recommendations of Canadian Construc- 
tion Association in brief to federal 
Cabinet, 398. 

Hansard reference to professional and tech- 
nical manpower, 802. 
Ont.: apprentices, immigrants and older 
workers, needed to relieve manpower 
shortage, 1232. 

United Kingdom 

development of "sandwich" courses in 
technical education, 1231. 

U.S.A. 

Canada seeking skilled immigrants from 

United States, 1357. 
shortage of skilled workers reported, 163. 
development of skilled manpower, urged 

by Assistant to Secretary of Labour, 

1109. 



INDEX 



LXXXV 



Small Loans Act: 

Hansard reference, 504. 

Smelters : 

B.C.— 

amendments to safety provisions in Metal- 
liferous Mines Regulation Act, 724. 

Social Assistance: 

Nfld.— 

amended regulations under Social Assist- 
ance Act, 734. 
N.S.: provisions of Social Assistance Act, 
1028. 



Social Security: 



Canada 



proceedings of Employer-Emploj^ee Rela- 
tions Conference, 85th annual meeting 
of C.M.A., 989. 

statement by Gerard Picard, General Presi- 
dent, C.C.C.L., before the Gordon 
Commission, 390. 

recommendations of C.C.C.L., 50; reply of 
Prime Minister, 52. 

recommendations of C.C. of L., 45. 

C.L.C. to seek comprehensive system, etc., 
644; resolutions adopted at first con- 
stitutional convention, 651. 

recommendations of International Railway 
Brotherhoods, 53. 

Hansard reference, 267. 

India 

extension of scheme — Employees Provident 
Funds Act; Compulsory Contributory 
Provident Fund; Employees State 
Insurance Act, 1117. 



Social "Welfare: 



Canada 



proceedings of Canadian Conference on 
Social Work, 1127. 

industrialization's impact studied at con- 
ference arranged by School of Social 
Work, University of Toronto, 1366. 

Society for Advancement of Management: 

texts of papers on automation delivered 
at Montreal meeting of Society by 
Parliamentary Assistant to Minister 
of Defence Production, and Public 
Relations Director, U.S.W.A., 497. 



Solanclt, Dr. O. M., former Chairman, Defence 
Research Board: 
tells press conference shortage of engineers 
and scientists critical problem in Cana- 
dian scientific and economic develop- 
ment, 494. 

Speech from the Throne: 

extracts from Hansard, 164. 

Spray Painting: 

Man — 

regulations under Factories Act, 551. 

Standard of Living: 

Canada 

Working and Living Conditions in Canada 
— 5th edition prepared by Department 
of Labour, 257. 

Standard Work Week: 

See Hours of Work. 



Standards : 



Canada 



recommendation of C.C. of L. re establish- 
ment of federal Bureau of Standards, 
47. 

See also Safety. 

State Scholarships: 

See Scholarships. 

Stationary Engineers: 

N.B.— 

regulations under Stationary Engineers 
Act, 1042; recommendation of Federa- 
tion of Labour re Stationary Engineers 
Act, 1254. 
N.S.: amendment to Engine Operators Act, 
1028. 

See also Minimum Wages. 

Statistics, Dominion Bureau of: 

appointment of Walter E. Duffett as 
Dominion Statistician, 1234. 

increase in industrial employment, pay- 
rolls and average weekly wages and 
salaries in 1955 — D.B. of S. annual 
review of employment and payrolls, 
1367. 

results of study of data relating to Cana- 
dians born in United States, 1357. 

release of annual report on benefit years 
under terms of Unemployment Insur- 
ance Act, 1493. 

gross national product at record level in 
1955— D.B. of S., 369. 



INDEX 



Statistics, Dominion Bureau of — Con. 

Private and Public Investment in Canada: 
Outlook, 1056— prepared jointly by 
D.B. of S. and Department of Trade 
and Commerce, 253. 

publication of industrial productivity statis- 
tics urged by C.C.C.L., 1395. 

Statutory Holidays : 

U.S.A. 

provisions of new agreement reached 
between steel companies and United 
Steelworkers, 956. 



Storage: 



Canada 



number of workers effected by collective 
agreements in Canada, 1955, 1564 ; in 
1946. 1953 and 1954, 82. 



Strike Benefits: 



U.S.A. 



increase in strike benefits approved at 
convention of International Associa- 
tion of Machinists, 1365. 



Steam Locomotives: 

See Railways. 

Steamfitting: 

Alta.— 
regulations under Tradesmen's Qualifica- 
tion Act re certificates of proficiency, 
730. 

Steel Company of Canada: 

Stelco and steelworkers (Hamilton) sign 
two-year contract providing wage 
increases and fringe benefits, 956. 



Steel Industry: 



Canada 



61-cent package won by employees of 
Marmoraton Mining Company, Mar- 
mora, Ont., members of U.S.W.A., 1111. 

policy conference, Canadian district, 
U.S.W.A., 624. 

U.S.A. 

three-year no-strike pact ends steel strike — 
provisions of new contract, 956. 

s.u.b. plans amended by new three-year 
agreements between American Can 
Company and Continental Can Com- 
pany, and the United Steelworkers, 
1365. 

convention of United Steel Workers of 
America, 1237. 

See also Steel Company of Canada. 

Stewart, Dr. Bryce M., former Deputy Minis- 
ter, Federal Department of Labour: 
death of, 1494. 

Stewart, Charles D., United States Depart- 
ment of Labour: 
implications of technological progress — text 
of address by Deputy Assistant Secre- 
tary for Standards and Statistics, U.S. 
Department of Labour, C.A.A.L.L., 
1375. 



Strikes and Lockouts: 

Canada 

General Motors strike — provisions of new 
agreement, 277-79. 

railway employees should be allowed to 
strike if negotiations fail — Member of 
Parliament, 261. 

agreement reached between Association of 
Lake Carriers and employees (Great 
Lakes and St. Lawrence shipping), 626. 

resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C. re compulsory 
arbitration, 648. 

legislative requests of T. and L.C., 40; 
reply of Prime Minister, 41-42. 

Hansard reference to seamen's strike on 
Great Lakes, 633. 
Alta.: Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 
requests amendment to Labour Act, 
266. 
Ont.: mass overtime refusal while negotia- 
tions in progress, ruled illegal strike, 
1116; unions may seek legislation per- 
mitting right to strike during life of 
agreement, 21 ; resolutions adopted by 
Federation of Labour (C.C. of L.), re 
General Motors strike, 283 ; re eviction 
of strikers, 284. 
Que.: The Asbestos Strike — publication of 
book on historic strike in 1949, 799; 
Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 
requests right to strike when em- 
ployer does not bargain in good faith, 
28. 

United Kingdom 

"first automation strike" ends — walkout 
of employees of Standard Motor Com- 
pany, Coventry, when men laid off for 
plant conversion, 622. 

walkout of workers at Rolls-Royce plant. 
22. 



INDEX 



Strikes and Lockouts — Con. 

U.S.A. 

three-year no-strike pact ends steel strike — 
provisions of new contract, 956. 

seven-year no-strike pact signed by four 
locals of International Brotherhood of 
Teamsters and Coca-Cola Bottling 
Company, 799. 

local that violates no-strike edict of Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Teamsters 
within New York state council area 
liable to fine, 886. 

Classification by Industries: 

Construction — buildings and structures — 
asbestos insulation mechanics and 

improvers, Ontario, 933, 1089. 
bricklayers and stonemasons and appren- 
tices, Prince Albert and Saskatoon, 

933. 
building trades workers, Burlington, Ont., 

469; Windsor, 350, 468. 
carpenters, Dryden, 135, 234; Kitimat, 

1338; Quirke Lake, Ont., 1212; 

Saanich, B.C., 595; Vernon, 933. 
electricians and helpers, Halifax, 1464; 

Kamloops, 1628; Kitimat, B.C., 1464, 

1627; Montreal, 1464. 
labourers, Hamilton, 773, 774; Kitchener, 

1091; St. John's, Nfld., 1338; Sydnev, 

N.S., 1338. 
painters, London, 595, 772. 
plasterers, Hamilton, 1338, 1462; Oshawa, 

1212. 
plumbers and steamfitters, Port Alberni, 

B.C., 1338; Southwestern Ontario, 

1091, 1209; Windsor, 1338. 
power machine operators, Ottawa, 933, 

1089. 
power machine operators, labourers and 

truck drivers, Clarkson, Ont., 1464. 
truck drivers, Kitimat, B.C., 1212. 
Construction — canal, harbour, waterway — 

labourers, Cornwall, 1338. 
Construction — highway — 

labourers, Swansea, 1464. 
Construction — miscellaneous — 
gas pipeline machine operators and 

labourers, Kamloops, 774. 
pipe line construction machine operators 

and mechanics, Hope, B.C., 1628. 
tunnel, dam and road construction workers, 

Garibaldi, Squamish and West Portal, 

B.C., 1465, 1627. 
Logging— 
bush workers, Cochrane, 350, 467; Fort 

William, 1089; Marathon, 1336; 

Mattice, 350, 467, 593. 
loggers, Gordon River, B.C., 1209, 1334; 

Kelsey Bav, B.C., 1463; Timmins, 468, 

593. 



Strikes and Lockouts — Con. 
Classification by Industries— Con. 

Manufacturing — boots and shoes (leather) — 
shoe factory workers, L'Assomption, Que., 

1463, 1625; Montreal, 468, 593; 

Quebec, Que., 1463, 1625. 
Manufacturing — fur and leather products — 
fur dressers and dyers, Toronto, 594, 931. 
fur factory workers, Toronto, 931. 
Manufacturing — metal products — 
agricultural implement factory workers, 

Hamilton, 932, 933, 
aircraft engine factory workers, Malton, 

932. 
aircraft factory workers, Downsview 

(Toronto), 133. 
auto parts factory workers, Windsor, 234. 
die casting factory workers, Hamilton, 

1090; Wallaceburg, 933, 1088, 1209. 
electric motor factory workers, St. Thomas, 

933. 
electrical apparatus factory workers, 

Brockville, 1338, 1462; Pembroke, 773, 

931. 1088; St. Catharines, 1090, 1464, 

1626; Toronto, 932, 1088, 1209, 1335, 

1462. 
electro-plating factory workers, Hamilton, 

1338, 1462, 1626. 
electronic equipment factory workers, 

Montreal, 933. 
farm machinery factory workers, Guelph, 

773. 
foundry workers, Port Colborne, 1463, 

1626; Vancouver, 1337. 
furnace factory workers, Toronto, 1628. 
hydraulic equipment factory workers, 

Montreal, 1337, 1462, 1626. 
machine and tool factory workers, Mont- 
real, 932. 
machinery factory workers, Lachine, 469, 

593. 
metal pad factory workers, Hamilton, 

1338, 1462, 1626. 
metal products factory workers, Tilbury, 

594. 
metal stamping factory workers, LaSalle, 

Ont., 135, 233. 
motor truck factory office workers, 

Chatham, Ont., 133, 233. 
motor vehicle and parts, diesel locomo- 
tive, stove, refrigerator and air 

conditioning factory workers, London, 

Oshawa, St. Catharines, Toronto, and 

Windsor, 133, 233, 349, 467. 
motor vehicle factory workers, Windsor, 

135, 1090, 1464, 1626. 
motor vehicle parts factory workers, 

Windsor, 135. 
nickel and copper smelter mill workers, 

Copper Cliff,. 1090. 
nickel smelter workers, Port Colborne, 

1337. 



LXXX V 1 1 1 



INDEX 



Strikes and lookouts — Con. 

jsification by Industries — Con. 
power saw factory workers. Toronto, 594, 
772. 

I fabricators and erectors, Windsor, 

L463, 1626. 

I fabricators and erectors and mining 

machinery factory workers, London, 

Port Robinson and Welland, 134, 233, 

349. 467. 

1 mill workers, Hamilton, 1211, 1335. 
structural steel fabricators, Sault Ste. 

Marie, 133, 233, 349, 467, 593, 772. 
structural steel fabricators and erectors, 

Windsor, 1090. 
structural steel fabricators and erectors, 

and mining machinery, factory workers, 

London, Port Robinson and Welland, 

134, 349. 
washing machine and boiler factory 

workers, Toronto, 134, 1211, 1464, 1626. 
wire and cable factory workers, Guelph, 

1211, 1335; Toronto, 133, 233, 349. 
Manufacturing — miscellaneous products — 

boat builders, Bracebridge, 773. 

chrome furniture factory workers, 
Toronto, 135, 234, 349, 468. 

pipe line construction welders, Mer- 
ritt, B.C., 1464. 
Manufacturing — miscellaneous wood 

products — 
furniture factory workers, Meaford, 133. 
lumber mill workers, .. St. John's West, 

Nfld., 932. 
planing mill workers, Marlboro, Kinuso, 

Barrhead and Blueridge, Alta., 1337, 

1462, 1626; Trois Pistoles, Que., 1337. 
sash and door factory workers, Lambton, 

Que., 1211, 1335. 
saw, shingle and plywood mill fire- 
men, helpers and engineers, British 

Columbia, 135. 
sawmill truck drivers, Duncan, B.C., 773. 
sawmill workers, Cache Bay, Ont., 1211, 

1335; Field, Ont., 1211, 1335; Hearst, 

Ont., 1337; Timmins, Ont., 1211; 

Vavenby, B.C., 1090, 1209, 1335; Wasa, 

B.C., 469; Whonnock, B.C., 773. 
veneer and hardwood flooring factory 

workers, Woodstock, 133. 
Manufacturing — non-metallic minerals, 

chemicals, etc.— 
chemical factory workers, Palo, Sask., 134, 

233, 349, 467, 593, 772, 931. 
concrete block and sewer pipe factory 

workers, Ottawa, 1628. 
explosives factory workers, Nobel, 1091. 
fibrous glass factory workers, Sarnia, 134, 

233. 
glass factory workers, Toronto, 773. 
paint factory workers, Brantford, 933. 



Strikes and Lockouts — Con. 
Classification by Industries— Con. 

resin and plastic factory workers, 

Shawinigan Falls, 1464, 1627. 
soap factory workers, Toronto, 595. 
Manufacturing — printing and publishing — 
newspaper printing plant workers, Mont- 
real, 133. 
plate printers, Ottawa, 932. 
printing plant workers, Toronto, 1337, 

1462, 1626. 
Manufacturing — pulp, paper and paper 

products — 
paper products factory workers, Hamilton, 

594. 
machinists, Corner Brook, Nfld., 594. 
pulp and paper mill workers, Jonquiere, 

Kenogami and River Bend, 932. 
pulp mill workers, Watson Island, B.C., 

1211, 1334. 
Manufacturing — rubber and its products — 
rubber products factory workers, Toronto, 

594. 
tire factory workers, Hamilton, 1090; 

Toronto, 1089. 
Manufacturing — shipbuilding — 

shipyard workers, Sorel, 1211, 1335. 
Manufacturing — textiles, clothing, etc. — 
blanket factory workers, Brantford, 1090. 
carpet factory workers, Brantford, 1337, 

1461, 1625. 
children's clothing factory workers, Joliette, 

1211. 
cotton and woollen yarn factory workers, 

Hamilton, 468. 
cotton factory maintenance men, Welland, 

773. 
cotton factory workers, Cornwall, 594; 

Drummondville, 234, 349, 773, 931, 

1088; Magog, 350, 467, 931, 1088; 

Sherbrooke, 350, 467, 932, 1088; Ville 

Montmorency, 932, 1088. 
cotton, jute and paper bag factory 

workers, Vancouver, 1210, 1334, 1461, 

1625. 
hosiery factory workers, London, 1090; 

St. Jean, Que., 1210, 1334, 1461, 1625; 

Sherbrooke, 1211, 1334, 1461. 
knitting goods factory workers, Berthier- 

ville, 1090, 1209. 
loom fixers, Cornwall, 1210. 
men's clothing factory workers, Montreal, 

469; Sherbrooke, 134. 
textile and knitted goods factory workers, 

St. Jerome, 1337, 1461, 1626. 
textile factory workers, Cornwall, 1210; 

Montmagny, Que., 1211, 1334, 1461, 

1625; Ste. Rose, Que., 1337, 1461, 1625. 
textile weavers, Cornwall, 932, 1090. 



INDEX 



LXXXIX 



Strikes and Lockouts — Con. 
Classification by Industries— Con. 
Manufacturing — tobacco and liquors — 
brewery workers, Timmins, 1210, 1334. 
cigar and cigarette factory workers, Mont- 
real, 1628. 

Manufacturing — vegetable foods, etc. — 
bakery workers, Vernon, B.C., 931, 1088. 
biscuit factory workers, Pictou, 134. 
flour mill workers, Humberstone, Ont., 

1336, 1461, 1625. 
food processing factory workers, Chatham, 

1336; Essex, 1463. 
sugar refinery workers, Saint John, 234. 
Mining — 
coal miners, Gardiner Mines, N.S., 1210; 

Glace Bay, 931, 1336, 1628; Glace Bay 

and district, 1628; Macmine, Alta., 

1463; New Waterford, N.S., 1089; 

Springhill, 468, 1336, 1628; Thorburn, 

N.S., 931. 
coal strippers, Minto, 1089. 
copper miners, Levack, Ont., 773. 
fluorspar miners, St. Lawrence, Nfld., 468, 

593. 
gold miners, Sullivan, Que., 1210, 1334, 

1461, 1625. 
gypsum quarry workers, Hantsport and 

Wentworth, N.S., 134, 233. 
iron miners, Marmora, 1209, 1334. 
lead and zinc miners, Ainsworth, B.C., 

594, 772, 931, 1088. 
lithium miners, Barraute, Que., 1210. 
silver miners, Cobalt, 1336, 1461. 
uranium miners and processors, Algoma 

Mills, Ont., 1210. 
Service — business and personal — 
beverage room employees, Toronto, 1629. 
dry cleaners and launderers, Petawawa, 

595. 
garage mechanics and helpers, Courtenay, 

B.C., 1339, 1463, 1628; Montreal, 1212; 

St. Catharines, 1212, 1336; Victoria, 

1465. 
hotel employees, Leamington, 1212, 1336, 

1463, 1627. 
laundry workers and dry cleaners, Monc- 

ton, 1091, 1209. 
Trade — 
brewery warehouse and retail stores clerks, 

Windsor, 1212. 
builders supplies jobbers, Jasper Place, 

Alta., 1465, 1627. 
butchers, Joliette, 1465, 1627. 
dairy workers and route salesmen, Chat- 
ham and Wallaceburg, 135; Pembroke, 

1091. 
department store clerks, Sudbury, 1465, 

1627. 
department store employees, Grand Falls, 

Nfld., 774. 



Strikes and Lockouts — Con. 
Classification by Industries — Con. 

lumber jobbers, Fort William and Port 

Arthur, 1465. 
pipe fitting and sprinkler equipment 

jobbers, Vancouver, 234, 349, 468, 594, 

772. 
ready-mix concrete jobbers, Halifax, 934, 

1089; Toronto, 1091. 
ready-mix concrete drivers and warehouse- 
men, Toronto, 1339, 1463. 
route salesmen and dairy workers, 

Shawinigan Falls, 774; Windsor, 469. 
sheet metal workers and helpers, New 

Glasgow, 1339. 
soft drink route salesmen and warehouse 

workers, Hamilton, 1212, 1336, 1462, 

1627; Sydney, N.S., 1339, 1462, 1627. 
steel jobbers, Kitchener, 934, 1089. 
tire and rubber goods warehousemen, 

Vancouver, 1629. 
Transportation and Public Utilities — electric 

railways and local bus lines — 
bus drivers, Trail, B.C., 469, 593. 
bus drivers, mechanics, checkers and 

helpers, Windsor, 934, 1089. 
Transportation and Public Utilities — 

miscellaneous — 
radio station employees, Peterborough, 

469, 593, 772. 
wire broadcast and television service 

employees, Montreal, 1091, 1209. 
Transportation and Public Utilities — other 
local and highway — ■ / 

truck drivers, Nanaimo, 1212, 1335. 
truck drivers, warehousemen and helpers, 

Windsor, 135; Windsor, Hamilton and 

Kitchener, 1091. 
Transportation and Public Utilities — water — 
seamen, Saint John, 134, 234. 
stevedores, Botwood, Nfld., 1339, 1462. 
stevedores and office clerks, Port Alfred, 

Que., 1465, 1627. 
unlicensed and licensed ships' personnel, 

Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, 

934. 
unlicensed ships' personnel, Donnacona, 

Que., 1339. 

Structural Unemployment : 

See Unemployment. 

Studebaker-Packard Corporation : 

U.S.A. 

provisions of agreement between Company 

and U.A.W., 160. 
s.u.b. payments begin in September, 1956, 

626. 



xc 



INDEX 



Studebaker-Packard of Canada Limited: 

s.u.b. plan in collective agreement between 
Company and U.A.W.. 515. 



Succession Duty 



Canada 



changes requested by Canadian Chamber 
of Commerce in submission to Minis- 
ters of Finance and National Revenue, 
155. 



Successor Trade Unions: 
Out.— 

amended regulations under Labour Rela- 
tions Act, 734. 

Sudan: 

admitted to membership in I.L.O., 847. 

Suez Canal: 

attitude of British T.U.C., 1259. 

Sunday Observance: 

Canada 

Sunday work in paper mills opposed by 
Quebec and Eastern Canada Council, 
International Brotherhood of Paper 
Mill Unions, 375. 

Man.: Court of Appeal upholds validity of 
Winnipeg by-law requiring service 
stations to close Sunday for part of 
year, 1156; Bill to amend Lord's Day 
Act (Canada), not passed, 1153. 

Que.: legislative brief of C.C.C.L., 266; reply 
of Premier Duplessis, 266; recommen- 
dation of Federation of Labour (T. 
and L.C.), 28. 

Supplemental Unemployment Benefits: 

annotated bibliography with some historical 
notes on guaranteed wages and supple- 
mental unemployment benefits, 1244. 

Canada 

amendments to Income Tax Act re s.u.b. 

plans, 1570. 
s.u.b. plans submitted by six Canadian 

employers do not affect unemployment 

insurance, 1297. 
General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 

provisions of new agreement following 

lengthy strike, 278. 



Supplemental Unemployment Benefits — 

Canada. — Con. 

s.u.b. plans in collective agreements nego- 
tiated between: 

Studebaker-Packard of Canada Lim- 
ited, General Motors of Canada, 
and United Automobile Workers, 
515, 516. 
Continental Can Company of America, 
and United Steelworkers of Amer- 
ica, 515, 517. 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass and Libby- 
Owens Ford, and United Glass 
Workers, 515, 518. 

"Guaranteed Wages, Company Unemploy- 
ment Benefits and the New Unem- 
ployment Insurance Act" — summary of 
article prepared by Instructor in 
Economics, University of Toronto, 
published by Laval University, 492. 

s.u.b. and other benefits sought by 
U.S.W.A. in 1956 negotiations, 373. 
U.S.A. 

Aluminum Company of America — s.u.b. 
plan provided under agreement reached 
between Company and U.S.W.A., 1116. 

American Can Company and Continental 
Can Company — s.u.b. plans amended 
by new 3-year agreements between 
companies and the United Steel- 
workers, 1365. 

Continental Can Company of America — 
s.u.b. plan in collective agreement 
between company and U.S.W.A., 517. 

Ford Motor Company, General Motors 
Corporation, and Chrysler — payments 
commenced on June 1, 1956 at three 
auto firms, 626. 

Studebaker - Packard Corporation — provi- 
sions of agreement between U.A.W. 
and Company, 160. 

Studebaker-Packard Corporation and Wil- 
lys Motors, Inc. — s.u.b. provisions in 
contracts reached between U.A.W. and 
companies, 19. 

provisions of new agreement reached 
between steel companies and United 
Steelworkers, 956. 

s.u.b. and other benefits sought by 
U.S.W.A. in 1956 negotiations, 373. 

s.u.b. plans in automobile industry allow 
short weeks, 262. 

more than one million auto workers 
covered by supplemental unemploy- 
ment compensation plans at end of 
1955, 85. 

s.u.b. plans challenged in Connecticut 
court, 495. 

rulings in various states — legal obstacles 
to s.u.b. plans gradually overcome, 
492. 

increase in size and duration of s.u.b. 
sought by U.A.W., 625. 



INDEX 



xci 



Supplemental Unemployment Benefits — 
USA.— Con. 

simultaneous payment of state unemploy- 
ment compensation and s.u.b. of auto 
company type, approved in 26 states, 
1544. 

s.u.b. variation modelled on vacation 
stamp plan adopted by construction 
contractors in Albany, N.Y., 1237. 

Carolina bars integration of s.u.b. and state 
benefits, 1110. 

Indiana bars receipt of both s.u.b. and 
state benefits, 626. 

New York employers' group opposes Ford- 
type s.u.b., 160. 

s.u.b. procedures explained to employees 
in booklet issued by "Big Three" auto 
companies and U.A.W., 1110. 

Sweepstakes : 

X.B.— 
resolution adopted at convention of Coun- 
cil of Labour, 1125. 

Swift Canadian Company: 

emplovees' retirement counselling program, 
374. 

Taft-Hartley Act: 

Supreme Court rules union deriving bar- 
gaining status from Taft-Hartley Act 
has duty to represent whole unit, 87. 

enactment of recommendations to Con- 
gress urged by President Eisenhower, 
164. 

recommendation of A.F. of L.-C.I.O., 60. 



Taxation: 



Canada 



recommendations of C.C. of L., 46. 

Platform of Principles of C.L.C., 644. 

resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention, 649. 

legislative request of T. and L.C., 40; reply 
of Prime Minister, 42. 

resolution re import tax adopted by Cana- 
dian Federation of International Print- 
ing Pressmen, 629. 

C.M.A. brief to Gordon Commission, 390. 

Hansard reference to Federal-provincial 
agreements, 1119. 
P.E.I. : recommendation of Labour Council 
(C.C. of L.) re education tax, 503. 

See also Per Capita Tax; Sales Tax. 

Taxicabs : 

B.C.— 
Supreme Court holds owner-drivers of 
taxicabs are employers and therefore 
can not become members of union, 
547. 



Taxicabs — Con . 

Mam: regulations under Taxicab Act, 194. 
Ont.: C.B.R.E. urges enforcement of 48-hour 
week for taxi drivers, in brief to 
Ontario government, 1029. 
See also Minimum Wages. 



Teachers : 



Canada 



Occupations of University Women — results 
of questionnaire addressed by Women's 
Bureau, Department of Labour, to 
members of Canadian Federation of 
University Women, 1511. 

B.C.: British Columbia Teachers' Federa- 
tion breaks 13-year affiliation with T. 
and L.C, 490. 

Man.: provisions of Public Schools Act, 723, 
1147-48. 

Ont.: teachers and board agree to future 
arbitration in disputes — provision of 
agreement between Port Arthur Board 
of Education and Teachers' Federa- 
tion, 21. 

U.S.A. 

training of mature, college-educated women 
for teaching profession, 1536. 

Teamwork in Industry: 

Canada 

monthly report on activities of LMPC's — 
73, 177, 289, 413, 539, 682, 852, 1133, 
1269, 1403, 1542. 



Technical Assistance : 

Canada 

Canada increases contribution to Expanded 
Program of Technical Assistance of 
the United Nations and Specialized 
Agencies for 1956, 158. 

Canada's contribution to U.N. Expanded 
Program of Technical Assistance, in 
1955, 1118. 

Canada's contributions under Colombo 
Plan, 1234. 

National Council of Women (Canada) 
recommends increased support of 
United Nations and Colombo Plan 
technical assistance programs, 259. 



XCII 



INDEX 



Technical Education: 

text of recommendation concerning voca- 
tional training in agriculture, adopted 
at 39th Conference of I.L.O., 1015. 
Ont.: school for advanced technical training 
to be established in Ottawa area, 
1495. 

United Kingdom 

White Paper on technical education, 446. 
development of "sandwich" courses in 
technical education, 1231. 

Technical Manpower: 

Canada 

statement of Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minis- 
ter of Labour on activities concerning 
professional and technical manpower, 
803. 

National Conference on Engineering, Scien- 
tific and Technical Manpower, 1520. 

Hansard reference, 802. 

Technical Schools: 

Canada 

attitude towards technical schools dis- 
cussed at 23rd meeting of Vocational 
Training Advisory Council, 276. 

Technical Training: 

See Training. 

Technological Progress : 

implications of technological progress — text 
of address by Deputy Assistant Secre- 
tary for Standards and Statistics, U.S. 
Department of Labour, to C.A.A.L.L., 
1375. 



Technology : 

Third International Congress of the Inter- 
national Catholic Secretariat for Tech- 
nologists, Agriculturists and Econom- 
ists, held at Montallegro, Italy, 376. 

United Kingdom 

increase in number of state scholarships 
granted, to ease shortage of tech- 
nologists, 796. 

U.S.A. 

report of congressional subcommittee on 
automation and technological change, 
280. 



Television : 

performers' rights convention drafted by 
group of I.L.O. experts, 1132. 

Canada 

affiliation agreement between Radio and 
Television Employees of Canada and 
National Association of Broadcast Em- 
ployees and Techniques, 163. 

Council of Broadcasting Unions (C.L.C.), 
formed, 964. 

recommendations of C.C. of L., 46. 

International Railway Brotherhoods recom- 
mend public ownership and govern- 
ment control of radio broadcasting 
and telecasting, 55; reply of Prime 
Minister, 56. 

legislative recommendations of T. and L.C., 
41. 
B.C.: regulations under Apprenticeship and 

Tradesmen's Qualification Act, 1290. 
Ont.: resolutions adopted by Ontario Federa- 
tion of Labour (C.C. of L.), 284. 



Textile Industry: 



Canada 



working conditions in primary textile 

industry, April (1955), 432. 
recommendations of C.C. of L., 46. 

U.S.A. 

clothing workers gain 12J-cent increase, 
720. 

Theatres : 

Sask. — 
amended regulations under Theatres and 
Cinematographs Act re projectionists, 
562. 

Thomson, William, Director, National Em- 
ployment Service: 
appointment, 795. 

Throne Speech: 

extracts from Hansard, 164. 

Tobacco Workers: 

Canada 

Hansard reference, 802. 

Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo Railway 
Company: 

conciliation board in railway dispute full}'' 
constituted — appointment of concilia- 
tion officer by-passed, 20. 

Totalitarianism : 

unrelenting opposition by C.L.C., 644. 



INDEX 



XCIII 



Trade : 



Canada 



number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada in 1955, 1565; 
in 1946, 1953 and 1954, 83. 

distribution of agreements covering 1,000 
or more employees, 1284. 

extinction of rubber footwear industry 
foreseen unless imports checked, 259. 

policy statement of Canadian Chamber of 
Commerce presented to Cabinet, 1531. 

"must show shoppers Canadian goods 
best" — extracts from address by Presi- 
dent, C.M.A., at Owen Sound, Ontario, 
379. 

Hansard reference to Canada — U.S.S.R. 
trade agreement, 504. 

T. and L.C.— C.C. of L. brief to Royal 
Commission on Canada's Economic 
Prospects, 386. 

statement by Gerard Picard, General Presi- 
dent, C.C.C.L., before the Gordon 
Commission, 390. 

recommendation of C.C. of L. re coastal 
trade, 47. 

C.L.C. to seek maximum international 
trade, etc., 644. 

legislative request of T. and L.C., 40-41. 
Que.: resolution adopted by C.C.C.L. re 
Japanese imports, 1395. 

United Kingdom 

unemployment caused by loss of markets 
greater danger than displacements by 
automation, 622. 



Trade Union Membership: 

total union membership and dues in 

'Canada and U.S.A., 26. 
membership of certain unions expected to 
merge in 1956, 260. 

Canada 

membership of labour organizations in 
Canada as at April 30, 1956, 489. 

membership of certain unions expected to 
merge in 1956, 260. 

total union membership and dues in 
Canada and U.S.A., 26. 

resolutions adopted by C.L.C. directed 
by Committee on Organization at 
C.C.C.L., U.M.W.A. and O.B.U., 650. 
B.C.: Supreme Court holds that company 
did not violate terms of agreement 
in refusing to dismiss employee for 
failure to join union or pay member- 
ship dues, 190. 

U.S.A. 

total union membership and dues in 
Canada and U.S.A., 26. 

membership of certain unions expected to 
merge in 1956, 260. 

campaigns forbidding compulsory union 
membership agreement planned by 
National "Right-to-Work" Committee, 
686. 

membership of merged unions — Amal- 
gamated Meat Cutters and Butcher 
Workmen of North America (A.F. of 
L.) and United Packinghouse Workers 
of America (C.I.O.), 370. 



Trade and Commerce, Department of: 

Private and Public Investment in Canada: 
Outlook, 1956 — prepared jointly by 
D.B. of S. and Department of Trade 
and Commerce, 253. 

Trade Schools: 

Alta.— 
provisions of Trade Schools Regulation 
Act, 1161. 



Trade Unions 



Trade Training: 



Canada 



report of Supervisor of Trade Training at 
meeting of Vocational Training Ad- 
visory Council, 276. 

recommendations of Canadian Construc- 
tion Association in brief to federal 
Cabinet re technical or trades train- 
ing, 398. 



Canada 



union affiliation of workers covered by 

collective agreements, 294. 
resolutions adopted by C.L.C. directed 

by Committee on Organization at 

C.C.C.L, U.M.W.A. and O.B.U., 650. 
role of labour unions in the economy — 

T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. brief to Royal 

Commission on Canada's Economic 

Prospects, 386. 
resignations, appointments and deaths of 

labour officials, 500. 
"underhanded domination" of Canadian 

union by U.S. leaders protested by 

president of Toronto Local 938 — 

resignation rejected, 491. 
Supreme Court of P.E.I, finds that town 

of Summerside and its employees not 

subject to Trade Union Act... illegal 

in province, 296. 



INDEX 



Trade Unions — Con. 

Alta.: now Regulation No. 1 (1956) under 
Alberta Labour Act re change of name 
by certified trade union, 15S3. 

B.C.: Bill to amend Trade-unions Act, not 
passed, S72. 

Man.: 85-cent minimum wage, 40-hour week 
and other requests submitted by pro- 
vincial labour bodies in joint sub- 
mission to Winnipeg Chamber of 
Commerce, 156. 

N.B.: union employees vis-a-vis enlisted 
personnel — resolution adopted by Fed- 
nation of Labour, 1254. 

N.S.: bill to amend Trade Union Act, not 
passed, 1029; amendments to Trade 
Union Act recommended by Federa- 
tion of Labour, 1492. 

Sask.: amendments to Trade Union Act, 
1288; Federation of Labour (C.C. of 
L.) recommends amendments to Trade 
Union Act, 29. 

Ireland 

national trade union centre proposed by 
Irish Trades Union Congress and 
Congress of Irish Unions, 28. 

United Kingdom 

T.U.C. report — the economy and the 
organized worker, 36. 

U.S.A. 

problems of organization, and corruption 
in management of union welfare funds 
dealt with at meeting of A.F. of L.~ 
C.I.O. Executive Council, 797. 

"labour must share in fruits of progress" — 
I.A.M. president's address to Min- 
nesota Society of Industrial Engineers, 
514. 

Indiana bars receipt of both s.u.b. and 
state benefits, 626. 

See also various subject headings. 

Trades and Labour Congress of Canada: 

merger creates Canadian Labour Con- 
gress — founding convention, 489. 

obituary, 637. 

positions allotted to T. and L.C. officials 
on newly-formed Canadian Labour 
Congress, 642. 

T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. Brief to Royal 
Commission on Canada's Economic 
Prospects, 384. 

T. and L.C.-C.C. of L. support Canadian 
Farm-Labour Economic Council in 
demand for cash advances on farm- 
held grain, 263. 

number of workers under agreement, 294. 



Trades and Labour Congress of Canada — 

Con. 

British Columbia Teachers' Federation 
breaks 13-year affiliation with T. and 
L.C, 490. 

resignation of R. K. Gervin, Vice-president. 
500. 

Dominion legislative program, 37. 

provincial legislative proposals — Alberta 
Federation of Labour, 266; Manitoba 
Federation of Labour, 29; Newfound- 
land Federation of Labour, 380; 
Ontario Provincial Federation of La- 
bour, 501; Quebec Federation of 
Labour (T. and L.C), 28. 

Union Label Trades Department of T. 
and L.C. to continue as department 
of C.L.C. — proceedings of fourth 
annual convention, 659. 

annual convention of Saskatchewan Pro- 
vincial Federation of Labour, 30. 

Trades Training: 

See Training. 

Trades Union Congress: 

See British Trades Union Congress. 

Tradesmen's Qualifications : 

Alta.— 
regulations under Tradesmen's Qualifica- 
tion Act, 730, 1038. 

B.C.: regulations under Apprenticeship and 
Tradesmen's Qualification Act, 424, 
1290. 

Sask.: amended regulations under Appren- 
ticeship and Tradesmen's Qualification 
Act, 884, 1294. 

Traffic: 

See Highways. 

Training : 

N.S.— 
special training facilities for unemployed 
miners provided by federal and provin- 
cial departments of labour, 156. 

India 

proposed health training plans outlined at 
meeting of Central Council of Health, 
371. 

U.S.A. 

General Motors Corporation training pro- 
gram to overcome shortage of drafts- 
men, 1231. 

See also Teachers; Technical Education; 
Vocational Training. 



I\I>K.\ 



xcv 



Trans-Canada Highway: 

resolution adopted at first costitutional 
convention of C.L.C., 656. 

Trans-Canada Highway Act: 

Hansard reference, 165. 

Trans-Canada Pipeline: 

See Pipeline. 

Transportation and Communication: 

Canada 

number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada in 1955, 1564; in 
1946, 1953 and 1954, 82. 

distribution of agreements covering 1,000 
or more employees, 1284. 

T. and L.C.-C.I.O. brief to Royal Com- 
mission on Canada's Economic Pros- 
pects, 386. 

Platform of Principles of C.L.C., 644. 

recommendations of International Railway 
Brotherhoods re national policy, 54; 
reply of Prime Minister, 56. 
B.C.: regulations under Industrial Transpor- 
tation Act, 299. 
Man.: regulations under Taxicab Act, 194. 
N.B.: regulations under Motor Carrier Act, 
93. 

U.S.A. 

bearded bus driver dismissed — case not 
heard because it lacked jurisdiction 
under Civil Rights Act, 1117. 



Trapping: 



Canada 



number of workers affected by collective 
agreements in Canada in 1955, 1561 ; in 
1946, 1953 and 1954, 79. 

Trevis, O. J., Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers: 
election as senior Canadian grand officer, 
962. 



Trucking : 

Nfld.— 
Supreme Court refuses injunction to 
restrain truckers' union from inter- 
fering with member's "right to work", 
421. 



Tunisia : 

admitted to membership in I.L.O., 847. 



Underdeveloped Areas: 

Canada 

Canada's contributions under Colombo 
Plan, 1234. 

L nder-employment : 

Canada 

sociological implications of undcr-cmploy- 
ment — proceedings of Laval Univer- 
sity's 11th annual industrial relations 
convention, 672. 

Unemployment : 

"Employment and Unemployment: Gov- 
ernment Policies since 1950" — I.L.O. 
studies governments' unemployment 
measures, 1238. 

report of Director-General of I.L.O. on 
situation in 1955, 287. 

lay-offs in automobile and agricultural 
implement fields caused by automa- 
tion, etc., studied by U.A.W., 794. 

Canada 

annual campaign of Federal Department 
of Labour, 1368. 

construction of public works projects con- 
tinues during winter, 153. 

program to aid seasonal unemployment 
commended by Canadian Federation 
of Mayors and Municipalities, 258. 

less unemployment in building trades dur- 
ing winter of 1955 reported by joint 
committee of C.C.A., 369. 

structural and cyclical employment — pro- 
ceedings of Laval University's 11th 
annual industrial relations convention, 
670. 

Hansard references, 271, 802. 

la}r-offs in automobile and agricultural 
implement fields caused by automa- 
tion, etc., studied by U.A.W., 794. 

recommendation of C.C.C.L., 48, reply of 
Prime Minister, 52. 

C.C. of L. legislative memorandum, 44. 

legislative recommendations of T. and 
L.C., 38. 
Alta.: measures requested by Alberta Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.) to 
alleviate unemployment, 266. 
Man.: recommendations of Federation of 

Labour (T. and L.C), 29. 
N.B.: proceedings of conference of Marine 

Workers' Federation, 1236. 
N.S.: special training facilities for unem- 
ployed miners provided by federal 
and provincial departments of labour, 
156. 



XCVI 



INDEX 



Unemployment — Con. 
Out. : recommendations of Provincial Federa- 
tion of Labour (T. and L.C.), 501. 
Bask.: recommendations of Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.), 29. 

United Kingdom 

unemployment caused by loss of markets 

greater danger than displacements by 

automation, 622. 
how to ease transition to automation — 

report published by H.M. Stationery 

Office, 954. 

U.S.A. 

statistics, 495, 1266. 

introduction of Bill to aid depressed areas, 
162. 

formation of National Conference of Forty 
Plus Clubs to aid older unemployed 
men, 1234. 

pensions plans should not bar older job 
seekers, 1235. 

Ohio approves company-financed individual 
income security plan for unemployed 
workers 959. 

clauses to protect public utility workers 
against job displacement by automa- 
tion, won by two unions — International 
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers and 
Utility Workers of America, 953. 

lay-offs in automobile and agricultural 
implement fields cause by automa- 
tion, etc., studied by U.A.W., 794. 

See also Seasonal Unemployment. 

Unemployment Assistance : 

Canada 

C.L.C. to seek Dominion-provincial public 

assistance system, 644. 
Hansard references, 164, 165, 504, 966. 
Que.: C.C.C.L. requests federal-provincial 
agreement on unemployment assist- 
ance, 265; reply of Premier Duplessis, 
266. 

Unemployment Assistance Act: 

regulations under Act, 1569. 

Unemployment Compensation : 

Canada 

General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement following 
lengthy strike, 278. 



Unemployment Compensation — Con. 

U.S.A. 

legal decisions on payment of sever- 
ance pay and jobless benefits, 1266. 

simultaneous payment of state unemploy- 
ment compensation and s.u.b. of auto 
company type, approved in 26 states, 
1544. 

See also Unemployment Insurance. 



Unemployment Insurance : 

annotated bibliography with some his- 
torical notes on guaranteed wages and 
supplemental unemployment benefits,- 
1244. 



Canada 

amended provisions of Unemployment 
Insurance Act, 1120, 1568. 

changes in regulations to restore benefits 
to certain workers, 154; correction, 263. 

new interpretation of provision (conversion 
of contributions) in revised Unem- 
ployment Insurance Act — statement of 
Minister of Labour, 308. 

release of annual report on benefit years 
under terms of Unemployment Insur- 
ance Act, by D.B. of S., 1493. 

C.M.A. brief to Gordon Commission, 389. 

s.u.b. plans submitted by six Canadian 
employers do not affect unemployment 
insurance, 1297. 

"guaranteed unemployment insurance" 
plan — a form of guaranteed wage to 
be introduced by Canadian Marconi 
Company, 262. 

"Guaranteed Wages, Company Unemploy- 
ment Benefits and the New Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Act" — summary of 
article prepared by Instructor in 
Economics, University of Toronto, 
published by Laval University, 492. 

annual report of Unemployment Insurance 
Advisory Committee (1955-56), 1164; 
(1954-55), 197. 

appointment of William Thomson, Direc- 
tor, National Employment Service, 
795. 

James McGregor appointed Director of 
Unemployment Insurance, 955. 

death of J. Rene Laframboise, Manager 
of Cornwall office, N.E.S., and winner 
of I.A.P.E.S. award, 794. 

death of Ian G. Ross, Assistant Legal 
Adviser, U.I.C., 491. 

posters to encourage employment of handi- 
capped persons, displayed, 532. 



INDEX 



XCVII 



Unemployment Insurance — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 
recommendation of Canadian Federation 
of Business and Professional Women, 
1001. 
recommendation of Canadian Federation 

of Mayors and Municipalities, 258. 
Hansard references, 267, 382, 504, 633, 967, 

1119. 
C.C.C.L. legislative memorandum, 49; 

reply of Prime Minister, 51. 
C.C. of L. legislative memorandum, 44. 
resolution adopted at first constitutional 

convention of C.L.C., 652. 
International Railway Brotherhoods legis- 
lative memorandum, 53. 
legislative recommendations of T. and 
L.C., 39. 
Alta.: recommendations of Federation of 

Labour, 1263. 
B.C.: extracts from address by T. A. Rice, 
president, to British Columbia division 
of C.M.A., 513. 
Ont.: recommendation of Federation of La- 
bour (C.C. of L.), 380. 
Que.: C.C.C.L. requests coverage for hospital 

employees, 1395. 
Sask.: recommendation of Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.), 29. 

U.S.A. 

decline in number of workers receiving 
benefits, 1493. 

number of persons covered by federal-state 
unemployment insurance, 161. 

amount paid to unemployed workers in 
state unemployment benefits in 1955, 
164. 

out-of-work benefits fail to cover all 
expenses, 26. 

Advisory Council on Unemployment Com- 
pensation recommends extension of 
jobless insurance, 960. 

federal and state agencies study charac- 
teristics of insured unemployed, 960. 

Indiana bars receipt of both s.u.b. and 
state benefits, 626. 

jobless benefits for all recommended by 
N.Y. State Unemployment Insurance 
Advisory Council, 263. 

one-week waiting period for benefit where 
job loss is caused by natural disaster, 
eliminated in N.Y. state, 497. 

See also Supplementary Unemployment 
Benefits. 

Unfair Labour Practices: 

Canada 

Supreme Court of Canada rules that Trade 
Union Act does not prohibit employees 
of competitor from acting on bargain- 
ing committee, 1155. 

86825—7 



Unfair Labour Practices — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 
amendment to I.R.D.I. Act, recommended 

by C.C. of L., 45. 
resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C. re Canada Labour 
Relations Board, 649. 
Sask.: Court of Appeal holds employer can't 
refuse to bargain because persons 
employed by competitor among nego- 
tiators, 419; Supreme Court of Canada 
rules that Trade Union Act does not 
prohibit employees of competitor from 
acting on bargaining committee, 1155. 

Union Dues: 

total union dues in Canada and U.S.A., 26. 

Canada 

expulsion of U.M.W. from C.C. of L. for 

non-payment of dues, 22. 
total union dues in Canada and U.S.A., 26. 
recommendation of C.C. of L. re govern- 
ment employees, 45. 
resolution adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C. re amendment 
to I.R.D.I. Act, 648. 

B.C.: Supreme Court holds that company 
did not violate terms of agreement in 
refusing to dismiss employee for failure 
to join union or pay membership dues, 
190. 

Nfld.: Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 
recommends amendment to Labour 
Relations Act, 381. 

Que.: Superior Court finds that check-off 
clause in collective agreement is invalid 
under Quebec law, 1579; recommen- 
dation of Quebec Federation of La- 
bour, 1386. 

U.S.A. 

total union dues in Canada and U.S.A., 26. 

increase in dues approved at convention 
of International Association of Machi- 
nists, 1365. 



Union Label: 



Canada 



Union Label Trades Department (T. and 
L.C.) to continue as department of 
C.L.C. — proceedings of fourth annual 
convention, 659. 
Ont.: resolution adopted by Ontario Feder- 
ation of Printing Trades Unions, 628. 

Union Recognition: 

Que.— 
recommendation of Federation of Labour 
(T. and L.C), 28. 



XCYIII 



INDEX 



Union Shop: 



Canada 



General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement following 
lengthy strike, 279. 
establishment of union shop urged at con- 
vention of U.M.W.A., District 26, 1363. 
union shop sought by United Packing- 
house Workers — proceedings of Ca- 
nadian district conference, 625. 

B.C.: resolution adopted by Federation of 
Labour (C.L.C.), 1489. 

X.B.: establishment of union shop urged at 
convention of U.M.W.A., District 26, 
1363. 

X.S.: establishment of union shop urged at 
convention of U.M.W.A., District 26, 
1363. 

Que.: recommendation of Federation of 
Labour, 1386. 

U.S.A. 

provisions of new agreement reached be- 
tween steel companies and United 
Steelworkers, 956. 

railway union shops valid — Supreme Court 
decision, 621. 

Supreme Court rules that union shop 
agreement under Railway Labour Act 
not invalidated by "right-to-work" 
law, 1035. 



L.S.S.R.: 

Hansard reference to Canada — UJ3.S.R. 
trade agreement, 504. 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners : 

signs preferential hiring pact with National 
Contractors Association, 490. 

settlement of jurisdictional dispute be- 
tween United Steelworkers of Ame- 
rica and the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners, 625. 

locals in New Brunswick for Council of 
Carpenters and Millmen, 1233. 

Empire in Wood — history of carpenters' 
union published by N. Y. State School 
of Industrial and Labour Relations, 
378. 



United Electrical, Radio and Machine 
Workers of America: 

wage increases provided in five-year con- 
tract signed by Canadian General 
Electric and employees, U.E.R.M. 
Wl., 497. 



United Glass Workers : 

s.u.b. plan in agreement between U.G.W. 
and Libby-Owens Ford, 518. 

United Mine Workers of America: 

quadriennial convention, 1364. 

26th annual convention, District 26, 1363. 

expulsion of U.M.W. from C.C. of L. for 
nonpayment of dues, 22. 

unification with C.L.C. — resolution adopt- 
ed at first constitutional convention 
of C.L.C., 650. 

C.B.R.E. given support in fight to repeal 
U.M.W. raid of Montreal Transpor- 
tation Commission's workers' union, 
163. 

death of KC. Adams, Editor, United Mine 
Workers' Journal, 962. 

United Nations: 

Canada's contribution to U.N. Expanded 
Program of Technical Assistance in 
1955, 1118. 

Canada increases contribution to Ex- 
panded Program of Technical As- 
sistance of the United Nations and 
Specialized Agencies for 1956, 158. 

National Council of Women (Canada) 
recommends increased support of 
technical assistance program, 259. 

Seminar on relations of the I.F.B.P.W. 
with the United Nations, 1001. 

U.N. Subcommission on the Prevention of 
Discrimination and the Protection of 
Minorities to discuss discrimination in 
employment, 176. 

resolution adopted at 15th biennial Con- 
ference of Canadian Federation of 
Business and Professional Women, 
1000. 

United Nations Economic and Social Coun- 
cil: 

discussion of automation's social and 
economic repercussions requested by 
I.C.F.T.U., 514. 

United Packinghouse Workers Union: 

merger convention cancelled, 629. 

submission to Ontario Federation of 
Labour Committee on Labour Rela- 
tions, 985. 

union shop, wage increases and vacations 
with pay, etc. — 1956 demands drawn 
up at Canadian district conference, 
625. 

merger with Amalgamated Meat Cutters 
and Butcher Workmen of North 
America (A.F. of L.), 370. 



INDEX 



XCIX 



United Papermakers and Paperworkers In- 
ternational Union: 

formation, 1493. 

United Paperworkers of America: 

merger with International Brotherhood of 
Papermakers, 1493. 

United Steelworkers of America: 

policy conference, Canadian district, 624. 

make steel firms justify price boosts — 
resolution adopted at policy con- 
ference, Canadian district, 624. 

Stelco and steelworkers (Hamilton) sign 
two-year contract providing wage in- 
creases and fringe benefits, 956. 

submission of U.S.W.A. to Ontario 
Federation of Labour Committee on 
Labour Relations, 975. 

convention, 1237. 

can companies eliminate female wage 
differential in collective agreements 
signed between Continental Can Com- 
pany, American Can Company, and 
U.S.W.A., 1229. 

fringe and wage benefits equal to steel 
industry provided under three-year 
agreement between Aluminum Com- 
pany of America and U.S.W.A., 1116. 

settlement of jurisdictional dispute be- 
tween United Steelworkers of Amer- 
ica and the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners, 625. 

three-year no-strike pact ends steel strike — 
provisions of new contract, 956. 



Universities : 



Canada 



National Conference of Canadian Univer- 
sities, 1109, 1526. 

increase in university enrolment in 1955, 
493. 

1956 research grants under Labour Depart- 
ment — University (Research program, 
834. 

university education must be extended, 
621. 

competition from United States employers 
for Canadian university graduates, 797. 

establishment of education mortgage plan 
urged by Canadian Association of 
Real Estate Boards, 1232. 

industrialization's impact studied at con- 
ference arranged by School of Social 
Work, University of Toronto, 1366. 

new engineering schools needed to meet 
demand for engineers in Canada — 
meeting *jf deans of universities' en- 
gineering departments, 621. 



Universities — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 

more and better trained university gra- 
duates urged at Learned Societies 
Conference, 796. 

new system for university grants, con- 
sidered by Federal Government, 1358. 

Association of Professional Engineers of 
Ontario urges aid to education by 
government and industry, 1230. 

Occupations of University Women — results 
of questionnaire addressed by Women's 
Bureau, Department of Labour, to 
members of Canadian Federation of 
University Women, 1511. 

engineer shortage slows atomic power pro- 
gram, 958. 
Ont.: proposed 10-year program of capital 
assistance to provincial universities 
and technical institutes, 1358; Asso- 
ciation of Professional Engineers of 
Ontario urges aid to education by 
government and industry, 1230; 
Waterloo College plan to relieve 
shortage of engineers and technicians, 
1230. 

U.S.A. 

survey of job patterns of women gra- 
duates, 631. ' 

development of skilled manpower, urged 
by Assistant to Secretary of Labour, 
1109. 

Unlimited Skills Incorporated (Montreal) : 

activities of, 1537. 

Uranium : 

Ont.— 
High Court of Justice finds provincial 
board lacked jurisdiction to certify a 
union for uranium mining employees, 
1578. 



Utility Workers Union of America: 

clauses to protect public utility workers 
against job displacement by auto- 
mation, won by two unions, 953. 

Vacation Pay: 

Canada 
method of computing vacation pay, 316. 



INDEX 



Vacations with Pays 

Canada 

changes in collective agreements provid- 
ing paid annual vacations, 719. 

amendment to Prevailing Rate Employees 
General Regulations under Financial 
Administration Act, 879. 

General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement, 279. 

Bill 211, "An Act to provide for Annual 
Holidays with Pay for Employees", 
not passed, 1570. 

Hansard references, 503, 633, 1119. 

C.L.C. to seek national Vacation and 
Holiday Act, 644; resolutions adopted 
at first constitutional convention, 649. 

two weeks' paid vacation sought by C.L.C. 
unions in shipbuilding industry, 963. 

legislative requests of T. and L.C., 40. 

paid vacations sought by United Packing- 
house Workers — proceedings of Can- 
adian district conference, 625. 

vacations with pay in certain industries — 
motor vehicles and parts, 105. 
office workers in manufacturing, 1434. 
plant employees in manufacturing, 

1303, 1304. 
primary textile industry, 432. 
public utilities, 1052. 
Alta.: Alberta Federation of Labour (T. 
and L.C.) requests amendments to 
Holidays with Pay Orders, 267. 
B.C.: enactment of Annual Holidays Act, 
722; provisions of new Annual Holi- 
days Act, 870; provisions of two-year 
agreement between Bakery and Con- 
fectionery Workers' International 
Union and Canadian Bakeries Limited, 
and seven other bakery firms, 626; 
resolution adopted by Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.), 31. 
Man.: amended provisions of Vacations 
With Pay Act, 722, 1150; Bill to 
amend Act. not passed, 1153; amend- 
ment to Act urged by Federation of 
Labor, 1490. 
X.B.: resolution adopted at conference of 

Marine Workers' Federation, 1236. 
Xfld.: recommendation of Federation of 
Labour (T. and L.C), 381; establish- 
ment of act to cover all employees 
recommended by Federation of 
Labour, 1007. 
X.S.: resolution adopted by Federation of 
Labour, 1492. 

Ont.: new regulations under Hours of Work 
and Vacations with Pay Act, 1292; 
recommendation of Federation of 
Labour (C.C. of L.), 380; Provincial 
Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.) 



Vacations with Pay — Con. 
Ont. — Con. 

seeks amendments to Hours of Work 
and Vacations With Pay Act, 502; 
resolutions adopted by Ontario Fede- 
ration of Printing Trades Unions, 628. 
Sask.: amendment to Annual Holidays Act, 
722, 1289; recommendation of Federa- 
tion of Labour (C.C. of L.) re Annual 
Holidays Act, 29. 

France 

enforcement of Holidays with Pay Act, 
1416. 

U.S.A. 

provisions of new agreement reached be- 
tween steel companies and United 
Steelworkers, 956. 

See also Minimum Wages. 



Vaccine : 



Canada 



provision of free Salk polio vaccine re- 
commended by C.C. of L., 47. 

Vegetables : 

B.C.— 

regulations under Hours of Work Act, 881. 

Veterans : 

Canada 

recommendations of C.C. of L. re vete- 
rans' pensions and allowances, 45. 
Hansard reference to work week in vete- 
rans' hospitals, 967. 

Veterans Affairs, Department of: 

extension of five-day 40-hour week to all 
Department of Veterans Affairs hos- 
pitals and institutions, 1260. 

retirement should be voluntary — remarks 
of doctor, Sunnybrook Hospital, 375. 

Victoria Labour Council (C.L.C.) : 

formation by merger, 963. 

Vocational Guidance: 

I.L.O. report on vocational guidance and 
training of women, 1536. 

Canada 

young people lack knowledge in seeking 
employment— report of Jewish Voca- 
tional Service, Toronto, 627. 

U.S.A. 

survey of job patterns of women gra- 
duates, 631. 



INDEX 



ci 



Vocational Schools: 

Canada 

resolution adopted at 23rd meeting of 
Vocational Training Advisory Coun- 
cil, 275. 

Vocational Training: 

text of recommendation concerning voca- 
tional training in agriculture, adopted 
at 39th Conference of I.L.O., 1013. 

meeting of experts on women's employ- 
ment from 11 countries — recommen- 
dations re vocational training, 1540. 

I.L.O. Seminar discusses vocational train- 
ing, 851. 

Canada 

23rd meeting of Vocational Training 

Advisory Council, 274. 
need for vocational training stressed by 
President of National Council of 
Women, 795. 
persuade youth to finish training, CM. A. 
head urges, 1360. 
N.B.: increase in vocational training reported 
by provincial Director of Vocational 
Training, 493. 
N.S.: special training facilities for un- 
employed miners provided by federal 
and provincial departments of labour, 
156. 

Wages : 

report of Director-General of I.L.O. on 
situation in 1955, 287. 

resolution adopted at 39th Conference of 
I.L.O. re wage discrimination, 1010. 

can companies eliminate female wage 
differential in collective agreements 
signed between Continental Can Com- 
pany, American Can Company, and 
U.S.W.A., (Canada and the United 
States), 1229. 

recommendation of International Associa- 
tion of Fire Fighters, 1114. 

Canada 

Female Employees Equal Pay Act pro- 
claimed in force from October 1, 1956, 
1229. 

increase in industrial employment, pay- 
rolls and average weekly wages and 
salaries in 1955— D.B. of S. annual 
review of employment and payrolls, 
1367. 

average weekly salaries for selected office 
occupations, in four cities, October 
1955, 1302. 



Wages — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 

wage rate changes from survey of establish- 
ments, 719. 

recent changes in wage rates and other 
conditions of work — study of recent 
collective agreements, 717. 

real earnings of professional workers below 
those of wage-earners, 1359. 

method of computing vacation pay, 316. 

labour income during August 1956, 1361. 

C.M.A. brief to Gordon Commission, 389. 

"Compensation of Office Workers in 1955" 
■ — summary of article prepared by 
Steinberg's, Montreal, 498. 

functions of Labour 'Relations Asosciation 
re uniformity of wages on St. Law- 
rence Seaway and St. Lawrence Power 
Projects, 1499. 

survey of clerical workers' wages and hours 
conducted by Montreal Board of 
Trade, 371. 

enforcement of federal government wage 
scales on United States highway pro- 
jects, opposed, 161. 

methods of wage payment in Canadian 
manufacturing, October 1954, 435. 

average earnings of railway employees in 
1954 and 1953, 95. 

pay practices in motor vehicles and parts 
industry, 107. 

wage claim of emloyee of Department of 
Transport at Gander Airport, Nfld., 
dismissed by Exchequer Court of Ca- 
nada, 1413. 

C.L.C shipbuilding unions adopt common 
wage policy, 963. 

wage increases granted to clerical em- 
ployees at headquarters of C.L.C, 795. 

General Motors of Canada and U.A.W. — 
provisions of new agreement follow- 
ing lengthy strike, 278. 

recommendation of International Associ- 
ation of Fire Fighters, 1114. 

61-cent package won by employees of 
Marmoraton Mining Company, Mar- 
mora, Ont., members of U.S.W.A., 
1111. 

new wage policy drafted at U.M.W.A. 
(District 26) convention, 1363. 

can companies eliminate female wage 
differential in collective agreements 
signed between Continental Can Com- 
pany, American Can Company, and 
U.S.W.A., 1229. 

wage increase and/or fringe benefits — 
sought by Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers (C.N.R.), 369; demanded 
by Brotherhood of Railroad Train- 
men, 261; provided in five-year con- 
tract signed by Canadian General 
Electric and employees, U.E.R.M. 



CII 



INDEX 



Wages — Con. 

Canada. — Con. 

W.A.. -197: won by four paper manu- 
facturing plants in two-year labour 
signed by Stelco and steelworkers 
firemen (railway and harbour board), 
153; provided in two-year contract 
signed by Stelco and steelworkers 
(Hamilton), 956; sought by United 
Packinghouse Workers — proceedings of 
Canadian district conference, 625. 

Alta.: amended regulations under Ap- 
prenticeship Act re carpenter and 
sheet metal trades, 1160. 

B.C: provisions of two-year agreement be- 
tween Bakery and Confectionery 
Workers' International Union and 
Canadian Bakeries Limited, and seven 
other bakery firms, 626. 

X.B.: new wage policy drafted at U.M.W.A. 
(District 26) convention, 1363. 

Xfld.: wage claim of employee of Depart- 
ment of Transport at Gander Airport, 
Xfld., dismissed by Exchequer Court 
of Canada, 1413; salary increase for 
civil servants sought in resolution 
adopted by Federation of Labour, 
1007. 

X.S.: provisions of Equal Pay Act, 1027; 
new wage policy drafted at U.M.W.A. 
(District 26) convention, 1363. 

Ont.: 61-cent package won by employees of 
Marmoraton Mining Company, Mar- 
mora, Ont., members of U.S.W.A., 
1111; divergence of pay allowed mem- 
bers of conciliation boards criticized 
by M.L.A., 372. 

Que.: survey of clerical workers' wages and 
hours conducted by Montreal Board 
of. Trade, 371. 

Sask.: amendment to Wages Recovery Act, 
722, 1289; payment of overtime rates 
to employees in garages and auto- 
mobile service stations provided under 
Hours of Work Act, 1585. 

United Kingdom 

expansion of equal pay for equal work 
plan, 375. 

agreement reached on principle of equal 
pay for equal work for men and 
women, 1229. 

resolution adopted by Trades Union Con- 
gress, 1256. 

pay ratio between automated and non- 
automated workers discussed at con- 
ference of T.U.C. white-collar unions, 
256. 

Argentina 

government orders wage increase, 377. 



Wag< 



■Con. 



U.S.A. 



introduce equal pay bills in Senate and 
Congress, 375. 

1955 wage increases range from 5 to 17 
cents an hour, 85. 

wage increase provisions shown in survey 
of collective agreements, 1145. 

office workers' salaries rise faster than 
plant workers, 1118. 

wage increases granted railway employees, 
20. 

provisions of 3-year agreement signed by 
11 railway unions, 1497. 

wage increase won by railroad yardmasters, 
261. 

"substantial" wage and welfare increases 
recommended by A.F. of L. — C.I.O. 
in economic report, 378. 

A.F. of L. — C.I.O. seeks extension of Fair 
Labour Standards Act, governing 
wages and hours, 741. 

wage and fringe benefits equal to steel 
industry provided under three-year 
agreement between Aluminum Com- 
pany of America and U.S.W.A., 1116. 

can companies eliminate female wage dif- 
ferential in collective agreements 
signed between Continental Can Com- 
pany, American Can Company, and 
U.S.W.A., 1229. 

clothing workers gain 12^-cent increase, 
720. 

recommendation of International Associ- 
ation of Fire Fighters, 1114. 

provisions of new agreement reached be- 
tween steel companies and United 
Steelworkers, 956. 

resolution adopted at policy conference of 
U.S.W.A. (Canadian district), 624. 

provisions of one-year contract signed be- 
tween U.M.W.A. and Bituminous Coal 
Operators Association, 1364. 

provisions of four-year agreement signed 
by Xew York local of International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, 1117. 

1955 hourly wage increase in New York 
state averaged 7.3 cents, 1144. 

See also Salaries. 

Walkouts : 

See Strikes and Lockouts. 

Weekly Rest: 

See One Day's Rest in Seven; Rest 
Periods. 



INDEX 



cm 



Welding: 

Alta.— 
amended regulations under Apprenticeship 
Act, 729; regulations re-issued under 
Boilers and Pressure Vessels Act go- 
verning pressure welders, 880; regula- 
tions under Welding Act, 92, 299. 

Welfare: 

See Industrial Welfare. 



Welfare Funds: 



U.S.A. 



corruption in management of union wel- 
fare funds, dealt with at meeting of 
A.F. of L— C.I.O. Executive Council, 
797. 

Wheat: 

Canada 
recommendations of C.C. of L., 46. 

Whitebone, James A., President, New Bruns- 
wick Federation of Labour: 
convention report, 1251. 

White-collar Workers: 

Canada 

average weekly salaries for selected office 
occupations, in four cities, October 
1955, 1302. 

survey of working conditions of office em- 
ployees in manufacturing as at April 
1, 1956, 1434. 

women in majority in offices — survey con- 
ducted in Canada and U.S.A. by 
National Office Management Associ- 
ation, 1128. 

two-year contracts signed by Ford of 
Canada and U.A.W., 959. 

U.S.A. 

office workers' salaries rise faster than 
plant workers, 1118. 

women in majority in offices — survey con- 
ducted in Canada and U.S.A. by Na- 
tional Office Management Association. 
1128. 

Winnipeg Labour Council (C.L.C.) : 

formation by merger, 963. 

Winters, Hon. Robert, Minister of Public 

Works : 

re winter employment on public works 
projects, 153. 



Wolf, Dr. Francis, Chief, Legal Division, 
International Labour Organization: 
appointment, 288. 

Woll, Matthew, Vice-president, A.F. of L.- 
C.I.O.: 
death of, 801. 

Womanpower : 

meeting of experts on women's employ- 
ment from 11 countries — recommen- 
dations re vocational training, 1540. 

re first International Congress of Business 
and Professional Women, 631. 

I.L.O. report on vocational guidance and 
training of women, 1536. 

can companies eliminate female wage 
differential in collective agreements 
signed between Continental Can Com- 
pany, American Can Company, and 
U.S.W.A., 1229. 

Canada 

Female Employees Equal Pay Act pro- 
claimed in force from October 1, 1956, 
1229; provisions of Act, 1568. 

National Council of Women presents brief 
to Federal Cabinet, 259. 

Occupations of University "V^omen — re- 
sults of questionnaire addressed by 
Women's Bureau, Department of La- 
bour, to members of Canadian Fede- 
ration of University Women, 1511. 

re first International Congress of Business 
and Professional Women, 631. 

employment of women on out-of-way pro- 
jects, 1398. 

proceedings of Canadian Conference on 
Social Work, 1127. 

panel discussion on women at work — Sorop- 
timist Clubs, Toronto, 631. 

National Council of Women urges em- 
ployment of older men and women, 
259. 

number of women employed in industry 
in 1954, 70. 

survey of clerical workers' wages and 
hours conducted by Montreal Board 
of Trade, 371. 

equal opportunities for employment and 
advancement and need for vocational 
training — resolutions adopted by Na- 
tional Council of Women, 795. 

"Women go to Work at any Age" — panel 
discussion sponsored by five women's 
service clubs in Toronto metropolitan 
area, 806. 



INDEX 



Womanpower — Con. 
Canada. — Con. 

can companies eliminate female wage dif- 
ferential in collective agreements 
signed between Continental Can Com- 
pany, American Can Company, and 
UJS.WJL, 1229. 

bulletin on women in science and en- 
gineering prepared by Department of 
Labour, 1535. 

re publication of book Women at Work 
in Canada, by Women's Bureau, Fe- 
deral Department of Labour, 1362. 

resolutions adopted at first constitutional 
convention of C.L.C., 649. 

resolution on restriction of employment 
of working mothers, defeated at con- 
vention of C.L.C., 654. 

recommendation of International Railway 

Brotherhoods re old age assistance, 53. 

Man.: enactment of Equal Pay Act, 721, 

provisions of Act, 1146. 
X.B.: regulations under Mining Act, 303. 
N.S.: enactment of Equal Pay Act, 721, pro- 
visions of Act, 1027. 
Ont.: panel discussion on women at work — 
Soroptimist Clubs, Toronto, 631; re 
licensing of real estate brokers, 1537; 
recommendation of Provincial Fed- 
eration of Labour (T. and L.C.) re 
minimum wage for women, 502. 
Que.: legal recognition to women in two 
professions, 263; survey of clerical 
workers' wages and hours conducted 
by Montreal Board of Trade, 371; 
Montreal District Chamber of Com- 
merce formed by business women, 263. 
United Kingdom 

agreement reached on principle of equal 
pay for equal work for men and 
women, 1229. 

list of professions in which women receive 
equal pay with men, 1229. 
Germany 

number of women employers in West 
Germany, 1398. 

Court rules illegal to dismiss woman from 
her job when married, 1128. 

U.S.A. 

introduce equal pay bills in Senate and 
Congress, 375. 

more farmers' wives working away from 
home, 1128. 

training of mature, college-educated women 
for teaching profession, 1536. 

wide recognition of women's talents, skill 
and abilities, 1127. 

activities of "Earning Opportunities 
Forum", 1398. 

survey of job patterns of women gra- 
duates, 631. 



Womanpower — Con. 
U.S.A.— Con. 

percentage of older women in employ- 
ment, 375. 

45 per cent increase in number of working 
women in 15 years, 631. 

Employment Opportunities for Women in 
Beauty Service — bulletin issued by 
Women's Bureau, Department of 
Labour, 1398. 

"Women's Bureau (Federal Department of 
Labour) : 

proceedings of Canadian Conference on 
Social Work, 1127. 

Occupations of University Women — results 
of questionnaire addressed by Women's 
Bureau, Department of Labour, to 
members of Canadian Federation of 
University Women, 1511. 

re publication of book Women at Work in 
Canada, by Women's Bureau, Federal 
Department of Labour, 1362. 

Woodworking Industry: 

U.S.A. 

Empire in Wood — history of carpenters' 
union published by New York State 
School of Industrial and Labour Re- 
lations, 378. 

Work Accidents: 

See Accidents. 

Work Week: 

See Hours of Work. 

Working Conditions: 

See Employment Conditions. 

Working Mothers: 

See Womanpower. 

Workmen's Compensation : 

Canada 

summary of 1955 edition of Workmen's 
Compensation in Canada, published 
by Federal Department of Labour, 
284. 

Supreme Court of Canada rules on con- 
clusiveness of N.B. Compensation 
Board finding in subsequent negli- 
gence action, 1154. 

treatment of railway workers under Act 
criticized at triennial conference of 
C.B.R.E., 1236. 



INDEX 



<V 



Workmen's Compensation — Con. 

Alta.: amended regulations under Work- 
men's Compensation Act, 1572; bene- 
fits under Workmen's Compensation 
Act increased, 722; activities of clinic 
for rehabilitation of injured workmen, 
opened by Workmen's Compensation 
Board, 1397; amendments to Act re- 
quested by Federation of Labour (T. 
and L.C.), 267. 

B.C.: amendments to safety provisions in 
Metalliferous Mines Regulation Act, 
724; accident prevention regulations 
under Workmen's Compensation Act, 
302, 424, 881; schedule of industrial 
diseases under Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Act, 301, 425, 1038; Recommended 
Practices for Safe Shoring of Excava- 
tions — booklet issued by Workmen's 
Compensation Board, 886; resolution 
adopted by Federation of Labour 
(C.C. of L.), 31, and by Federation of 
Labour (C.L.C.), 1490. 

Man.: amended provisions of Workmen's 
Compensation Act, 1151; benefits un- 
der Workmen's Compensation Act in- 
creased, 722; resolution adopted by 
Federation of Labour, 1491. 

N.B.: Supreme Court of Canada rules on 
conclusiveness of Compensation Board 
finding in subsequent negligence 
action, 1154; inclusion of pneumo- 
coniosis under Workmen's Com- 
pensation Act and increased benefits, 
recommended by Federation of 
Labour, 1254. 

Nfld.: legislation enacted in 1956, 1412; be- 
nefits under Workmen's Compensation 
Act increased, 722; recommendation 
of Federation of Labour (T. and L.C.), 
381. 

N.S.: amendment to Workmen's Compen- 
sation Act, 1028, benefits under Act 
increased, 722. 

Ont.: construction of new rehabilitation cen- 
tre near Toronto, 532; re inclusion of 
retail trade employees under Work- 
men's Compensation Board, 1422; 
treatment of railway workers under 
Act criticized at triennial conference 
of C.B.R.E., 1236; death of Dr. Dou- 
glas James Galbraith, former member 
of Workmen's Compensation Board, 
1237 ; resolutions and recommendations 
of Federation of Labour (CC. of L.), 
284, 379; recommendations of Pro- 
vincial Federation of Labour (T. and 
L.C.), 502; Workmen's Compensation 
Act — amended regulations under Act, 
196; regulation under Act re em- 
ployees of Fire Department of City 



Workmen's Compensation — Con. 

Ont. — Con. 

of Hamilton, 95; benefits under Act 
increased, 722; amendment to Act 
re increase in compensation payment, 
1411. 

P.E.I. : recommendation of Labour Council 
<OC. of L.), 503. 

Que.: amended provisions of Workmen's 
Compensation Act, 1289; provisions 
of Regulation No. 20, under Work- 
men's Compensation Act re mine 
rescue stations, 1585; benefits under 
Act increased, 722; Superior Court, 
because time limit expired, dismisses 
action against third party in workmen's 
compensation case, 1034. 

Sask.: amended provisions of Workmen's 
Compensation (Accident Fund) Act, 
1286; benefits under Workmen's Com- 
pensation Act increased, 722, Fed- 
eration of Labour (C.C. of L.) re- 
commends amendment to Act, 29; 
resolution adopted at convention of 
Provincial Federation of Labour (T. 
and L.C.), 30. 



Workshops : 



Canada 



discussion at annual meeting of I.A.F.E.S., 
1005. 

World Calendar : 

headquarters of International World 
Calendar Association moved to Ottawa 
from New York, 262. 

Canada 

Hansard reference, 269. 

World Federation of Trade Unions: 

resolution on international trade union 
relations, defeated at convention of 
British T.U.C, 1260. 

Yardmasters : 

See Railways. 

Young Workers: 

See Juvenile Employment. 

Youth Employment and Training: 

Canada 

persuade youth to finish training, C.M.A. 
head urges, 1360. 



ABOUR 







Published Monthly by the 

PARTMENT OF LABOUR 

CANADA 



Motor Vehicles and Parts Industries (p. 105; 



Vol. LVI N. 



JANUARY 195< 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister 



A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 



Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



JANUARY 1956 



Vol. LVI, No. 1 CONTENTS 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 

Notes ot Current Interest 

Employment in 1955— A Survey 

Labour Briefs to Cabinet 

Trades and Labour Congress of Canada 

Canadian Congress of Labour 

Canadian and Catholic Confederation of Labour 

International Railway Brotherhoods 

AFL CIO Merger Consummated 

Thirteenth Federal-Provincial Farm Labour Conference 

Fatal Industrial Accidents during 3rd Quarter, 1955 

50 Years Ago This Month 

130th Session of ILO Governing Body 

Teamwork in Industry 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification 74 Conciliation 

Collective Agreements: 

Number of Workers Affected by Collective Agreements, 1954 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 

Industrial Standards Acts, N.S., Ont. and Sask 

Labour Law: 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 88 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations. 96 Decisions of Umpire. 97 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 100 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Motor Vehicles and Parts Industries, April 1955 105 



17 

32 

37 
37 
42 
48 
52 

56 

63 

69 

71 

72 

73 

77 

78 
84 
85 

86 



Strikes and Lockouts 

Prices and the Cost of Living 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library. 
Labour Statistics 



107 
108 
110 
114 



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Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



CURRENT 



JANUARY 15, 1956 



manpower and ; labour relations 



REVIEW 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS 
1954-55 1955-56 



txz^tfmm^mxmv 



Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour, Canada 

Current Manpower Situation 

THE labour market showed continuing strength during December. 
Despite the effect of severe winter weather on the general level 
of activity in the latter part of December, the employment decline was 
more gradual than a year earlier. As a result, the year-to-year increase 
in employment grew slightly larger. Work forces in forestry, mining and 
most durable goods manufacturing industries were stable or expanding 
and reports on employment prospects from industry show continued 
optimism. 

The year ended on a rising 
trend of economic activity. Al- 
though actual figures are not yet 
available, preliminary data for the 
fourth quarter of 1955 make it 
reasonably certain that the volume 
%{ total output for the year will 
show an increase of about 8 per 
cent over 1954 and 5 per cent over 
1953. The economy has therefore 
fully recovered from the recent 
minor recession. 

The economic expansion of 
1955 has been reflected in the 
monthly labour force estimates. 
The general pattern of various 
labour force components during 
the past few years is outlined in 
an article on page 32. In the most 
recent labour force survey (De- 
cember 10, 1955), persons with 
jobs were estimated to number 
5,388,000, some 200,000 more than 
a year earlier and 250,000 more 
than in December 1953. The trend 




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A Monthly Labour Gazette Feature 



Hours p«r Wo»k 



120 



MANUFACTURING EMPLOYMENT 
1949 100 




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JFMAMJJ ASONDJ 



of non-farm employment continued to rise more sharply than the total, 
the latest survey indicating a year-to-year gain of 290,000. 

The expanding level of production was also reflected in the number 
of hours worked. While employment in the last quarter was substantially 
higher than a year earlier, the number of workers on short time was, on 
the average, about 9 per cent lower. Average hours worked per week in 
manufacturing remained about one-third of an hour greater than a year 
before. The longer work-week was most marked in the iron and steel 
products group. The textile and clothing industries also reported moder- 
ate increases in hours during the year. 

Job vacancies registered at National Employment offices were 
more than 50 per cent higher than in December of the last two years. 
Vacancies for loggers accounted for a large part of the increase, particu- 
larly in Quebec. In addition, there were moderate increases in the demand 
for construction workers, machinists, tool makers and die setters and 
other me talworking tradesmen and in most occupations for female workers* 

A seasonal slackening in production and employment did occur in 
December, particularly in the industries vulnerable to weather con- 
ditions. This was partly offset, however, by the labour demands for a 
heavy Christmas trade, which usually requires a large number of ad- 
ditional sales clerks during December. As usual, the drop in construction 
work was responsible for most of the decline in employment. In each 
of the past three winters, the decline in this industry has exceeded 
100,000 and although actual employment figures are not yet available, 
National Employment Service statistics indicate that this winter's 
slow-down is proceeding at only a slightly reduced rate. In the four 
weeks before Christmas the number of construction workers registered 
with the NES rose by 40,000, compared with 48,000 in the corresponding 
period of 1954. Among male workers this accounted for almost one-half 
of the total increase in registrations during the month. 

Agricultural employment fell by a further 15,000 in the early part 
of December, bringing the decline in the number of persons with farm 
jobs to almost 250,000 since August. Layoffs in the food and beverages 
industry, amounting to about 10,000, were also reported, while water 
and rail transportation firms released a further 5,000 to 10,000 workers. 

Logging activity declined from the record peak attained in November 
but was still higher than a year earlier. Production and consumption of 



pulpwood had been running about 5 per cent above a year earlier and 
employment increased correspondingly. Labour turnover in pulpwood 
logging was higher than in any other industry, amounting to an average 
of nearly 40 per cent. In 1955, although the turnover rate did not change 
significantly, labour supply was somewhat tighter than in the past 
several years. There were no reports of labour shortages, however, 
although jobs were plentiful in all logging areas. 

Unemployment rose by about the usual amount as a result of these 
seasonal changes but continued well below year-earlier levels. In the 
week of December 10, 1955, the number of persons without jobs and 
seeking work was about 200,000 and a further 18,000 had jobs but were 
laid off temporarily. These figures together represent 3.9 per cent of the 
labour force, compared with 2.4 per cent in August and 4.9 per cent in 
December 1954. 

All regions in the country shared to some extent in the recovery of 
the past year; Ontario and the western provinces registered the largest 
relative gains. In all regions, the increase in activity occurred in the 
non-agricultural sector and manpower requirements were met in part by 
drawing on the farm labour force. This was particularly true in the 
Prairie Provinces, where employment estimates in non-farm work showed 
an unusual rise of 34,000 between August and December, while em- 
ployment on farms registered an unusually sharp drop of 121,000. Agri- 
cultural employment declined less sharply in other regions but was 
still substantially lower than a year earlier. 

Labour Income and Earnings 

Labour income, seasonally adjusted, continued to rise through the 
first three quarters of 1955. In the third quarter it reached an annual rate 
of $13.1 billion, which was more than 8 per cent above the third quarter 
of 1954. In the first nine months of 1955 labour income exceeded that for 
the same period of 1954 by nearly 7 per cent. The largest gains in total 



$65.00 



$60.00 



$55.00 



$50.00 




1955 Average - first 11 months 



wages and salaries, ranging from 9 to 12 per cent, were reported in the 
finance, service and construction sectors, while the primary industries, 
manufacturing and trade registered increases of 4 to 6 per cent. 

The gains in labour income were a result of increases in all the 
three factors responsible for its movements — the extent of employment, 
the number of hours worked and the level of hourly earnings. The in- 
crease in real income was about the same, since consumer prices have 
not changed significantly during the period in question. Employment and 
hours have been dealt with above. Changes in average hourly earnings 
are as follows. 

In manufacturing, the average hourly earnings of hourly-rated wage- 
earners rose to 144.8 cents in October 1955, an increase of 4.1 per cent 
from October 1954 and 6.0 per cent from October 1953. The hourly earn- 
ings in the mining industry reached an all-time high of 161.8 cents, 3.5 
per cent higher than in October 1954 and 5.2 per cent higher than in 
October 1953. In the construction industry, hourly earnings were 150.7 
cents in October 1955, a considerable gain from both 1954 and from 1953, 
with the exception of building construction, where the average hourly 
earnings did not reach the exceptionally high 1953 peak. Electric and 
motor transportation as well as services also recorded substantial gains 
during the two-year period. According to preliminary data for November 
1955, all these industries except transportation continued to make further 
advances in hourly earnings. 

The average weekly earnings showed, in general, even larger rises 
than the average hourly earnings, partly because of increases in the 
number of hours worked per week. This rapid advance in the average 
weekly earnings of wage-earners and salaried employees in all industries 
has been continuing through recent years, as may be seen from the 
accompanying chart, and reached an all time high of $61.49 in October 
1955. This was $2.24 above year-earlier levels. Preliminary data show 
that the rise continued in November. 

Manufacturing, the largest industrial group, recorded a $2.65 in- 
crease in average weekly wages and salaries to $64.04 between October 
1954 and October 1955. The durable goods manufacturing industry made 
slightly larger gains than the non-durable goods industry, from $66.30 in 
October 1954, to $69.18 in October 1955, compared with a rise from 
$56.89 to $59.05 in non-durables. Among the other leading industrial 
divisions, mining reached the highest level of average weekly wages and 
salaries in October 1955, amounting to $73.83; public utilities was next 
with $70.49, followed by transportation with $65.05. The lowest weekly 
earnings were recorded in trade, at $52.54, and in services, at $40.87. 
These industries, however, have also shown substantial increases in 
weekly wages and salaries compared with year-earlier levels. 



Labour-Management Relations 

EGINNING in late January, a board of c6nciliation will try to settle 
differences between the Canadian railway companies and unions 
representing 140,000 non-operating employees. It appears that little 
progress towards agreement was made in direct negociations concerning 
the request of the unions for an 18-per-cent wage increase, 8 cents an 
hour to finance a health and welfare plan, and an increase in paid statu- 
tory holidays from five to eight per year for hourly-rated employees, with 
pay for these eight days to be granted to monthly-rated employees who 
are already entitled to such holidays. 

The dispute is of particular concern, not only because of the size 
and essential nature of the industry but also because agreements between 
the parties in the past few years have been reached with difficulty. 
A strike occurred in 1950 and arbitration was resorted to when another 
strike seemed imminent in 1954. These difficulties of the past few years 
have created problems for management, labour and the government in 
finding solutions for deadlocked bargaining situations. 

Eric Taylor of Toronto has been named Chairman of the Board of 
Conciliation. The nominee of the companies is Paul S. Smith, a Montreal 
lawyer, and the nominee of the unions is David Lewis, a Toronto lawyer. 
Mr. Taylor has specialized in conciliation work in the past few years, 
particularly in Ontario. 

In December, a modified guaranteed annual wage or supplementary 
unemployment benefit plan was negotiated to cover approximately 900 
employees of Electric Auto-Lite Limited. The United Automobile Work- 
ers of America represented the workers. The plan is similar to those 
negotiated earlier in the year in the automobile industry in the United 
States. The company will pay -5 cents an hour per employee into a trust 
fund which, subject to regulations under the Unemployment Insurance 
Act, will be used during periods of layoff to supplement unemployment 
insurance benefits for a maximum of 26 weeks. 

Since the first modified GAW plan was negotiated in June between 
the UAW and the Ford Motor Company in the United States, the union 
reports that similar benefit plans have been extended to more than a 
million of its members under some 200 contracts. 

In contrast with the growth of collectively bargained supplementary 
unemployment benefit plans in the United States, their inclusion in col- 
lective bargaining agreements in Canada has been rare. In addition to 
the recently negotiated scheme mentioned above, the only such plans 
adopted in Canada are those under agreements negotiated by the United 
Steelworkers of America for employees of the Continental Can Company 
of Canada Limited and the American Can Company of Canada Limited; 
by Massey-Harris-Ferguson Limited and the United Automobile Workers 
of America; and by Molson's Brewery, Limited and an association of 
its employees. 

Bargaining on the GAW will be stepped up in this country in 1956. 
It is reported that the United Automobile Workers and General Motors of 
Canada, Limited, have agreed on a plan similar to those negotiated 



during 1955 in the United States, which will be incorporated in their 
agreement when the current strike is settled. In view of this and the 
spread of such benefit plans in the automobile industry in the United 
States, the guaranteed wage will undoubtedly be an important factor 
later this year in negotiations of the UAW with the Ford Motor Company 
of Canada, Limited, and the Chrysler Corporation of Canada, Limited. 

Although fewer work stop- 
pages occurred in 1955 than in Hoof Workers ^^^ 

1954, and fewer workers were Stoppages Involved Lost 

involved, the time-loss in man-days 1954 174 62,250 1,475,200 

was 25 per cent greater. The 1955 148 57,400 1,865,600 

f . r i i (prehmi- 

figures for both years are as nary) 

follows: 

More than half the time lost during 1955 was caused by the strike 
of approximately 14,000 employees of General Motors of Canada, repre- 
sented by the United Automobile Workers of America. Three stoppages 
involving the Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited, and the United 
Automobile Workers, DeHavilland Aircraft of Canada, Limited and the 
same union and the Canada Wire and Cable Company, Limited, and the 
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, accounted for 
a further 25 per cent of the man-days lost. 

Current Negotiations 

Transportation -In addition to the negotiations for railway employees 
noted above, collective bargaining is in progress in other important 
sectors of the transportation industry. 

Operators of boats on the Great Lakes waterways system, repre- 
sented by the Association of Lake Carriers, have had meetings with re- 
presentatives of the sailors. Three unions, the Seafarers' International 
Union, representing unlicensed personnel; the National Association of 
Marine Engineers, representing licensed engineers; and the Canadian 
Merchant Service Guild, representing licensed officers, are reported to be 
co-operating through a joint committee. Previously the three unions 
bargained separately. The demands include a substantial increase in 
wages and a change from the traditional monthly basis of pay to hourly 
rates. Reference to conciliation has been made on behalf of the Asso- 
ciation and one of the unions (Seafarers' International). 

A dispute between three locals of the International Brotherhood of 
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America and the 
Motor Transport Industrial Relations Bureau has been referred to a board 
of conciliation. Involved are approximately 60 trucking firms in Ontario 
and representatives of their 6,000 employees. The union is reported to 
be seeking a large number of changes in wages and working conditions, 
including a substantial wage increase, more restrictive overtime pay 
regulations and a health and welfare plan. 

The agreement between the same union and trucking firms in the 
Vancouver area is also being re-negotiated. Little information on the 
progress of this bargaining was available at the time of writing. 



Bargaining has begun on behalf of the airline pilots of Trans Canada 
Air Lines and Canadian Pacific Air Lines, Limited. The pilots are 
represented by the Canadian Air Line Pilots' Association. Meanwhile, 
extended negotiations and conciliation affecting the Canadian Air Line 
Flight Attendants' Association and Canadian Pacific Air Lines have 
failed to bring agreement and a strike vote is reported to have been 
taken. 

Mining —Negotiations have been under way between the Dominion 
Coal Company, Limited, on behalf of its mining operations in Nova 
Scotia, and District 26, United Mine Workers of America, on behalf of 
the miners. The current contract expires January 31 and the union is 
reported to be seeking some adjustments in wage rates though not a 
general wage increase. Depressed conditions in the industry have created 
problems for both management and employees in recent years. 

The agreement between District 18 of the union and coal operators 
in western Canada does not expire until July. 

In the metal mining industry, the United Steelworkers of America 
has been successful in negotiating new agreements with a number of 
gold and base metal mines in northern Ontario and Quebec, providing for 
a 44-hour week. Negotiations between the union and other mine man- 
agements are continuing. A new agreement signed by Lakeshore Mines, 
Limited, and the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers 
provides a reduction in hours to 44 per week without loss in take-home 
pay. Agreements between this union and the large base metal mining and 
smelting companies, International Nickel Company of Canada, Limited, N 
and Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited, do not 
expire until the end of May. 

Steel — Collective bargaining will get under way shortly in the basic 
steel industry over contracts expiring in March and April. The United 
Steelworkers is representing the employees and the companies involved 
are: Steel Company of Canada, Limited, Hamilton; Algoma Steel Corpor- 
ation, Limited, Sault Ste. Marie; and Dominion Steel and Coal Company, 
Limited, Sydney. 

Recent Agreements 

Among agreements recently signed are the following: John Labatt, 
Limited, and National Brewery Workers' Union, Local No. 1, a 3-year 
contract providing wage increases and other benefits; Dow Brewery, 
Limited, Montreal and Quebec, and the International Union of Brewery 
Workers, a 3-year agreement providing wage increases and advanced 
fringe benefits; Garment Manufacturers' Association of Western Canada, 
Winnipeg, and Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, an agreement 
providing a wage increase and improved fringe benefits; Fiberglas Cana- 
da, Limited, and Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers, following a strike, 
a one-year agreement providing wage increases; Montreal Locomotive 
Works, Limited, and the United Steelworkers of America, an agreement 
providing a wage increase; and the United Hatters, Cap and Millinery 
Workers' International Union and the Association of Millinery Manu- 
facturers, Montreal, an agreement providing a wage increase and fringe 
benefits. 



Manpower Situation in Local Areas 



tpmjaa 



DISTRIBUTION OF PAID WORKERS 
IN THE FOUR LABOUR MARKET CATEGORIES 



SUBSTANTIAL 
SURPLUS 



MODERATE 
SURPLUS 



SHORTAGE 



Jan. T 
1956 



HE usual large seasonal cur- 
tailment in outdoor activities 
during December affected virtually 
all Canadian labour market areas. 
At the beginning of January, 58 of 
the 109 areas were reclassified: 35 
from balance to moderate labour sur- 
plus, 20 from moderate to substan- 
tial surplus and three from balance 
to substantial surplus. At January 1 
there were still 16 areas, repre- 
senting 22 per cent of all paid 
workers, in the balanced category, 
68 in the moderate surplus category 
and 25 in the substantial surplus 
category, compared with eight 
areas (representing only 5 per cent 
of all paid workers) in balance, 
76 in the moderate and 34 in the 
substantial surplus category a 
year earlier. 

Labour requirements in nearly 
all areas continued at higher levels 
than a year before. The improvements 
in classification, however, were 
concentrated in the Ontario region, 
where 13 areas, including Toronto, were still in the balanced category, 
compared with only five areas at the same time a year before. All regions 
shared in the seasonal shifts in classification but in the Ontario and 
Prairie regions the changes were chiefly from balance to moderate surplus 
while in the Atlantic, Quebec and Pacific regions they were mainly from 
the moderate to the substantial labour surplus category. 



Jan. 1 
1955 




Labour Market 
Areas 


Labour Surplus* 


Approx imate 
Balance* 


Labour 
Shortage* 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Jan. 1 
1956 


Jan. 1 
1955 


Jan. 1 
1956 


Jan. 1 
1955 


Jan. 1 
1956 


Jan. 1 

1955 


Jan. 1 
1956 


Jan. 1 
1955 


Metropolitan 
Major Industrial 
Major Agricultural 
Minor 


2 

5 

1 

17 


4 

8 

1 

21 


7 
19 
11 

31 


6 
18 
11 
32 


2 
3 
2 
9 


1 
1 

2 

4 


- 


- 


Total 


25 


34 


68 


67 


16 


8 


- 


- 



"See inside back cover October 1955 Labour Gazette 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS, 
January 1* 1956- 



LABOUR SURPLUS APPROXIMATE LABOUR 

BALANCE SHORTAGE 

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 


METROPOLITAN AREAS 
(labour fore* 75,000 or mora) 




Calgary 

EDMONTON < 

HAMILTON < 


Ottawa -Hull 
Toronto 








Vancouver - Naw 
Westminster 


Winnipag 


MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 

(labour fore* 25,000 - 75,000; 

60 per cent or mora in 

non-agricultural activity) 


CORNER BROOK < 


Bran Herd 

Cornwall 

Fomham-Granby 
FORT WILLIAM - 

PORT ARTHUR < 

Halifax 
Joliette 


Guelph 

Kingston 

Sudbury 




NEW GLASGOW < 

SHAWINIGAN FALLS < 




Lac St. Jean 


Niagara Panintula 
Oshawa 
Peterborough 
Rouyn-Val d'Or 
Saint John 


Sharbrook* 
Sydney 

TIMMINS-KIRKLAND < 

LAKE 
Victoria 


MAJOR AGRICULTURAL AREAS 

(labour fore. 25,000 - 75,000; 
40 par cant or moro In agriculture^ 


RIVIERE DU LOUP < ] 




Barrie 
Red Deer 


•V 




Charlottetown 
Chatham 
Leth bridge 

MOOSE JAW < 

NORTH BATTLEFORD*— 






Thetford - Megantic - 
St. Georges 




MINOR AREAS 
(labour rare* 10.000-25,000) 




Belleville -Trenton 


Brampton 
Dawson Creek 
Drumheller 
Gait 

Listowel 
Sou It Ste. Marie 
Stratford 
St. Thomas 
Woodstock - 
Ingersoll 






Island 
Chiliiwaek 

BA THUS ST < 

DRUMMONDVILLE < 

GASPE "< 

MONTMAGNY < 

NEWCASTLE < 

OKANAGAN VALLEY < 

PRINCE GEORGE < 

RIMOUSKi < 

SOREL < 

STE. AGATNE - ST. 

JEROME < 

ST. STEPHEN < 

SUMMERSIDE < 

VALLEYFIELO < 

YARMOUTH < 


3rocobridg« 

3RIDGEWATER < 

Campballton 

C RAN BROOK < 

Dauphin 








Kam loops 

-\ KENTVILLE < 

LACHUTE-STE. 




Lindsay 

Medicine Hat 

NORTH BAY < 




Portaga la Prairie 

Prince Rupert 

OUE6EC NORTH SHORE^- 

SIMCOE < 

ST. JEAN < 

ST. HYACINTHE < 


TRAIL -NELSON < 

Truro 
Victoriaviile 


WEYBURN < 

Woodstock N.B. 



Tha areas shown in capital letters or* thoso that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow indicates the group from which they moved. 



ATLANTIC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - ATLANTIC 
1954 1955 




JFMAMJJ ASON 



EMPLOYMENT in the Atlantic 
region declined slightly more than 
usual during December, largely 
because of bad weather. Layoffs 
were heaviest in logging and con- 
struction but staff reductions also 
occurred in fishing, trucking, lake 
shipping and some parts of manu- 
facturing. Logging employment fell 
sharply in Newfoundland during the 
first two weeks of December as 
many contractors were reaching 
their pulp cutting quotas but the 
number of persons engaged in the 
industry was substantially greater 
throughout the month than in 
December 1954. Elsewhere in the 
region, employment continued to 
show year-to-year improvement, reflecting a strengthening in the demand 
for lumber and pulpwood. Retail and wholesale trade establishments 
reported a busy season; staff requirements increased noticeably during 
the month in preparation for the Christmas trade. During the three-week 
period ended December 10, the total of persons with jobs declined by 
17,000 to 495,000, which was 12,000 higher than the figure for the same 
date in 1954. 

Fourteen of the 21 areas in the region were reclassified during the 
month — five from balance to the moderate surplus category and nine 
from the moderate to the substantial surplus category. At January 1, 
the area classification was the same as a year before: in moderate 
surplus 12; in substantial surplus 9. 

Local Area Developments 
St. John's (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. Since 
seasonal industries predominate in this area, substantial employment 
variations usually occur between summer and winter. In the month under 
review, unemployment increased at about the usual rate, as construction, 
logging, fishing, road and. highway transportation were curtailed. Never- 
theless, total employment at the end of the month remained higher than 
a year earlier. 

Corner Brook (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. 
Job opportunities decreased substantially as cutting operations were 
being completed in the logging industry. By the end of the month, log 
hauling was underway throughout the area and it was becoming evident 
that more workers were needed for these operations than in the previous 
year. Construction employment fell sharply in December, reaching a 
slightly lower level than a year earlier; an unusually early winter 
hastened the decline this year. 

New Glasgow (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. 
The increase in unemployment was confined almost entirely to seasonal 
activities. 



10 



Moncton (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. Sea- 
sonally low employment levels were reached in agriculture, road con- 
struction and fish canning plants. Building construction showed very 
little change during the month and was considerably more active than 
a year earlier. A year-to-year pick-up in employment was also recorded 
in the logging industry as a result of improved markets for long lumber; 
at the end of the month, labour requirements in this industry exceeded 
available supplies. 

Bathurst, Newcastle, St. Stephen, Summers ide and Yarmouth (minor). 
Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. 

Bridgewater, Edmundston, Fredericton, Grand Falls, and Kentville 

(minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS 
1954 



QUEBEC 
1955 




^^:-^^^^V::m:.«^^J 



QUEBEC 

LABOUR requirements decreased 
seasonally in Quebec during 
December but employment remained 
higher than a year before in all local 
labour market areas. Persons with 
jobs were estimated to number 
1,517,000 at December 10, 15,000 
fewer than in November but 46,000 
more than a year earlier. The major 
drop in employment in outdoor acti- 
vities did not occur till the latter 
part of the month, when construc- 
tion declined considerably. A 
number of seamen and longshoremen 
were also laid off following the 
closing of the shipping season on 
December 13. Labour surpluses 
increased in all local labour market 
areas and particularly in the smaller ones where employment depends 
primarily on outdoor activities. Manufacturing, logging and the pulp and 
paper industries continued very active. 

Declines in seasonal activities during December resulted in the 
reclassification of 17 labour market areas in the region; five moved 
from balance to the moderate labour surplus category, three from balance 
to substantial surplus and nine from the moderate to the substantial 
surplus category. At January 1, classification of the 24 areas in the 
region was as follows (last year's figures in brackets): in moderate 
surplus 13 (11); in substantial surplus 11 (13). 

Local Area Developments 
Montreal (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. Shortage 
of civil engineers and related occupations, which had been severe all 
through the year continued in December. Employment in manufacturing 
remained high except in clothing, certain food processing industries 
and leather products, where seasonal influences depressed employment. 
Construction activity tapered off but production of certain building 
supplies remained high. 

11 



Quebec-Levis (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. 
Closure of the Levis shipyards for an extended Christmas-New Year 
vacation increased seasonal surpluses of labour during December. 
Renewal of activities was reported in the shoe industry. 

Shawinigan Falls (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 
1. Unemployment increased seasonally during the month and a non- 
seasonal employment decline occurred in foundries. Manufacturing and 
industries not affected by seasonal factors continued to be very active. 

Trois Rivieres (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. 
The labour surpluses were mostly seasonal in nature, intensified by 
the closing down of some textile companies for extended inventory-taking. 
Shortages of lumbermen continued. 

Riviere du Loup (major agricultural). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 
1. Unemployment increased seasonally during the month. 

Seauharnois (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 1. The usual 
seasonal increase in the labour supply was intensified by a temporary 
shutdown of several plants as a result of electricity shortages caused 
by cold weather. 

Sorel (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 1. Although NES 
registrations increased sharply, the total was still almost 50 per cent 
lower than a year earlier because of sustained activity in construction. 

Drummondville, Gaspe, Montmagny, Rimouski, Ste. Agathe-St. Jerome 
and Valleyfield (minor). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. 

Lachute- Ste. Therese, Quebec North Shore, St. Hyacinthe and St. Jean 

(minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 

ONTARIO 

EMPLOYMENT in Ontario remained 
steady during the early part of 
December; the number of persons 
with jobs at December 10 was 
unchanged from November 19 at 
1,994,000 and 86,000 higher than 
in December 1954. 

During the second half of the 
month extremely cold weather and 
heavy snowfalls brought some 
construction jobs to a halt and 
slowed down others. Log cutting 
and hauling were also retarded by 
the heavy snow and many of the 
loggers moved out of the bush for 
the Christmas holiday. Manufactur- 
ing industries continued to be 
busier than usual for this time 
of year. Completion of Christmas production, however, brought some 
small layoffs and there were temporary closures for stock-taking and 
inventory adjustment in the consumer goods industries. There was also 




12 



some seasonal slackness in automobile production during the last two 
weeks of December and continuation of the General Motors strike re- 
sulted in further production decreases at feeder plants. 

Twelve areas were reclassified from balance to the moderate surplus 
category during the month. At January 1, the labour market classification 
was as follows (last year's figures in brackets): in balance 13 (5); 
moderate surplus 21 (23); and substantial surplus (6). 

Local Area Developments 
Hamilton (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. Seasonal 
slackness in construction and temporary layoffs at Ford in Oakville 
brought the area into moderate surplus by the beginning of January. 
However, nearly all manufacturing industries in the area were working 
at capacity. 

Ottawa- Hull (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Construction work 
slowed down during the extremely cold weather at the end of the month 
but this was partly offset by hiring of extra Christmas help for the Post 
Office Department and by the letting of Public Works painting and repair 
contracts. 

Toronto (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Heavy industries continued 
at capacity with engineers, draughtsmen, tool and die makers and other 
skilled metal workers still short. There was some reduction in consumer 
goods industries and some increase in the amount of short time in the 
textile industry. 

Windsor (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. By the 
end of the month, the usual seasonal layoffs had begun in both the auto- 
mobile assembly and supplier plants. Tool and die makers were still 
short and total job applicants were less than half as many as last year's. 

Kitchener (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 
Seasonal reductions in the rubber footwear industry were largely res- 
ponsible for bringing the area into surplus. 

London (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 
Temporary closures for inventory and production change-over affected 
1,400 workers during the final week in December but most of these 
were expected to be recalled early in January. 

Oshawa (major industrial). Remained in Group 2. 

Sarnia (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. Pro- 
duction of auto parts slowed down during the month. 
Timmins- Kirkland Lake (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 
to Group 2. Heavy snows brought road construction to a halt and slowed 
down log cutting and hauling. 

Goderich, North day, Owen Sound, Pembroke, Simcoe and V/alkerton 

(minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 

PRAIRIE 

EMPLOYMENT in the Prairie region remained unusually high during 
December. In the three-week period ended December 10, the number of 
persons with jobs increased by 3,000 to 938,000, which was 34,000 
higher than the figure at December 11, 1954. During the last half of 
the month employment decreased following a spell of exceptionally cold 

13 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS 
1954 




Persona Without Jobs 
and Seeking Work 











weather that curtailed most outdoor 
activities. In the construction in- 
dustry, employment opportunities 
for unskilled workers declined 
sharply but few skilled tradesmen 
were laid off during the month. 
Manufacturing employment con- 
tinued at notably higher levels 
than a year earlier, the sharpest 
year-to-year gains being recorded 
in the transportation equipment, 
non-metallic mineral and petroleum 
and coal products industries. The 
only sizeable layoff in manu- 
facturing during the month occurred 
in the railway rolling stock in- 
dustry, which released 175 workers 
because of a shortage of orders. 



Eleven labour market areas were reclassified during the month. 
At January 1 the classification of the 20 areas in the region was as 
follows (last year's figures in brackets): in balance 3 (3"); in moderate 
surplus 17 (16); in substantial surplus (1). 

Local Area Developments 
Calgary (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. Heavy storms and subzero 
temperatures brought construction to a standstill during December but 
many contractors reported work would be resumed when temperatures 
moderated. Trade and service establishments showed the usual employ- 
ment expansion in anticipation of a busy Christmas season; the local 
post office hired 830 workers. Most industries in the area maintained 
above-average employment levels. 

Edmonton (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. Unskilled 
construction workers accounted for most of the increase in unemployment. 
Very few skilled workers were released as heating facilities enabled 
them to continue interior work during the cold weather. A shortage of 
woods workers developed at some camps following an upturn in lumbering 
and logging activities. Qialified auto mechanics, body men, steno- 
graphers, typists and bookkeepers were also in short supply. 

Winnipeg (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. Employment reductions 
during the month were almost entirely seasonal. Most manufacturing lines 
showed some slackening but the number of persons released was smaller 
than usual. 

Fort William- Port Arthur (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to 
Group 2. Although construction employment was continuing at higher 
levels than a year earlier, activity in the industry gradually declined 
during December. 

Brandon, Moose Jaw, North Battleford, Prince Albert, Regina, Saskatoon 
and Yorkton (major agricultural). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 

Swift Current and Weyburn (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 



14 



PACIFIC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PACIFIC 
1954 1955 




EMPLOYMENT in the Pacific 
region declined somewhat more 
than seasonally during December 
as cold weather accompanied by 
heavy snowfalls curtailed oper- 
ations in logging, sawmilling and 
construction. Manufacturing acti- 
vity, however, continued strong 
and the employment situation was 
generally more favourable than a 
year earlier. The transportation 
industries and retail trade were 
quite busy. In the week ended 
December 10, the estimated number 
of persons with jobs was 444,000; 
this was 3,000 lower than in 
November but 23,000 higher than 
in December 1954. Unemployment 
was considerably lower than last year. 

Although some seasonal decreases in manufacturing employment 
occurred, machine shops and general engineering plants were busier in 
December than a year earlier. Foundries, shipyards, paint and cement 
plants were also busy. The mining industry remained buoyant in areas 
where weather conditions were not too severe. 

Four labour market areas were reclassified during the month, two 
from balance to the moderate labour surplus category and two from 
moderate to substantial labour surplus. At January 1, classification of 
the ten labour market areas in the region was as follows (last year's 
figures in brackets): in moderate labour surplus 6 (5); in substantial 
labour surplus 4 (5). 

Local Area Developments 
Vancouver- New Westminster (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. Log- 
ging operations decreased sooner than expected because of bad weather 
but camps did not close as early as last year for the holiday season. 
The large sawmills maintained full production but some smaller mills 
reduced operations because of log shortages caused by unfavourable 
weather. Seasonal layoffs occurred in some phases of manufacturing. 
The iron and steel industries were quite active. Employment in the 
construction industry continued at a high level. 

Victoria (major industrial). Remained in Group 2. Logging was severely 
hampered, especially during the latter half of the month. Sawmills oper- 
ated steadily. Machine shops, shipyards and the chemical industry were 
quite busy. The construction industry continued to be active. 

Cranbrook and Trail -Nelson (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 
2. 

Okanagan Valley and Prince George (minor). Reclassified from Group 2 
to Group 1. 



15 



Current Labour Statistics 



(Latest available statistics as of January 10, 1956) 



Principal Items 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous 
Month 



Previous 
Year 



Manpower 

i otal civilian labour force (a) 

Total persons vitii jobs 

At work. 35 hours or more 

At work less than 35 hours 

Rith jobs but not at work 

Vuth jobs but on short time 

ith jobs but laid off full week 

Persons without jobs and seeking work. 

Total paid workers 

In agriculture 

In non-agriculture 

Registered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 

'Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 

Claimants for Pnemployment 

Insurance benefit 

Amount of benefit payments 

Industrial employment (1919=100) 

Manufacturing employment (191-9=100) 

Immigration 

Industrial Relations 

Strikes and Lockouts — days lost 

No, of workers involved 

No. of strikes 

Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg„) 

Consumer price index (av, 1919=100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg. av. 1949=100) 
Total labour income ?000,000 

Industrial Production 

Total (average 1935-39 = 100) 

Manufacturing • 

Durables 

N on-; durables 



Dec. 10 
Dec. 10 
Dec. 10 
Dec. 10 
Dec. 10 

Dec. 10 
Dec. 10 

Dec. 10 

Dec. 10 
Dec. 10 
Dec. 10 



Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 



Dec. 1 

Nov. 

Nov. 1 
Nov. 1 

1st 9 

(DOS, 

Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 



Nov. 1 
Nov. 1 



Nov. 


1 


Nov. 


1 


Dec. 


1 


Nov. 


1 



October 



October 
October 
October 
October 



5,588,000 

5,388,000 

4,749,000 

512,000* 

127,000 

42,000 1 
18,000 

200,000 

4,230,000 

74,000 

4,156,000 



34,849 
81,995 
81,263 
49,500 
39,087 
286,694 



219,786 
3 8,661,628 



118.2 
112.7 

86,607 



340,410 

17,720 

15 



$62.18 

$1.45 

41.6 

$60.44 
116.9 
124.0 
1,139 



283.6 
284.6 
341.0 
248.5 



+ 0.1 

- 0.6 

- 2.9 
-1-34.4 
-14.8 

+27.3 
+50.0 

+23.5 

- 0.5 
-10.9 

- 0.3 



+ 28.1 
+ 27.7 
+ 19.4 
+37.0 
+ 19.0 
+ 25.5 



+ 34.8 
+ 14.9 



0.3 
0.6 



1.1 
0.3 
0.2 
0.6 
0.0 
0.6 
1.2 



+ 1.0 
+ 0.3 
+ 1.2 
- 0.5 



+ 2.8 
+ 3.9 
+ 2.5 
+ 13.8 
+21.0 

0.0 
+ 12.5 

-19.4 

+ 6.6 
-29.5 
+ 7.6 



-13.8 
-21.6 
-32.8 
- 4.2 
-13.4 
-21.0 



-28.3 
-38.2 

+ 5.1 
+ 6.0 



31.7(c) 



+26.5(c) 
- 7.8(c) 
-15.0(c) 



4.0 
3.4 
0.7 
4.2 
0.3 
4.1 
9.1 



+ 10.8 
+ 10.5 
+ 15.3 
+ 6.6 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from 
Labour Force, a monthly publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. See also 
inside back cover, October 1955 Labour Gazette. 

(b) See inside back cover, October 1955 Labour Gazette. 

(c) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year with 
total for same period previous year. 

1 Religious holiday occurred during the survey week. 



16 



Notes of 
Current 
Interest 



Howe Predicts Expansion 
To Continue This Year 

Another year of rapid economic expan- 
sion for Canada in 1956 was predicted by 
Hon. C. D. Howe, Minister of Trade and 
Commerce, in his year-end review. He 
advised caution, however, against excessive 
buying. 

The boom in 1955, economically the best 
year in the country's history, is "solidly 
based," he said; but whether "speculative 
excesses and other dislocating influences" 
develop will depend on future attitudes and 
decisions of individual consumers and 
business men. 

The record growth of the economy "still 
has some way to go," he said. "Given 
appropriate restraint on the part of all 
groups in the economic community, pros- 
pects for a relatively prolonged period of 
economic expansion appear bright indeed." 
He also said that considering the recent 
tempo it was surprising how far, up to the 
present, the economy had escaped "those 
strains and excesses which eventually lead 
to deterioration". 

The scarcity of some materials, the 
tightening of credit, and the rise in interest 
rates, Mr. Howe said, might provide a 
necessary means of regulating the pace of 
expansion. The scarcity of certain 
materials, which is expected to continue in 
1956, may have an important effect in 
limiting the size of the 1956 investment 
program, he added. 

Mr. Howe believed that the gross 
national product, which rose 10 per cent 
in 1955 to $26,400,000,000, will go still 
higher in 1956. But whereas virtually all 
of the 1955 increase was in volume, some 
of the increase in 1956 will probably be a 
reflection of higher prices — the result of the 
pressure of demand on a limited supply of 
some goods. 

A record 126,000 new homes were com- 
pleted in 1955, compared with 102,000 in 
1954. Many officials questioned whether 
this pace could be kept up. The carry- 
over of 78,000 unfinished houses at the end 
of 1955, 9,000 more than a year before, 
will have an important influence, Mr. Howe 
said, on the 1956 building program. 



Exports in 1955 increased 12 per cent 
over 1954 to an estimated record of 
$4,350,000,000 and show no marked sign of 
slackening, the Minister stated. He 
remarked that the current shift in Canada 
towards export industries was not neces- 
sarily a one-sided development. Such a 
shift was likely to be associated with 
continuing growth in secondary manufac- 
turing. "It would seem, therefore," he 
continued, "that rising exports of materials 
are favourable to the further growth and 
diversification of the Canadian economy." 

Labour income increased between 7 and 
8 per cent, and the farm community did 
"reasonably well" in spite of existing 
surpluses. For the year as a whole total 
personal income after direct tax deduc- 
tions increased by about 9 per cent, and 
buying power on a per capita basis rose 
by 6 per cent, Mr. Howe said. Con- 
sumer spending also increased, "more in 
fact than in any other single post-war 
year". 

The big economic advance in 1955 from 
the 1954 recession was accomplished with 
practically no increase in consumer prices. 
Earnings rose and unemployment declined, 
increasing the consumer's purchasing power. 
"The result has been an improvement jn 
living standards seldom surpassed in peace- 
time circumstances," said Mr. Howe. 

At the end of 1955 most economic indi- 
cators were pointing upwards, the Minister 
observed, while stable living costs were 
having a restraining effect on the upward 
trend in wage rates. 



Most WorU on Seaway 
Will Continue All Winter 

About 75 per cent of the labour force 
engaged on the St. Lawrence Seaway 
project will continue working during the 
winter, Hon. Lionel Chevrier, President of 
the St. Lawrence Seaway Authority, pre- 
dicted in Montreal last month. 

While dredges will have to cease opera- 
tions for the winter and coffer damming 
on the south shore of the river opposite 
Montreal will be restricted because of ice 
and higher water levels, most of the work 
will go on. Winter conditions present no 
serious problems in earth cuts. 

At mid-December the Ontario Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission reported that 
2,700 workers were employed on its part 
of the project. 

Total employment on the hydro project, 
including persons working for the New 
York State Power Authority, rose by 700 
during November despite unfavourable 
weather conditions. 



66180—2 



17 



Another Building Record 
Forecast by CCA Chief 

"The Canadian const ruction industry can 
mark up 1955 as a year of record achieve- 
ment.'" stated W. G. Malcom of Winnipeg, 
President of the Canadian Construction 
.at ion. in a year-end message. "For 
the first time in the industry's history, an 
all-time record volume of more than $5 
billions of construction was put in place. 
The volume of construction has risen each 
year in the post-war period and the pros- 
- are' that this trend will likely continue 
in 1956."' 

The value of construction put in place 
in 1946 was SI. 067 million, so that in 
dollar terms 1955's program was well over 
three times as large. Eliminating the 
increase accounted by price changes, a 
volume of construction work almost twice 
as much as was carried out in 1946 was 
put in place in 1955. 

Assets for Future Expansion 

"Although some sections of our economy 
have experienced a decline in recent years, 
the construction industry has continued to 
act as one of the most powerful stabilizing 
influences in the over-all Canadian 
economy. In addition to employing 
directly more than half a million Canadians 
and purchasing some $3 billion of a wide 
range of materials and equipment, the con- 
struction industry is providing the physical 
assets for an expanded economy in the 
future." 

The volume of dwelling units completed 
in 1955 reached the 125,000 level for the 
first time. This amount was described by 
the industry several years ago as the 
desirable minimum annual target. This 
volume is enough to provide accommoda- 
tion for a population of about the size 
of Vancouver's. 

The CCA anticipates that the 1956 
volume of construction in Canada would 
equal and probably exceed the 1955 total 
of about 85-2 billion. More than 30 per 
cent would be in the housing field, another 
30 per cent in other types of building 
construction and the balance in the various 
engineering categories. 

Carryover Above Average 

"The carryover of work -is above average, 
personal savings and corporate investment 
funds are at high levels, the backlog of 
road requirements and other public works 
is steadily increasing and the general 
economic climate of the country indicates 
continued over-all expansion. Increases in 
the volume of construction would appear 
to be more likely to be limited by short- 
ages of certain materials such as structural 



steel than by shortages of investment 
capital. It is interesting to note," Mr. 
Malcom added, "that official forecasts in 
the United States also predict a record 
volume of construction in 1956 in that 
countiy." 

Mr. Malcom stated that one of the 
factors explaining the construction indus- 
try's ability to expand its capacity was the 
increased volume of wintertime work being 
carried out by the industry. This trend 
had an equally important advantage in 
that it served to reduce the amount of 
seasonal unemployment traditionally experi- 
enced by many construction workers during 
the winter months in most parts of the 
country. "The widely-held feeling that 
winter construction is necessarily very 
expensive is outmoded in the light of 
modern techniques," he said, "and costs 
are often quite comparable when all things 
have been taken into consideration." 

He commended the action taken by the 
federal Government and some of the 
provincial Governments in adopting a 
policy favouring winter work in so far as 
their own construction projects were con- 
cerned and expressed the hope that other 
groups in the fields of industry, education 
and commerce with substantial construction 
programs would follow suit. 



U.S. Labour Economists 
Say 195S Prospects Good 

Labour union economists and research 
directors in the United States view 
economic prospects for 1956 as good. But 
in some cases, they say the outlook is not 
good enough. 

In a random poll by Joseph A. Loftus 
of the New York Times, some of those 
interviewed had only the mildest reserva- 
tions for 1956 or none at all. Others, he 
said, were concerned not so much with a 
downturn from present levels as with the 
possibility that the economy would not 
grow so fast as the working-age population. 
This they felt spelled unemployment. 

One person, Mr. Loftus reported, did 
foresee a drop in 1956. 

Stanley Ruttenberg, Director of Research 
for the American Federation of Labor and 
Congress of Industrial Organizations, said 
1956 "looks like a year of levelling off 
without any decline in the over-all 
economy. I don't look for a decline but 
I don't look for an advance at a high 
enough rate to prevent a rise in unem- 
ployment." 

He said there were "weaknesses in the 
economy, such as overextended credit, the 
declining farm income and rising profits in 
relation to wages and salaries". 






18 



Mr. Brubaker reported that inventory of 
steel warehouses was at the lowest point 
since the Korean War. "That part of the 
pipeline would be filled up before any- 
slackening was felt in steel production," 
he said. 

Foresees Dip 

Solomon Barkin, Research Director of 
the Textile Workers Union of America, saw 
a dip in 1956. His feelings were "that we 
are going to keep going for four or five 
months and slip unless the Government 
does something". 

That textiles might have set some kind 
of pattern for the economy was expressed 
by Mr. Barkin. He explained: "The con- 
sumer went all out. Now he is right up 
to his neck. Judging from surveys, the 
consumer is going to pull in somewhat. 
His purchasing power is flattening out, 
possibly weakening." 

Mr. Barkin foresaw the beginning of an 
upturn in 1957. 

George W. Brooks, International Brother- 
hood of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill 
Workers, was very optimistic for the paper 
industry. 

"This industry, which used to be a 
relatively low-profit, poverty-stricken indus- 
try in the Twenties, has now emerged as 
one of the most profitable industries in 
the United States. No change seems to be 
in prospect for '56 because of the steadily 
increasing demand for paper and paper 
products. Some of this seems to be at the 
expense of glass, tin and wood. Even if 
industry as a whole didn't continue its 
upward movement, we would expect the 
paper industry to do so, anyhow." 

Jacob H. Bennison, Retail Clerks Inter- 
national Association said: — 

"This very strong base of consumer 
purchasing power ought to hold up the 
whole year. Certainly I expect the first 
six months to continue in full swell. It 
looks pretty good." 



Working Conditions in Agriculture 

The third bulletin in a series on farm 
labour problems, prepared by the Depart- 
ment's Economics and Research Branch, is 
entitled "Working and Living Conditions 
in Agriculture". 

The new bulletin contains information 
under the following headings: experienced 
workers, some advantages of farm work, 
hours of work, wages, social security, rela- 
tions between farm operator and paid 
worker, improving efficiency on the farm, 
living conditions, and year-round employ- 
ment. 



2 More Auto Firms Sign 
Layoff Benefit Pacts 

Recent developments in regard to supple- 
mentary unemployment benefit in the 
United States include the incorporation of 
SUB provisions in contracts reached 
between the United Automobile Workers 
and two more automobile manufacturers, 
and a ruling by the Treasury Department 
that payments into the SUB trust funds 
of the Ford Motor Co. and General Motors 
Corp. will be deductible for taxation 
purposes. 

The Studebaker-Packard Corp. at South 
Bend, Indiana, announced last month that 
it had reached agreement with the UAW 
on the terms of a new labour contract. 
Details were not given, but the union said 
that the terms "fully meet the pattern" 
of the Big Three contracts, including what 
the union called its best layoff pay plan. 

The second contract was signed by the 
UAW and Willys Motors, Inc., in Toledo, 
Ohio. It is being cited as showing the 
willingness of the union to adapt its 
demands to the economic position of the 
company it is dealing with. The Willys 
agreement will cost the company slightly 
more than 11 cents an hour, compared 
with a cost of 20 cents for most of this 
year's automobile contracts. The layoff 
benefit plan will cost 3 cents (as against 
the usual 5 cents), and a general wage 
increase for 1955 is omitted. A 5-cent-an- 
hour annual improvement increase in 1956 
and 1957 compares with 6 cents or more 
in other agreements. 

Reason for Concession 

Richard T. Gosser, UAW Vice-president 
in Toledo, says that these concessions were 
granted to make Willys "entirely com- 
petitive with the Big Three". 

It is assumed that the favourable ruling 
of the Treasury Department will apply to 
all companies that agreed to guaranteed 
wage plans in this year's contracts with 
the UAW. Such a ruling was one of the 
conditions to be met before the Ford and 
GM plans could go into effect. 

A new type of wage guarantee to cover 
7,500 workers engaged in the manufacture 
of ski suits, sportswear and babies' coats 
in New York was asked for last month by 
the International Ladies' Garment Workers' 
Union. 

The demand was for a week's severance 
pay for each year a worker has been 
employed, in case of the shutting down of 
the employer's business, a common occur- 
rence in this industry. 

It is expected that the demand will set 
an example for other units of the union in 
New York. 



66180—21 



19 



Conciliation Board in Rail 
Dispute Fully Constituted 

Eric G. Taylor, Toronto, has been 
appointed Chairman of the Conciliation 
Board established to assist the parties in 
negotiations for renewal of the working 
agreements between trade unions represent- 
ing non-operating railway employees and 
the Canadian National Railway, Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company, Toronto, Hamil- 
ton and Buffalo Railway Company, Ontario 
Northland Railway, and the Algoma 
Central and Hudson Bay Railway. 

The other members of the Conciliation 
Board nominated by the parties are Paul S. 
Smith, QC, Montreal, the nominee of the 
companies, and David Lewis, Toronto, the 
nominee of the joint negotiating committee 
for the unions. 

By-pass Conciliation Officer 

Decision to appoint the Board and 
in so doing by-pass the normal appoint- 
ment of a conciliation officer was announced 
December 8 by the Hon. Milton F. Gregg, 
Minister of Labour. 

Customarily, the appointment of a board 
is preceded by the appointment of a con- 
ciliation officer, whose job is to try to bring 
disputants together. 

In none of the post-war series of union- 
railway disputes has a conciliation officer 
managed to bring about a settlement. The 
unions are known to take the view that 
this part of the standard procedure, in a 
case of the magnitude of the current one, 
is just a waste of time. 

The Board was appointed, the Minister 
said, on the application of the bargaining 
agents, who had advised him that direct 
negotiations for the revision of collective 
agreements had not been successful. 

Negotiations began November 17 and 
broke down November 25. The unions 
promptly asked for a conciliation board. 
The railways did not join in the request. 

Contracts Expired 

The unions, whose contracts expired 
December 31, are asking for a wage-health- 
welfare package equivalent to 33 cents an 
hour. 

The unions concerned in the proceedings 
are : Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way 
Employees; Brotherhood, of Railway and 
Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express 
and Station Employees; Division No. 4, 
Railway Employees' Department, AFL; 
Canadian National Railway System Federa- 
tion No. 11, International Asosciation of 
Machinists; International Brotherhood of 
Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Black- 
smiths, Forgers and Helpers of America; 
Brotherhood of Railway Carmen of 



America; International Brotherhood of 
Firemen and Oilers, Steam Plant Em- 
ployees, Roundhouse and Railway Shop 
Labourers; International Brotherhood of 
Electrical Workers; Commercial Teleg- 
raphers' Union; Brotherhood of Railroad 
Signalmen of America; Order of Railroad 
Telegraphers; Canadian Brotherhood of 
Railway Employees and Other Transport 
Workers; and Brotherhood of Sleeping Car 
Porters, Train, Chair Car, Coach Porters 
and Attendants. 



Railways 9 Net Revenue 
Doubled from Year Ago 

Gross revenues of Canadian railways in 
September amounted to $107,081,762, which 
sum is 15-1 per cent above the $93,002,241 
for the same month in 1954. 

Total expenses at $89,724,731 were 5-9 
per cent higher than the $84,734,430 a year 
earlier. 

As a result, net operating revenue 
amounted to $17,357,031, more than double 
the $8,267,811 for September 1954. 

Employees on railway payrolls numbered 
188,489, up slightly from 187,944, with their 
earnings increasing to $55,348,945 from 
$53,272,582. 



Raise 9 Medical Benefits 
Won by U.S. Rail Unions 

Wage increases ranging from 101 cents 
to 14i cents an hour have been granted to 
nearly 800,000 employees of United States 
railroads. 

Eleven railroad union brotherhoods, rep- 
resenting 750,000 non-operating employees, 
signed an agreement with the railroad 
companies in Chicago on December 21, 
calling for a pay raise of 14J cents an hour 
and company-paid hospital and medical 
benefits. The increase is retroactive to 
December 1, 1955. 

The unions had asked for an increase 
of 25 cents an hour, plus the additional 
provision for full employer payment of 
hospital and medical costs. The com- 
panies, arising out of an agreement of a 
year ago, had been sharing hospital and 
medical costs with employees on an equal 
basis. Under the new agreement, the 
companies will pay up to an estimated 
$6.80 per employee per month for hospital 
and medical protection, beginning March 1 
this year. 

The agreement between the unions and 
the carriers was a literal translation of the 
recommendations of a Presidential fact- 
finding board. The board, in making 
known its findings, expressed the opinion 



20 



that the railroad companies were able to 
meet the cost of the recommended increase. 
The board further declared that the sug- 
gested increase would enable non-operating 
employees to catch up with increases 
already granted railroad operating workers. 

Before the increase, non-operating 
employees were receiving an average hourly 
pay of $1.81. 

A few hours after the signing of the 
contract between the companies and the 
non-operating unions, the same carriers 
signed an agreement with the Brotherhood 
of Railway Conductors providing for a 
general 101-cents-an-hour increase for con- 
ductors and brakemen. Between 25,000 and 
27,000 union employees are affected. An 
additional 31 cents a day was awarded 
passenger conductors. 

The increase for the conductors and 
brakemen is retroactive to October 1, 1955. 
Prior to the agreement, the average annual 
pay for passenger traffic conductors was 
estimated at $7,220, while the wages of 
freight conductors was assessed at $6,778 
per year. The union had demanded an 
increase of $3 per day for passenger con- 
ductors and a raise of $2 for freight 
conductors. 

The new agreements will cost the 
companies an estimated $300 million a year. 

There is no termination date to the new 
agreements. Under the Railway Labour 
Act, railroad contracts are subject to 
re-opening on a 30-day notice. 



"Conciliation in Ontario 
Tahes Thrice Legal Time" 

Conciliation in Ontario is taking an 
average of 28 weeks, five weeks longer than 
it did in 1953 and three times as long as 
the Ontario Labour Relations Act allows, 
the Ontario Federation of Labour (CCL) 
declared last month. It based its state- 
ments on a survey of conciliation cases in 
the province. 

A 1953 survey by the Federation showed 
that the average conciliation case took 23 
weeks; the 1955 survey showed that it took 
28 weeks. The legal time limit set out in 
the province's legislation is ten weeks less 
four days. 

According to the surveys, 59-7 per cent 
of the 1955 cases took longer than six 
months compared with 34-3 per cent of 
the 1953 cases. About 8 per cent of the 
cases involving OFL affiliates went beyond 
40 weeks. 

In an attempt to find out which stages 
of the conciliation process accounted for 
the greatest delay, the Federation's research 



department analysed 78 cases. It found 
that it took: — 

From six to nineteen days and an 
average of two weeks for the Ontario 
Labour, Relations Board to process an 
application for conciliation. (Time allowed 
by the Act: one week.) 

From four to forty-one weeks and an 
average of 14 weeks for a conciliation 
officer to try to bring about a settlement 
and for the Minister of Labour to appoint 
a conciliation board (time allowed: five 
weeks). 

From one to eighteen weeks for a con- 
ciliation board to set up its first meeting, 
up to seven weeks to hold its meetings and 
from one to seventeen weeks to release its 
report and an average of 12 weeks for this 
third stage of the conciliation process (time 
allowed: four weeks). 



May Seek Right to Strike 
While Contract in Effect 

A union representative on the Ontario 
Labour Relations Board said last month 
that unions in the province may be forced 
to seek legislation permitting them to strike 
during the life of a collective agreement, if 
employers continue to ignore arbitrations 
awards. 

The statement was made by Dave Archer, 
President of the Toronto and Lakeshore 
Labour Council (CCL), while the Board 
was hearing a union's application for con- 
sent to prosecute an employer who had 
refused to implement the award of an 
arbitrator. 

Mr. Archer said Ontario unions had 
given up the right to strike during the 
term of a collective agreement in return 
for a system of binding arbitration of 
grievances. "If managements are going to 
refuse to implement arbitration decisions, 
unions will have to go back and ask the 
Legislature to put the right to strike back 
into the legislation," he said. 



Teachers^ Board Agree 
To Future Arbitration 

A provision that both parties shall 
request arbitration in future disputes if 
negotiation fails is contained in a new 
agreement, termed a model one for 
Ontario, signed last month by the Port 
Arthur Board of Education and the 
Ontario Secondary School Teachers Federa- 
tion. 

The Federation also agreed to do its 
best to prevent mass resignations, such as 
that which occurred in May when 58 high 
school teachers tendered severance notices. 



21 



"Labour and Management 

Rely Too Much on Govt." 

h labour and management were 
criticized for "bad habits'.' and "bad tactics" 

in looking to the Government to settle 
their differences, by Joseph F. Finnegan, 
Director of the United States Federal 
Mediation and Conciliation Service, while 
speaking at a faculty alumni seminar last 
month of the Now York State School of 
Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell 
University. 

The "'bad habit'' of relying on the 
Government instead of on collective 
bargaining, which was formed during 
World War II when the Government was 
frequently called in to settle industrial 
disputes, had not yet been shaken off by 
"certain elements," Mr. Finnegan said. 

He spoke even more severely of "bad 
tactics". He said that some representa- 
tives of both labour and management 
thought that it was the Government's duty 
to side with them in a dispute. 

"They are perfectly willing to 'sell the 
hour to serve the minute,' " he said. "Not 
content with denouncing the opposition 
themselves, they would have the Govern- 
ment join in castigation of the other side 
as a collective bargaining pressure move." 

In contrast with this be put what he 
considered the proper role of government 
in labour disputes— that of providing good 
offices and an atmosphere in which the 
parties could work out differences them- 
selves. 



"Negotiation by Research" 
Urged by New YorU Man 

A long-range program of "negotiation by 
research" to settle future differences in 
collective bargaining in the women's coat 
and suit industry was proposed last month 
by Samuel Klein, Executive Director of the 
Industrial Council of Cloak, Suit and Skirt 
Manufacturers. He was speaking at the 
Council's membership meeting in New 
York. 

Mr. Klein recalled that the industry had 
been one of the first to institute pensions 
for workers. "Now we have an opportunity 
for sponsoring another precedent of far- 
reaching consequences," he said. "It is the 
principle of negotiation by research, with 
contractual revisions to be predicated not 
upon partisan pressure but upon truths 
disclosed through expertly conducted 
studies." 

Mr. Klein suggested that the scope of the 
research should extend "well beyond the 
more conventional spheres of management- 
labour relationship" to include such things 



as: an examination of merchandising and 
marketing, the effect of non-union produc- 
tion on organized workers, the utilization 
of more modern machinery, procedures for 
shifting production methods without dis- 
advantage to workers, establishment of 
training methods to assure a future supply 
of skilled craftsmen, and elimination of 
inequalities amongst agreements in various 
localities and among independent concerns. 



CCL Expels Mine Worhers 
For Non-Payment of Dues 

The cancelling of the affiliation of 
the United Mine Workers of America with 
the Canadian Congress of Labour was 
announced by the Congress in the middle 
of December. This action of the CCL's 
executive came as a result of the refusal 
of the UMW to pay its dues to the Con- 
gress for about a year past. 

The union has 25,000 members in Canada, 
12,000 of whom are in Maritimes coal 
mines, 8,000 in Western coal mines, and 
5,000 in a catch-all group known as 
District 50. 

As a result of the CCL's action, the 
UMW no longer has the right to be 
affiliated with any provincial body or local 
labour council chartered by the Congress. 
This will be a hard blow for the Nova 
Scotia Federation of Labour, of which the 
Mine Workers' union is a prominent 
member and whose President, Sid Oram, 
belongs to the union. 

Another UMW member whose position 
is compromised by the step is Donald 
MacDonald, Secretary-Treasurer of the 
CCL and due to take over the same posi- 
tion in the merged TLC-CCL Canadian 
Labour Congress. It is understood, how- 
ever, that Mr. MacDonald has been offered 
membership in the International Wood- 
workers of America (CIO-CCL). 

The CCL jurisdiction in organizing the 
chemical industries has been given by the 
Congress to another CCL affiliate, the Oil, 
Chemical and Atomic Workers Interna- 
tional Union; and jurisdiction in the brick, 
tile, clay products and cement industries 
has been awarded to the United Glass and 
Ceramic Workers of North America. 



A walkout of 7,500 workers at three 
Rolls-Royce plants late last year, which 
idled an additional 3,500 non-plant 
employees, was caused when the union 
lifted the union card of a polisher who 
ignored union requests to cut down on 
overtime; the plant workers then refused 
to work alongside a non-union man. 



22 




the CCL on 

building and 

at working 



— Newton, Ottawa 
At the opening of the new Canadian Congress of Labour headquarters. Hon. Milton 

F. Gregg, Minister of Labour (left), stands with CCL President A. R. Mosher and 

TLC President Claude Jodoin while Ottawa's Mayor Charlotte Whitton addresses the 

gathering of well-wishers who attended the official opening of the new building. 

CCL Opens New Headquarters Building in Ottawa 

The new headquarters of the Canadian 
Congress of Labour was officially opened 
December 14 at Ottawa by A. R. Mosher, 
CCL President. 

Among those who took part at the 
opening of the new structure, situated on 
Argyle Avenue in Ottawa, were the Hon. 
Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour, 
Claude Jodoin, President of the Trades and 
Labour Congress of Canada, Ottawa's 
Mayor Charlotte Whitton and CCL 
Secretary-Treasurer Donald MacDonald. 

"I hope it will be here that the first 
all-Canadian Congress will play a more 
important role than ever in the develop- 
ment of the labour movement in Canada," 
said Mr. Mosher. 

Both Mr. Mosher and Mr. MacDonald 
voiced the belief that the new building 
will become the head office for the merged 
TLC and CCL. 

Mr. MacDonald said the new building 
and the merger of Canada's two major 



unions were a realization of a dream long 
nourished by union men. 

Mr. Gregg congratulated 
the opening of its new 
expressed his gratification 
around the same conference table as CCL 
and TLC representatives. 

Mayor Charlotte Whitton said the selec- 
tion of Ottawa for the headquarters of the 
CCL and perhaps eventually for all Cana- 
dian organized labour was an admission 
that Ottawa was the ideal locale as the 
national headquarters of any and every 
important nation-wide organization. 

Claude Jodoin, slated to head the new 
merged body, also spoke briefly and 
expressed his pleasure in the new building. 

Among the more than 300 guests at the 
opening were CCF Leader M. J. Coldwell, 
representatives of both the TLC and CCL, 
other labour organizations and groups in 
the Ottawa area, and civic, provincial and 
federal government figures. 



The United States Census Bureau reported last month that more Americans were 
available to work in the third quarter of 1955 than at any time in the nation's history. 

The report said 70,326,000 persons 14 years or older were in the labour force in July, 
August and September. Of the total, 48,907,000 were men and 21,419,000 women. 

Between the third quarters of 1954 and 1955, the labour force rose by about 1.500,000, 
with women accounting for most of the gain. 



23 



"Automation Will Create 
More Rewarding Jobs" 

The function of automation would be 
to perform mechanically jobs that required 
little or no skill, thus creating more highly 
skilled and more rewarding jobs, W. J. 
Adams, Vice-president of The Canadian 
Life Assurance Co., said in an address early 
last month. 

"The new jobs that automation will 
create will be far more productive of 
human dignity than any it displaces," Mr. 
Adams declared. 

"This prospect presents a challenge to 
our educational system and to industry", 
Mr. Adams said. "More people will have 
to be taught to think better, more people 
will have to be trained in more difficult 
skills, and many people will have to be 
re-trained in new skills." 

In the solution of the problems of 
automation, Mr. Adams said, "lies the 
opportunity for unparalleled advance by 
our society as a whole". 

Automation itself is not new, Mr. Adams 
said. "What is new is the possibility of 
using it in many businesses and industries 
where it wasn't applicable in the past." 

For companies like his own and others, 
Mr. Adams said, the conversion to the use 
of new electronic tools would be an 
evolutionary movement, not a revolutionary 
process. It would be a continuation of the 
technological improvements which had been 
going on for years past, he said. 

"Back in the twenties and thirties, there 
was widespread fear of machines as such — 
fear that they would create unemployment 



and lower our standard of living. Actually, 
of course, the machine, by enabling a man 
to produce more, has resulted in an in- 
creased standard of living and increased 
leisure time. Automation, because it seems 
new and seems different, has revived some 
of these old fears. 

"In the long term, the introduction of 
automation must increase man's productive 
capacity and hence increase his standard of 
living still further." 



U.K. Booklet Describes 
Services for Disabled 

A booklet giving a brief account of the 
work being done in the United Kingdom 
for the rehabilitation of the disabled, 
entitled Services for the Disabled, has 
lately been published by the U.K. Stand- 
ing Committee on the Rehabilitation and 
Resettlement of Disabled Persons. 

The first chapter contains a sketch of 
the major developments in the history of 
the work for the disabled which has led 
to the establishment of the existing services. 

Other chapters describe the services pro- 
vided for the disabled, including: medical 
services, special services and rehabilitation 
facilities, employment, and other social 
services. Another chapter describes some 
special categories of disabled persons. 

Copies of the publication may be 
obtained from United Kingdom Informa- 
tion Services in Ottawa, Montreal or 
Toronto. 



Six Possible Problems of Automation 



1. The immediate problem of redun- 
dant staff and of their re-employment 
elsewhere. 

2. The retraining and upgrading of 
staff for operative, supervisory and 
maintenance functions. 

3. The supply of trained personnel in 
mechanical and electronic engineering. 

4. Problems of industrial relations in 
the transition stage of automation and 
in the negotiation of new contracts of 
employment, especially clauses concern- 
ing hours, wages, days of work, promo- 
tion, classification of workers and 
redundancy. 

5. The timing of transition to coin- 
cide with the development of new 
employment opportunities. 

6. The possibilities of over-produc- 
tion. 



• • • and Six Advantages 

1. Output per hour goes up and so 
does productivity. 

2. Costs are reduced. 

3. Quality of production is better 
controlled. 

4. Jobs are made safer. There is 
little direct contact of employees with 
machines or tools and little handling 
of materials. 

5. Workers are freed from routine 
tasks and put on work requiring greater 
skill. 

6. Labour may be freed for other and 
perhaps new products, thus raising total 
productivity and the standard of living. 



— Labour and Employment Gazette, 
Department of Labour, New Zealand. 



24 



Rehabilitation of Disabled 
Has Good Results in U.S. 

Ninety per cent of all disabled persons 
are capable of being trained for gainful 
work according to Dr. Howard A. Rusk, 
Director of the Institute of Physical 
Medicine and Rehabilitation at New York 
University. 

Dr. Rusk reported that 95 per cent of 
the persons in National Vocational Reha- 
bilitation Centers had never worked before 
but had, as a result of one year's training, 
advanced from average annual earnings of 
$176 to more than $2,000. 

A short time before this statement was 
made the U.S. Department of Labor 
announced that the employment of 
physically-handicapped workers had in- 
creased steadily in 1955. A total of 31,825 
handicapped persons was placed by the 
Public Employment Service in October, the 
Department stated. This was the highest 
figure for any month since October 1950. 



Union, Employers Sponsor 
Annual Apprentice Trials 

The application of atomic energy to 
peaceful uses, not to mention its employ- 
ment in war, will make new demands on 
the knowledge and proficiency not only of 
the scientists and engineers at the top, but 
also of the men on the construction and 
maintenance level. 

Realizing this, the late Martin P. Durkin, 
President of the United Association of 
Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumb- 
ing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the United 
States and Canada, in 1954 conceived an 
idea which led to an unusual example of 
collaboration between labour and manage- 
ment: an international contest to test the 
skills of apprentice plumbers and pipe- 
fitters. It was also to be a test of the 
adequacy of their training. 

First Contest 

The first contest was held in 1954 at 
Purdue University. The second annual 
contest was held in late 1955 at the same 
place, and an elaborate conference was 
added to train the men who train the 
apprentices. Representatives came from 36 
states and from four provinces of Canada. 
Seventy-four apprentices (40 plumbers and 
34 pipefitters), all in the fifth and final year 
of their training, competed. 

The contest was divided into two classes, 
one for plumbers and one for pipefitters; 
prizes of $1,000 for first place, and $500 
and $250 for second and third places 
respectively, were offered in each class. 
The contest lasted three days. 



The first year's contest had brought out 
weaknesses: in particular, the apprentices 
were found to be deficient in welding skill. 
In consequence, last year training of 
teachers was undertaken and a five-day 
training course for apprentice instructors 
was held under the direction of Purdue's 
Industrial Education Division. The course 
was attended by more than 150 apprentice 
instructors, who were presented with certifi- 
cates at the close of the course. 

Jointly Administered 

This international apprentice training 
program is jointly administered by the 
plumbers' union, the National Association 
of Plumbing Contractors, the Mechanical 
Contractors Association of America, and 
the National Association of Master 
Plumbers and Heating Contractors of 
Canada. 

Richard J. Gray, President of the AFL 
Building and Construction Trades Depart- 
ment, a guest speaker at the presentation 
ceremony, said that although 3,750 joint 
committees of management and unions were 
conducting apprentice training programs in 
the building trades, more emphasis on such 
training was needed. 



U.S. Worried about Drop 
In Apprentice Training 

Concern over the decline in training of 
apprentices for skilled jobs has been grow- 
ing in the United States over the past two 
years. 

There are three main reasons for this 
concern : — 

1. While industry has been expanding, 
much apprentice training has been dropping 
off, with resulting shortages of skilled 
workers at some places and at some times. 

2. With the advent of automation, the 
decline in apprenticeship training is 
symbolic of an unawareness of the imme- 
diate and future needs of a highly mech- 
anized economy. 

3. It is feared that the United States is 
being outstripped by the Soviet Union in 
turning out an adequate supply of skilled 
personnel on all levels. 

Better Training Needed 

The U.S. Secretary of Labor and other 
public officials have been stressing the need 
for more extensive and better training in 
every type of skill. 

A report recently released on apprentice- 
ship training in the construction industry 
in the years 1950-55 has indicated, however, 
that last year such training was beginning 
a come-back from the declining or static 
conditions of 1950-54. 



66180—3 



25 



Nova Scotia Plans New 
Apprenticeship Procedure 

Apprentices in Nova Scotia are to be 
indent mod to an apprenticeship committee 
rather than to individual employers, it has 
been announced by R. H. Maccuish, 
Director of Apprenticeship, Nova Scotia 
Department of Labour. 

The committee will acquire the appren- 
tice and follow him through his training 
regardless of the number of employers he 
has during that time, Mr. Maccuish 
explained to a meeting of the Halifax and 
Dartmouth Area Bricklayers Apprentice- 
ship Committee. 

"A young man starting as an apprentice 
has no continuity of work due to fluctua- 
tions in industrial demand for labour," he 
said. "Because he is shifted from one 
employer to another, he has no way to 
prove his four years of apprenticeship 
training." 



Out-of-WorU Benefits Fall 
To Cover All Expenses 

A pilot study of a sample of 400 unem- 
ployment insurance beneficiaries conducted 
in Pittsburgh, Pa., last year has disclosed 
that, while unemployed, recipients spent 
substantially more for food, shelter and 
other items that they drew in benefits. 

Almost all persons in the sample reduced 
expenditures after they were laid off. But, 
the survey showed, the weekly benefit 
cheques represented less than 60 per cent 
of the reduced expenditures for most single 
claimants and less than 45 per cent for 
most families in which the chief wage- 
earner was out of work. 

According to a U.S. Department of Labor 
report on the survey, claimants supple- 
mented their benefit cheques by drawing 
on other personal resources, e.g., savings, 
or by borrowing. 

The study was conducted by Duquesne 
University in co-operation with the Bureau 
of Employment Security of the Pennsyl- 
vania Department of Industry and Labor. 

Experimental Study 

Experimental in nature, it was designed 
to test techniques, methods and procedures 
in preparation for a series of similar surveys 
to be conducted in a number of states to 
obtain information concerning the adequacy 
of unemployment insurance payments in 
tiding jobless workers over temporary 
periods of unemployment. 

The survey was made prior to the 
recent amendment of the Pennsylvania 
unemployment insurance law raising the 
maximum weekly benefit from $30 to $35. 



Total Union Dues Exceed 
$500 Million Each Year 

Trade unions with an aggregate member- 
ship in the United States and Canada of 
17,500,000 have a total income of more 
than $500,000,000, according to a recent 
survey. 

(Labour union membership in Canada at 
the beginning of 1955 was 1,268,207, accord- 
ing to Labour Organization in Canada, 1955 
(L.G., Dec, p. 1357).) 

The survey, which extended over a 
period of a year, was conducted in the 
United States by the National Industrial 
Conference Board, a private research 
agency. It covered 139 unions affiliated 
with the merged AFL-CIO, plus 55 inde- 
pendent unions. Only three unions, all 
tainted with corruption, refused to co- 
operate with the Board. 

Total dues collected by the unions were 
at least $457,000,000 a year, and although 
no exact reckoning was made of the 
amount collected in initiation fees and 
assessments, James J. Bambrick, director of 
the study, said that it would bring the total 
"well above the half-billion mark". 

Per capita taxes to the internationals 
cost the locals $228,000,000 a year, leaving 
the latter an almost equal amount, 
$229,000,000, to meet their own expenses. 

Average dues payment per member was 
put at $26.14 a year. In some cases dues 
were as low as $1 a month, while the 
highest reported was $25 a month for air- 
line pilots earning more than $19,000 a 
year. Initiation fees ranged from 65 cents 
to $250, the highest fees being for certain 
skilled trades. 

Other information unearthed by the 
survey included the following: — 

Unions with 10,500,000 members have 
constitutions requiring a membership vote 
before a strike; and unions with a total 
membership of 6,000,000 require the strike 
vote to be by secret ballot. 

Most unions require locals to obtain 
authorization from the head office before 
a strike can be called. Thirteen unions, 
representing government workers, have a 
constitutional ban on strikes. 

Unions whose membership comprises 
more than a third of the total exclude 
Communists and other subversive elements. 

Only five unions with 442,000 members 
still have constitutions which bar member- 
ship on racial grounds. These include four 
independent railroad unions and an asso- 
ciation of postal transport workers. Thirty- 
nine unions explicitly exclude considerations 
of race or national origin in admitting 
applicants to membership. 



26 



Ontario Hydro Worhers Vote 
To Merge with CCL Union 

One of Canada's largest independent 
employees' associations has voted to merge 
with a CCL national union. 

Last month, by what the association's 
President termed a "comfortable" margin, 
members of the Ontario Hydro Employees' 
Association voted to merge with the 
National Union of Public Service Employees 
(CCL). Two earlier merger proposals had 
been rejected by the Hydro employees. 

Cecil Walker, President of the Associa- 
tion, said there would be few, if any, 
changes as a result of the merger. The 
Association, he emphasized, would retain 
complete autonomy within the CCL union. 

Stanley Little, Director of Organization 
for the NUPSE, explained that the Hydro 
group was completely self-contained. 



Rehabilitation in Europe 
Studied by Ontario Men 

Following an itinerary suggested by 
Ian Campbell, National Co-ordinator of 
Civilian Rehabilitation, two Ontario doctors 
connected with the province's Workmen's 
Compensation Board late last year made 
a tour of European rehabilitation centres. 
They were Commissioner Dr. E. C. Steele 
and Dr. Bruce H. Young, Medical Super- 
intendent of the Malton Rehabilitation 
Centre. 

The purpose of the trip was to observe 
operations at as many rehabilitation centres 
as possible with a view to including their 
most beneficial features in the new 
Compensation Board rehabilitation centre 
on which construction is to begin soon. 

Among the places visited were indus- 
trial rehabilitation* units in Glasgow and 
Leicester and miners rehabilitation centres 
at Uddingston, Scotland, and Firbeck Hall 
in Yorkshire; the Fitness Centre at Bridge 
of Earn; King's College Hospital, London; 
Pindersfield Hospital, Leeds; Queen Mary's 
Hospital, Roehampton ; the Vauxhall Motor 
Centre; the Stoke-Mandeville Centre for 
Paraplegics; and the Albert Dock hospital. 

In Austria the two doctors studied the 
facilities at the world-famous rehabilitation 
centre at Tobelbad. 

While they reported that they did not 
see a centre that was superior in its over- 
all accomplishments to the Malton centre, 
they did obtain useful ideas that can be 
applied in the proposed centre. 

Arrangements for the trip were made by 
Mr. Campbell through the co-operation of 
the British Ministry of Labour and the 
Accident Insurance Institute of Vienna. 



Teamsters, Mine-Mill Sign 
Mutual Assistance Pact 

The Western Conference of the Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Teamsters last 
month signed a mutual aid and assistance 
pact with the International Union of Mine, 
Mill and Smelter Workers. The Teamsters' 
Western Conference includes the union's 
locals in Western Canada. 

The agreement between the two unions 
provides for the establishment of a joint 
committee which will try to settle disputes 
that may arise between them. It was 
also agreed that joint negotiations with 
employers would be undertaken where that 
was feasible, and that the two unions should 
work together for the repeal of legislation 
considered inimical to either union. 

The Mine-Mill Union was expelled some 
years ago by the CCL, and later by the 
CIO, because of its communist leadership ; 
and there is a good deal of latent opposi- 
tion in both the AFL-CIO and the TLC 
to the action of the Teamsters in allying 
themselves with the outcast union. 

"It won't help Mine-Mill in Canada," 
Gordon Cushing, Secretary-Treasurer of the 
TLC, with which the Teamsters are affili- 
ated, said after the pact was announced. 
Jurisdiction claimed by Mine-Mill has been 
given by the TLC to its affiliate the Inter- 
national Chemical Workers' Union. "The 
Chemical Workers will continue to organize 
the refineries and the Steelworkers will 
continue to organize the miners." 

Dave Beck, International President of the 
Teamsters, said that the main reason for 
the pact was the Teamsters' desire to take 
into membership several hundred truck 
drivers who are now members of Mine- 
Mill. 



Independent U.S. Unions 
Plan Unity Convention 

A recommendation that a national unifi- 
cation convention be called next May for 
^.proposed merger of some 6,000,000 union 
members not affiliated with the American 
Federation of Labour-Congress of Indus- 
trial Organizations was made last month 
by a committee representing the National 
Independent Union Council and the Con- 
federated Unions of America. 

The National Independent Union Council 
lists 2,500 unions, estimated to have a total 
membership of 1,800,000 workers. Member- 
ship of the Confederated Unions of America 
was estimated at 75,000. 

The two groups were said to be leading 
the movement to unify all independents to 
prevent them from being absorbed by the 
AFL-CIO. 



66180—3* 



27 



Labour I iiifi/ in Ireland 
About to be Effected 

Central trade union bodies of yet another 
country, Ireland, have decided to join 
forces. At a meeting in Dublin last month, 
representatives of the Irish Trades Union 
Congress and the Congress of Irish Unions 
agreed on a plan for setting up a national 
trade union centre for the whole of Ireland.' 

The TUC consists of members of Irish 
unions and of British unions which have 
membership in Northern Ireland and in the 
Republic. The CIU is made up of all-Irish 
unions, and has insisted that trade unions 
in Ireland should be Irish-based and Irish- 
controlled. 

Subject to, and immediately after being 
approved by, special conferences of both 



congresses which were to meet on January 
5, a new organization to be known as the 
"Provisional United Organization of the 
Irish Trade Union Movement" will be set 
up. This provisional organization will have 
the task of drafting a constitution and of 
founding the new centre. 

This plan, which is the result of two 
years of negotiation, marks a step towards 
the union of trade unions but the realiza- 
tion of the ideal which it represents will 
not be easy. Many Northern workers and 
some in the South are determined not to 
abandon their British-based unions in favour 
of a single all-Ireland congress with its. 
headquarters in Dublin. 



Submissions of Provincial Labour Federations 
Quebec Federation of Labour (TLC) 



The Quebec Federation of Labour (TLC) 
has asked the provincial Government to 
have trade unions relieved of the obliga- 
tions imposed by the Labour Relations Act 
and permitted to declare a strike imme- 
diately when an employer does not bargain 
in good faith. 

The request was contained in the annual 
brief presented by the Federation to the 
provincial Cabinet at the end of November. 

Read by Roger Provost, President of the 
Federation, the brief also recommended 
more severe sanctions against employers 
who dismiss their employees for union 
activity; more expeditious proceedings in 
the field of labour-management relations; 
improvements in the conciliation and arbi- 
tration service, in particular the establish- 
ment of a list of impartial arbitrators; and 
recognition of the principle of the retro- 
activity of collective agreements. 

The Federation also denounced Sunday 
work, asking that closer supervision be 
exercised. 

Emphasizing the necessity for the observ- 
ance of Sunday, Maurice Duplessis, Premier 
of the province, congratulated the Federa- 
tion on its attitude, going on to state that 
if "the manufacturers of newsprint want 
price control for newsprint, they'll get it". 

"The manufacturers of newsprint in 
Quebec," he said, "must provide the news- 
papers of the province with newsprint at 
prices which take into account their status 
as joint owners of the forests. 

"We have established rent control," Mr. 
Duplessis added, "and we can just as easily 
impose controls on those who hire our forest 
resources." 



With regard to delays in arbitration, the 
Premier specified that the best remedy for 
this situation is goodwill on both sides. 

Mr. Duplessis also declared himself in 
favour of the principle of retroactivity in 
the renewal of collective agreements. He 
disclosed that a bill has been drafted to 
that effect, but that there are still a great 
many difficulties to be overcome. 

Calling attention to the industrial 
development of the province of Quebec, 
the Federation stated in its brief that this 
development must be accompanied by a 
substantial increase in population and con- 
siderable improvement in the standard of 
living of the people. 

"In our opinion," the brief continued, "it 
is therefore absolutely, necessary, for an 
increase in population, that wages in this 
province should reach a level at least equal 
to if not higher than those in any other 
part of the country. There is no doubt 
that one of the most effective ways of 
increasing wages is collective bargaining, 
the premise of which is the full and 
unfettered right of the workers to join the 
labour organization of their choice." 

The Federation suggested that the 
adoption of a firm attitude, both by the 
provincial Government and by the Labour 
Relations Board, concerning the free 
exercise of the right of association, would 
have a salutary effect "on certain employers 
who still have a conception of management 
reminiscent of the Middle Ages". 

In addition to asking for trade unions 
the right to strike without going through 
the stages of conciliation and arbitration, 



28 



when the employer does not bargain in 
good faith, the Federation also requested 
that the Quebec Labour Relations Board 
should hear the parties without delay, that, 
on the decision of the Board, the Attorney 
should immediately take action against the 
party at fault, and that a daily fine equal 
to that provided in case of an illegal strike 
should be imposed. 

With regard to the arbitration courts, 
the brief maintained that the main problem 



arises from the limited number of impartial 
arbitrators who can be chosen by the 
parties. The Federation suggested that 
the Goyernment draw up a list of persons 
likely to act as presidents of arbitration 
courts. 

It was also requested that the three- 
month limit provided by law for the 
announcing of an arbitration award should 
be strictly respected, save under excep- 
tional circumstances. 



Saskatchewan Federation of Labour (CCL) 



The annual brief of the Saskatchewan 
Federation of Labour (CCL) was sub- 
mitted to the provincial Government at 
Regina on December 20. 

The Federation on behalf of its 11,900 
members urged the Government to: — 

Amend the Hours of Work Act to estab- 
lish a 40-hour, five-day week without 
reduction in take-home pay; 

Amend the Trade Union Act to provide 
for changes in the names of certified unions 
consequent upon a merger, to require 
employers to produce financial statements 
of their position when they plead inability 
to pay higher wages during collective 
bargaining, and to alter the Maintenance 
of Membership section of the Act; 

Amend the Workmen's Compensation Act 
to provide for payment of 100 per cent 
compensation. 

Other requests or recommendations made 
in the brief related to the establishment of 
a minimum wage of $1 an hour; changes 
in the Factories Act, Annual Holidays Act, 
and Public Service Act and Regulations; 
weekly days of rest; recovery of wages due 
from bankrupt employers; women in in- 
dustry; improvement of the lot of domestic 
servants; sick pay; payment for jury duty; 
time for voting at civic elections; liquor 
laws; safe condition of motor vehicles 
offered for sale ; trans-Canada pipeline ; and 
housing. 

The Federation expressed concern at the 
amount of unemployment in the province, 



protested against a recent change in the 
Unemployment Insurance Act which pro- 
vides that the basic 30 weekly contribu- 
tions required to qualify must not be more 
than a year old, and favoured the assump- 
tion by the federal Government of the 
entire cost of relief aid. 

The brief mentioned a resolution 
repeatedly passed by conventions of the 
Federation and the parent Congress which 
expressed unalterable opposition to any 
form of compulsory arbitration as a means 
for the settlement of labour disputes. 

The federal Government was urged to 
provide interest-free cash advances to 
farmers on grain in storage, to the extent 
of 50 per cent of the initial payment on 
an eight-bushel per specified acre quota. 

The 10-man delegation was headed by 
L. A. Gardiner, President of the Federa- 
tion. 

Premier T. C. Douglas, in his reply to the 
delegation, said that his Government was 
prepared to proceed at once with amend- 
ments to the Trade Union Act to safeguard 
union rights where changes in union names 
became necessary as a result of a merger. 
He pledged favourable consideration to 
other important items in the brief and, in 
regard to several other matters, he agreed 
that they should be discussed between 
committees appointed by the Government 
and the Federation respectively. 

The Premier was accompanied by ten 
members of his Cabinet. 



Manitoba Federation of Labour (TLC) 



Unemployment and the financing of 
unemployment relief, the trans-Canada 
pipeline, and national health insurance were 
the subjects dealt with in a brief sub- 
mitted recently by the Manitoba Federa- 
tion of Labour (TLC) to the provincial 
Government. 

A large part of the brief was devoted 
to a discussion of the unemployment situa- 
tion, with particular reference to the 
sharing of the cost of unemployment relief 



between municipal, provincial and federal 
governments. 

The brief expressed dissatisfaction about 
the failure of the provincial and federal 
Governments to arrive at any satisfactory 
arrangement with regard to payment of 
the cost of unemployment relief. It asked 
for a conference to be called by the 
provincial Government of all mayors and 
reeves to decide what share of the cost 
each municipality should bear. It also 



29 



suggested that the provincial Government 
should call meetings of all engineering 
staffs to institute a program of works 
which could be held in readiness to prevent 
a repetition of the experience of last 
winter. 

The Federation said that in its opinion 
the trans-Canada pipeline should be con- 
structed as a public utility, either by the 
federal and provincial Governments jointly; 
or by the provincial Governments that 
would benefit by the use of the gas, without 
federal government help. 

The building of the pipeline, the brief 
said, should not depend upon the consent 
of United States authorities for the import 
of Canadian gas into their country. An 
immediate start on the project as a public 
utility was urged. 

The brief strongly urged the setting up 
of a national health program which would 
"provide complete medical, hospital, dental, 



optical, physical and psychiatric care for 
every man, woman and child who is a 
resident of Canada." 

Along with this health plan, the brief 
said, should go a program of disease pre- 
vention. This would include, besides the 
existing programs of cancer and tuber- 
culosis research, research into such diseases 
as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and condi- 
tions of the heart. It would also include 
"improved sanitary conditions in both 
rural and urban areas, pure water supplies, 
industrial hygiene, and other factors that 
enter into the promotion of good public 
health". 

"Health insurance," the Federation said, 
"should be made available to all, regard- 
less of income, just as old age pensions 
are now made available to all regardless of 
income. Recovery of such payments can 
be made most equitably through income 
tax." 



Conventions of Provincial Labour Federations 
Saskatchewan Provincial Federation of Labour (TLC) 



The Saskatchewan Provincial Federation 
of Labour (TLC) held its 3rd annual con- 
vention in Prince Albert on October 15 
and 16. 

In his opening address the President, 
Andrew Tait, called on all members to 
co-operate to the fullest extent in bringing 
about a quiet and harmonious merger 
between their Federation and the Saskat- 
chewan Federation of Labour (CCL), and 
between the trades councils in the various 
cities. 

He emphasized the importance of follow- 
ing the policy of the TLC in keeping the 
Federation on a non-partisan basis in 
politics, while at the same time giving to 
all the right to support the party of their 
choice. 

A wide variety of matters was dealt with 
in the 60 resolutions placed before the 48 
delegates during the convention. The con- 
vention requested: the early introduction 
of a national health plan, commending the 
provincial Government for its work on the 
matter; increased grants for education from 
the federal Government; and increased 
minimum wage rates, with reduced hours 
of work. 



A resolution was adopted deploring the 
provincial Government's ignoring in a 
recent appointment to the Workmen's 
Compensation Board the long-established 
policy of recognizing the wishes of the 
majority of the organized workers. 

The convention elected Don R. Arnold, 
First Vice-president, to attend the conven- 
tion of the Saskatchewan Federation of 
Labour (CCL) in North Battleford in 
November, and authorized the incoming 
executive to set up a committee to meet 
a similar committee from the CCL body to 
discuss the proposed merger. 

Members of the executive re-elected 
were: President, Andrew Tait; First Vice- 
president, Don. R. Arnold; Secretary- 
Treasurer, Ivan E. Morse; Regional Vice- 
presidents, Hugh O. Scott, Moose Jaw; 
Alex. S. Cochrane, Regina; and J. C. 
Davidson, Saskatoon. The two new 
members of the executive were: Vice- 
presidents J. A. Lamb, Prince Albert, and 
W. J. Warden, representing the Saskat- 
chewan Civil Service Association. All were 
elected by acclamation. 



British Columbia Federation of Labour (CCL) 



The coming merger of the TLC and CCL 
provincial federations and its possibilities 
for expanding organizing activities through- 
out the province were emphasized in the 



presidential address at the 12th annual 
convention of the British Columbia Federa- 
tion of Labour (CCL), held in Vancouver 
on November 19 and 20. 



30 



About 125 delegates, representing 54 
locals, 67 affiliated unions and three labour 
councils, attended the convention. 

The President, Dan Radford, also spoke 
of the problems ahead due to automation. 
He said that labour is not opposed to 
progress, and therefore not opposed to 
automation, but that labour as well as 
management should see to it that automa- 
tion will not create mass unemployment 
and hardship for the workers. 

Hon. Lyle Wicks, B.C. Minister of 
Labour, addressing the convention at the 
afternoon session on Saturday, said that 
lack of interest by members is the greatest 
challenge facing British Columbia unions. 
He urged the Federation to "make an 
effort to have its members attend as many 
local meetings as possible". 

The Government has aided the unem- 
ployment situation by letting out contracts 
for public works at a time when some men 
would normally be unemployed, the Min- 
ister said. 

More than 100 resolutions came before 
the delegates for consideration. One of 
the most important dealt with the forth- 
coming merger of the TLC and CCL 
provincial federations. The delegates 
approved the action taken by the executive, 
and instructed them to proceed with the 
plans outlined in the directive issued by 
the TLC-CCL Provincial Unity Committee 
a short time before. 

The delegates passed a resolution oppos- 
ing a section in the terms of the merger 
regarding representation at conventions of 
the new Congress, and urged that the same 
form of representation as now in force in 
the CCL be retained. 

Another resolution called for annual con- 
ventions instead of one every two years. 

Amendments to existing legislation with 
regard to the necessity of obtaining new 
certifications in cases where the names of 
unions had been changed were also 
requested in two other resolutions passed 
by the convention. 

Other resolutions dealing with labour 
legislation called for a 30-hour week and 
amendments to the Annual Holidays Act 
and the Workmen's Compensation Act. 
Another resolution demanded a national 
health plan. 

On the subject of grain marketing the 
convention: urged the provincial Govern- 
ment to make vigorous representations, in 
conjunction with farmer and labour organ- 
izations of British Columbia, to the federal 
Government to adopt a more flexible grain 
marketing policy; supported the farmers' 



demand for a guaranteed minimum price 
for grain; opposed any move to alter the 
Crow's Nest Pass freight rates; and 
approved a proposal for interest-free cash 
advances to farmers by the federal Govern- 
ment to the value of the grain in store on 
their farms. 

There was some strongly-worded criti- 
cism of the leaders of the International 
Union of Operating Engineers (AFL-TLC), 
in connection with the strike of the union's 
members in 12 coastal and Vancouver 
Island lumber and shingle mills. 

Lloyd Whelan, President of Vancouver 
Labour Council, and head of the Inter- 
national Woodworkers of America (CIO- 
CCL) Local 1-71, said that the leaders of 
the AFL union were "a bunch of vultures, 
trying to split us up". 

Joe Morris, Woodworkers' Provincial 
President, accused the Engineers of 
attempting to turn their dispute with the 
employers into "a jurisdictional battle with 
the IWA". 

The accusations of the Woodworkers' 
leaders were made during discussion of a 
resolution, finally passed by the delegates, 
urging that no further certification of craft 
groups be made unless the craft union 
applying for certification does so on behalf 
of at least 51 per cent of all employees in 
the establishment, if there is already an 
industrial certification in effect for that unit. 

Charges were made at the convention that 
"houses in Kitimat are being sold to 
workers for prices ranging upwards from 
$14,000 when their actual value is no more 
than $10,000". 

Pen Baskin, of the United Steelworkers, 
also charged that an "aluminum curtain" 
has fallen over the issue in the press. He 
said that "two Vancouver newspapers sent 
men up to examine the situation, but 
neither paper has printed their stories. It 
seems that anything that does not eulogize 
the Aluminum Co. of Canada never gets 
in the pages of our press." 

It was decided that representations about 
the matter should be made to both federal 
and provincial Governments. 

Dan Radford was re-elected as president 
for his eighth term without opposition. 
Other officers elected were: Joe Morris, 
First Vice-president; William Symington, 
Second Vice-president; R. R. Smeal, Third 
Vice-president; and George Home, Sec- 
retary-Treasurer. 

The following were elected executive 
committee members: Lawrence Vandale, 
George Droneck, Warren Lowery, Pen 
Baskin, Vic Mauro, Gerry Emary, and 
Stew Irving. 



31 



Employment in 1955 — A Survey 

Past year was one of rapid recovery from the minor recession of 1954, 
employment effect of which was unevenly distributed among industries. 
Rise in basic employment level expected to continue through early 1956 



The past year has been one of rapid 
recovery from a minor recession. During 

1954 national output fell to $23-9 billion 
sonally adjusted at annual rates), com- 
pared with the previous peak of $24-6 
billion in 1953. At the end of 1954, how- 
ever, the gross national product had turned 
upward again and by the third quarter of 

1955 had reached an annual rate of $26-9 
billion. This high level of economic 
activity was sustained during the fourth 
quarter. 

The effects on employment of the busi- 
ness downturn and the subsequent recovery 
were unevenly distributed among indus- 
tries. In some parts of manufacturing, 
employment fell fairly sharply and has not 
yet shown much sign of recovery. In other 
industrial sectors there has been scarcely 
any break in the expansionary trend. 

The general pattern of employment and 
unemployment is indicated in Chart 1, in 
which the various labour force components 
have been adjusted for seasonal variation. 
It can be seen that the employment gains 
this year have fully made up for the losses 
incurred during 1954 and that by the end 
of 1955 total employment had regained its 
position on the long-term upward trend line. 
In mid-November the number of persons 
with jobs, seasonally adjusted, was 2-6 per 
cent higher than the 1953 peak. 

Among the more arresting developments 
of the past two years have been the con- 
trasting movements of agricultural and 
non-agricultural employment. Through the 
summer and early fall of 1954, more 
workers than usual were absorbed into 
agriculture, while non-farm employment 
tended to level off after the sharp drop of 
the previous winter. Since March 1955, on 
the other hand, there has been a sustained 
and rapid rise in non-farm employment, 
while the number of .persons employed in 
agriculture has reverted to the falling trend 
of the previous postwar years. These recent 
changes in employment trends are not 
unrelated; the downward trend in farm 
employment apparently depends to a con- 
siderable extent on a strong demand for 
labour in other industries. 

The decline of unemployment this year 
has been as marked as the increase in 
employment. The number of persons with- 
out jobs and seeking work fell to 2-3 per, 



32 



cent of the labour force this summer, 
almost midway between the low points 
reached in 1954 and 1953. By October this 
figure increased slightly to 2-5 per cent but 
there was still no heavy concentration of 
surplus labour. 

When the industrial employment indexes 
of the past 21 years are adjusted for the 
usual seasonal variations, 1 they show a 
clear pattern of a downturn in employment, 
followed by a stable period, and then a 
sharp recovery. As illustrated in Chart 2, 
industrial employment 2 declined by 4-5 
per cent between May 1953 and April 1954, 
remained relatively stable from April 1954 
to February 1955 and then rose sharply 
through the remaining months of the year. 
By the first of October the seasonally- 
adjusted index had increased 5 per cent 
in the preceding eight months. 

Manufacturing, and to a lesser degree 
construction, transportation and mining, 
were clearly the industries chiefly respon- 
sible for both the downturn and the 
subsequent recovery. All four industries 
contributed to the sharp employment drop 
that took place between May 1953 and 
April 1954. Manufacturing alone continued 
to decline after April 1954 and this was 
sufficient to prevent a rise in the industrial 
composite, although employment in other 
industries was rising. When the employ- 
ment decline in manufacturing came to an 
end, it had dropped more than 8 per cent 



x Many Canadian industries have fairly regular 
fluctuations in employment because of weather or 
other conditions that are directly related to the 
season of the year. For purposes of analysis, it is 
often useful to eliminate these fluctuations from 
the reported employment indexes, particularly if 
comparisons are being made over periods of more 
or less than 12 months. This is done by dividing 
the actual employment index by an index of the 
average seasonal fluctuations during the past few 
years. The result is a seasonally-adjusted employ- 
ment index that indicates underlying changes in 
employment. 

2 As measured by the industrial composite index 
provided by the Employment and Payrolls Survey 
of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. This index 
covers most of the major industrial sectors of the 
economy, the major exception being agriculture. 
Coverage differs between industry groups, the 
service industries being covered less adequately 
than manufacturing. 



CHART 1 



THE CANADIAN LABOUR FORCE AND SELECTED COMPONENTS 
(Seasonally Adjusted) 

Thousonds 



Labour Force 




With Jobs: 

Non-Agriculture 



Without Jobs 
And Seeking Work 



1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 20 3Q 4Q 
1953 1954 1955 



1952 

Source: Labour Force Survey, D.B.S. 

Seasonally Adjusted, Economies and Research Branch, Department of Labour, 






Mtmmm 



from the 1953 peak. Manufacturing also 
played a major role in the recovery, in- 
creasing by 6 per cent between February 
and October of 1955. 

Another notable feature of the past two 
years is that the downturn in manufac- 
turing has had little or no secondary effect 
on the service and distributive industries. 
One possible exception is transportation, 
although here the gradual decline in grain 
shipments was an important factor con- 
tributing to layoffs from the railways. 
Employment in other tertiary industries 
expanded steadily throughout the recession. 
Between May 1953 and February 1955 
employment in finance, insurance and real 
estate rose by almost 8 per cent, and in 
trade and service by more than 3 per cent. 
The continued growth of these industries, 
which together employ more people than 
all of the manufacturing industries, has 
provided significant support to the gains 
being made in goods-producing industries. 



The length of the work week has also 
reflected the quickening pace of business 
activity. Short-time work was progressively 
reduced during the year; in November the 
number of persons on short time was almost 
one-fifth less than a year earlier. The 
average number of weekly hours worked in 
manufacturing was consistently higher than 
the comparable figure in 1954, and in 
October showed a year-to-year gain of one- 
fifth of an hour. 

The end of the harvest in early September 
saw the beginning of the seasonal slack 
period in the economy. The strength of 
current demand indicates, however, that 
both the decline in employment and the 
resulting rise in seasonal unemployment 
will be considerably less than it has been 
during the past two winters. There is good 
reason to expect that the basic employ- 
ment level will rise through the early part 
of 1956, though perhaps not as rapidly as 
in 1955. 



33 



The widespread strength in the manu- 
facturing sector is indicated in Chart 3, 
which shows changes in the seasonally- 
adjusted employment indexes of selected 
industries. Employment in all of the main 
industry groups increased in 1955, the gains 
ranging from 2 per cent in the chemicals 
industry to 13 per cent in the rubber 
industry. In some important industry sub- 
groups, however, emplojunent continued to 
drop and in others it increased only slightly. 

In the agricultural implement industry, 
for example, employment continued to 
drop through most of 1955, after a brief 
upturn at the beginning of the year, and 
in August it was nearly 40 per cent below 
1952 levels. Employment in this industry, 
however, may show more than seasonal 
strength over the winter months. This 
view is based on evidence of some in- 
ventory depletion and the expectation of 
increased spending by farmers as a result 
of this year's bumper crop. 



Moderate employment gains were regis- 
tered in the railway rolling stock industry 
during the first few months of this year 
but employment in August was still 12 per 
cent lower than a year earlier. Since then 
the volume of new orders by the railways 
has risen substantially and as a result some 
employment increases may occur during the 
winter months. 

Employment in the aircraft and ship- 
building industries continued at relatively 
low levels. In the aircraft industry, 
employment in October was about 22 per 
cent below the 1953 peak. The situation 
in shipbuilding is relatively worse, with 
employment now 10 per cent below the 
comparable 1954 figure and more than 25 
per cent below the 1953 peak. The general 
pattern of defence procurement expendi- 
tures indicates that employment is not 
likely to rise much during the winter 
months and consequently little or no 
improvement is to be expected in these 
industries. 



CHART 2 



INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT TRENDS 
(Seasonally Adjusted) 



Index 1949=100 
116 




Feb. 
1955 



Oct. 
1955 



Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.D.S. 

Seasonally Adjusted, Economies and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 



34 



The seasonally-adjusted index of employ- 
ment in the manufacture of industrial 
machinery showed a sizable increase in 
the latter part of 1955. Investment spend- 
ing for machinery and equipment, both in 
terms of present spending and of future 
commitments, provides a firm basis for 
further employment gains. 

The vehicles industry has been one of the 
leaders in the increase in manufacturing 
employment. October shipments and sales 
were much higher than last year and back 
orders still held by dealers are reported to 
be substantial. Production and employ- 
ment should be at least maintained at their 
present high levels through the first quarter 
of 1956, provided that the General Motors 
dispute is settled in the near future. 

The employment situation in other con- 
sumer durable goods industries also con- 
tinues to be stronger than in 1954; in the 
soft goods industries employment expanded 
during the late spring and summer months. 
Clothing sales during most of 1955 were 
higher than in the comparable months of 
1954 and with inventories at relatively low 
levels, the industry is now in a better posi- 
tion than last year. 



In October, employment in the indus- 
tries producing basic materials was more 
than 7 per cent higher than a year earlier. 
The increasing strength in this large group 
of industries is the combined result of the 
sustained high level of exports and domestic 
consumption and the substantial increase 
in investment activity. The seasonally- 
adjusted employment index in the primary 
iron and steel industry increased by about 
19 per cent during the first nine months of 
this year, compared with a decline of nearly 
14 per cent during the same period in 1954. 
No lessening in demand for steel is fore- 
seen during the first half of 1956. Since, 
however, the industry is presently operating 
at close to capacity, employment is expected 
to follow the usual seasonal movements 
fairly closely. 

Employment in the wood products, paper 
products and non-ferrous metal industries 
reflect the current high levels of export 
trade. These industries have shown 
moderate but steady gains through most of 
1954 and 1955. It is possible that employ- 
ment may level off during the next few 
months. Although economic activity in 
the United States and the United Kingdom 



CHART 3 



EMPLOYMENT CHANGES 

SELECTED MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 

(Seasonally Adjusted) 



May 1953 to 

Per Cent 
-20 -10 



Feb. 1955 



Feb. 1955 



r ' " ' i 

1 


..... . — _, 

^^| Paper Products 

Chemical Products 

Electrical Apparatus 
and Supplies 

Wood Products 
MANUFACTURING 


WW/A 


Rubber Products 






WMMWM 


Clothing 






WMMmm 


Transportation Equipment 






tM«^M« 


Textile Products 






^^^^^^^ 


Agricultural Implements 






BliPfPf 


Primary Iron and Steel 



to Oct. 1955 

Per Cent 
+10 +20 




Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 

Seasonally Adjusted, Economies and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 



35 



is continuing at high levels, some softening 
could occur in lumber markets as a result 
of recent government action in these coun- 
tries designed to cut down the rising level 
of housing construction. 

The logging industry has responded 
strongly to rising domestic and foreign 
demand for both paper and lumber 
products. During the past summer, the 
pulp and paper companies in eastern 
Canada cut about 3 per cent more pulp 
logs than last year and it is estimated that 
between 5 and 10 per cent more pulp logs 
will be cut during the fall-winter season. 
This indicates that winter employment will 
be both higher and of longer duration than 
last year. On the West Coast, operations 
have not slackened in either the pulp and 
sawmill industries or in logging. Employ- 
ment in British Columbia logging camps 
was about 2 per cent above year earlier- 
levels at the first of October, with some 
shortages of skilled woodsmen. 

Mining employment has risen slightly 
more than seasonally since the beginning 
of 1955. This has been due to marked 
expansion in employment in metal mines. 
Metal mining prospects are likely to remain 
strong for some months to come. In British 
Columbia, in fact, the rise in copper prices 
has encouraged the re-opening of some 
marginal operations. Employment in fuel 
mining operations, on the other hand, has 
been declining and this trend is expected 



to continue. For mining as a whole, the 
employment trend will probably continue 
to rise slowly through the first part of 1956. 

The high level of new construction has 
been the principal stimulating influence for 
many manufacturing industries. During the 
second quarter of 1955, the volume of total 
new construction was about 8 per cent 
above that for the same period in 1954. 
The outlook for construction employment is 
quite strong. The number of housing units 
started up to the end of October of this 
year was almost 25 per cent higher than in 
the same period in 1954 and since the 
number under construction at the end of 
this season was also much larger than last 
year, there should be more employment in 
housebuilding during the coming winter. 
In addition, heavy industrial contracts 
awarded are substantially greater than last 
year, indicating higher employment in this 
sector of construction as well. 

In general, employment gains have 
become increasingly widespread through the 
year and the level of economic activity at 
the year-end provides a strong basis for 
further gains in 1956. In view of the rapid 
rise that occurred in 1955, further gains are 
not likely to be as large as those recorded 
earlier. Nevertheless, comparisons with last 
winter will probably continue to show sub- 
stantial year-to-year increases, since the 
economic upturn did not gain full 
momentum until the late spring of 1955. 



TUC Criticizes Autumn Budget, Would Have Preferred 

Higher Direct Taxation to Increase in Purchase Tax 



Higher direct taxation, bigger death 
duties and a tax on capital gains would 
have been preferred by Britain's Trades 
Union Congress to the increased purchase 
tax, higher profits tax and cut in invest- 
ment provided for in the Government's 
supplementary budget last autumn. The 
TUC's views are expressed in a report 
published last month of a survey of how 
Britain's economic health looks to the 
organized worker. 

In addition to suggesting that its tax 
proposals would have been "fairer and 
more effective," the TUC criticized the cuts 
in capital expenditure, believing that they 
will result in fewer houses to rent, less 
spending on social projects and restricted 
development programs for the nationalized 
industries. 

To check excessive imports, the TUC 
would have chosen to restrict the importing 
of less essential goods. 



In its report, the TUC addressed some 
advice to trade unionists. It is no good 
having wage increases if rising prices cancel 
them out just as fast, it said. 

"The only way to avoid the continuing 
threat of rising costs and prices to the 
balance of payments, full employment and 
living standards is to ensure that wage 
advances keep in line with increasing out- 
put," the report pointed out. 

Every effort from trade unionists, from 
employers and from the Government is 
still needed to increase efficiency and to 
keep costs down, the TUC declared. 

"The trade union movement cannot 
tolerate irresponsible or selfish action, 
whether from other sections of the 
community or from within its own ranks, 
which would erode the foundations of full 
employment," it added. 



36 



Labour Briefs to Cabinet 

Canada's four major labour organizations present annual legislative 
proposals to Cabinet. Two ask for national health insurance scheme, 
one stresses unemployment and one the seriousness of housing shortage 

Annual submissions to the Cabinet of the legislative proposals and 
recommendations of Canadian organized labour were made during a three-day 
period last month. 

The presentations of the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada and 
the Canadian Congress of Labour were the last that will be made by these 
bodies as separate entities; in April the two will merge into the Canadian 
Labour Congress. 

The TLC appeared before the Cabinet on December 14, the CCL on 
December 15 and both the Canadian and Catholic Confederation of Labour 
and the National Legislative Committee of the International Railway Brother- 
hoods on December 16. 

The TLC in its memorandum stressed the need for policies that would 
stimulate a continuing high level of employment and keep seasonal unem- 
ployment to an absolute minimum. The CCL attacked the Government for 
failure to implement a national health insurance plan. The CCCL ; for the 
first time, also asked for a health insurance scheme while the Railway Brother- 
hoods, as in past submissions, emphasized the seriousness of the housing 
shortage. 

In his replies to the four memoranda, Prime Minister St. Laurent promised 
careful consideration by the Government of all the submissions. 

Trades and Labour Congress of Canada 

Stresses need for policies that will stimulate continuing high level of 
employment and create conditions where seasonal unemployment can 
be kept to absolute minimum, again requests national health insurance 

The need for "policies that will stimulate and its extension to provide benefits to 

a continuing high level of employment and insured workers who become idle because 

that will create conditions in which seasonal of illness. 

unemployment can be kept to the absolute Recommended that immigration be 

minimum" was stressed in the memorandum related as closely as possible to employment 

presented by the Trades and Labour Con- opportunities and for this reason during the 

gress of Canada on December 14. next year should be "very selective". 

Also emphasized was a request for early Asked that provision be made for the 

action on the establishment of a nation-wide "orderly and lawful continuation" of all 

health insurance scheme "in order that this certifications of unions that become affiliated 

very important and necessary social legis- to the consolidated Canadian Labour 

lation may be placed in effect without Congress, 
further unnecessary delay". Voiced strong opposition to the settling 

In its brief, the TLC predicted that of rail ^y labour disputes by compulsory 

the matter of unplaced applicants for arbitration 

employment registered with the National . + Calle + d * or lower down ^? and 

Employment Service would, at the winter's mte u rest f at ? s ^encouragement for persons 

peak, "crowd the half-million mark". wishing to buy houses. - 

Urged adjustment of the federal tax 

I he Congress also:— structure "to spread the total tax load more 

Declared that its target was the six-hour equitably over the entire economy and 

day and 30-hour week. population". (The delegation suggested the 

Expressed the desire for further amend- raising of personal exemptions as a means 

ments to the Unemployment Insurance Act of accomplishing this.) 

37 



Requested an upward revision "without 
delay" of wages and salaries of government 
employees and the granting of collective 

bargaining rights to government employees' 
organizations. 

The presentation of the 7,000-word 
memorandum was attended by a large 
delegation that filled every seat in the 
Railway Committee Rooms. 

Prime Minister St. Laurent, in his spoken 
reply to the requests and recommendations, 
made specific reference to only a few. In 
general, he told the delegation that the 
Government would give careful considera- 
tion to the representations and wished to 
have as many of them realized as quickly 
as it is possible in the interests of the 
whole country. 

In addition to the Prime Minister, 
Cabinet Ministers present were: Rt. Hon. 
C. D. Howe, Minister of Trade and 
Commerce and Minister of Defence Produc- 
tion; Hon. James J. McCann, Minister of 
National Revenue; Hon. Milton F. Gregg, 
Minister of Labour; Hon. Stuart Garson, 
Minister of Justice; Hon. Robert H. 
Winters, Minister of Public Works; Hon. 
Hugues Lapointe, Minister of Veterans 
Affairs; Hon. George Prudham, Minister of 
Mines and Technical Surveys; Hon. 
William Ross Macdonald, Solicitor General 
and Leader of the Government in the 
Senate; Hon. J. W. Pickersgill, Minister of 
Citizenship and Immigration; and Hon. 
Jean Lesage, Minister of Northern Affairs 
and National Resources. 

The TLC delegation was led by President 
Claude Jodoin and included Vice-presidents 
James A. Whitebone, George P. Schollie, 
William Jenoves, Carl Berg and R. K. 
Gervin and Secretary-Treasurer Gordon G. 
Cushing. 

The TLC Memorandum 

In a longer-than-usual introduction to its 
requests and recommendations, the TLC 
called attention to its forthcoming merger 
with the Canadian Congress of Labour. It 
may be assumed that this is the last 
approach to the Government by the TLC, 
the memorandum said. 

"We hope, of course, that your Govern- 
ment will not take this fact as a reason 
for minimizing the importance of the 
requests we are making ... or for any delay 
in acting upon these requests," the Congress 
said. 

In an historical aside, the TLC recalled 
the first meeting of a Congress delegation 
with a Prime Minister of Canada and 
commented on the subsequent evolution of 
the practice. "We believe that this is the 



only country in the world where such meet- 
ings occur on a regular annual basis," the 
brief pointed out. 

"In making our requests and recom- 
mendations today we are mindful of the 
general buoyancy of our economy and of 
the rather improved atmosphere in inter- 
national relations," the brief continued. 
"To the extent that the policies of your 
Government have contributed to these 
improvements we wish to commend you." 

The memorandum singled out for special 
commendation the establishment of a Royal 
Commission on Canada's coastal trade and 
one on Canada's economic prospects. 

Employment and Unemployment 

"At the peak of employment this year 
we still had far too many out of work," 
the TLC declared, predicting that seasonal 
unemployment would again be high this 
winter and that the number of unplaced 
applicants for employment would approach 
the half-million mark. 

The memorandum pointed out that, while 
the Government was to be commended for 
its efforts to aid in the provision of winter 
work, "the problem of seasonal unemploy- 
ment cannot be solved by one government 
or all 11 governments as such, but rather 
the utmost co-operation must be attained 
among governments, management and 
labour if this unnecessary economic waste 
is to be reduced to a minimum". 

Expressing pleasure that the sharing of 
assistance to unemployed employables was 
discussed at recent federal-provincial con- 
ferences, the TLC suggested, however, that 
the area of the discussions be broadened to 
produce "to the maximum extent possible" 
uniformity of economic policy and of labour 
and social legislation throughout the 
country. Regional inequalities of wage and 
salary rates, hours of work, social security 
benefits and the burden of taxation on the 
lower and middle income groups should be 
reduced. 

The TLC specifically recommended (1) 
enactment of uniform minimum wage legis- 
lation in all jurisdictions; (2) enactment of 
uniform hours of work and vacations with 
pay legislation providing for a maximum 
40-hour work-week and a minimum two 
weeks' vacation with pay; (3) develop- 
ment of collaboration and co-operation 
among the 11 governments in the planning 
and timing of public works to provide the 
maximum of winter and off-season work; 
and (4) the correlation of federal and 
provincial tax structures to reduce the total 
tax load on the lower and middle income 
groups. 



38 



! 



"The stability thus produced would assist 
in the elimination of seasonal unemploy- 
ment and in reducing the minimum level 
of continuous unemployment," the TLC 
asserted. 

Because it believed Canada's natural 
resources and skills were sufficient to main- 
tain the economy in a buoyant state with 
high production and full employment for 
years to come, the TLC recommended the 
creation of a tripartite commission — gov- 
ernment, management and labour — charged 
with the responsibility of planning the 
development and direction of the country's 
natural resources. 

Unemployment Insurance 

The TLC wants further "important" 
amendments to the Unemployment Insur- 
ance Act. Specifically it requested: an 
increase in benefits to at least two-thirds 
of a claimant's weekly wages; reduction of 
the waiting period to three days, including 
the first day of unemployment; lengthening 
of the benefit period and shortening of the 
qualifying period. 

If their first request were granted, the 
delegation pointed out, provision could be 
made for the type of guaranteed annual 
wage now being negotiated between some 
unions and employers in Canada. 

Pointing to a "weakness" that had 
already shown up in the amended legisla- 
tion in the short time that it had been in 
effect, the TLC complained that Section 45 
is being so interpreted that insured workers 
making claims are being refused benefits 
"even though they would have qualified 
under the terms of the previous provisions 
of the Act". The Congress urged restora- 
tion of the provisions that existed before 
the amendment and, until such action could 
be taken at the coming session of Parlia- 
ment, that provision be made for an inter- 
pretation of the present section that "will 
provide for administration of this section as 
if the prior conditions existed in law". 

The TLC also urged an extension of the 
Act to provide benefits to insured workers 
who become idle because of illness. The 
Congress rejected the statement, made in 
answer to previous requests, that such an 
extension was "a back-door method of 
establishing health insurance". 

Declaring that it was not even remotely 
related to health insurance, the memo- 
randum said "the extension of the Act that 
we are requesting is simply that it be 
extended to provide for the payment of 
benefits when unemployment is due to a 
certain cause — in this case illness. It has 
nothing whatsoever to do with the prepay- 
ment or payment of hospital, doctor or 
other bills consequent to illness. 



"Continuity of income during a period of 
illness is of extreme importance and Cana- 
dian workers should be afforded this protec- 
tion under our unemployment insurance 
scheme," the TLC asserted. 

Still on the subject of unemployment 
insurance, the Congress urged immediate 
revocation of the regulations under the 
Act covering insured workers in seasonal 
employments and abolition of Regulation 
5(a) regarding married women. 

Coverage of all workers under the Act 
was still the TLC's target, the memorandum 
added. t 

Immigration 

"Immigration should be related as closely 
as possible to employment opportunities 
and for this reason during the next year 
it should be very selective," the TLC said 
in its memorandum, repeating its belief 
that immigrants should not arrive in 
Canada when job openings and adequate 
accommodation are not available. 

But careful immigrant selection does not 
mean that restriction should be based on 
race, colour, creed or national origin, the 
Congress emphasized. 

"We have recommended in previous 
years and we do so again that immigration 
should become the responsibility of the 
Department of Labour," the memorandum 
continued. A commission to plan and carry 
out immigration should be established with 
equal representation from labour, manage- 
ment and government, the brief added. 

"We believe there is still too much 
duplication in the placement of workers 
and we strongly recommend that all place- 
ment services be brought under the 
National Employment Service," the TLC 
declared. 

Health Insurance 

"We feel sure that the time is now 
opportune for our Government to take the 
lead in promoting the establishment of a 
nation-wide health insurance scheme," the 
TLC said. 

The scheme called for by the Congress 
would be Government-subsidized, con- 
tributory and cover every Canadian citizen 
— that means "compulsory," Mr. Jodoin 
interjected. It would include medical, 
surgical, dental and optical care, hospital- 
ization, provision of artificial limbs where 
necessary, psychiatric treatment, and com- 
petently-supervised mental homes. 

The growth of private health and 
hospitalization plans is evidence of the 
demand for such protection, the memo- 
randum pointed out, adding that private 
plans could never cover all Canadians. 



39 



Labour Legislation 

The major requests were made by the 
TLC under the heading "Labour 
Legislation". 

The Government was asked to "make 
provision for orderly and lawful continua- 
tion of all certifications and other matters 
within the purview of the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act as 
these affect the organizations affiliated to 
or chartered by the Trades and Labour 
Congress of Canada and the Canadian 
Congress of Labour when and as these 
organizations become affiliated to or char- 
tered by the Canadian Labour Congress". 

Accusing the Government of "abridging" 
the provisions of the I.R. & D.I. Act to 
"enforce" settlement of railway disputes, 
the TLC expressed complete opposition to 
"such repressive measures". The Congress 
reminded the Cabinet of Mr. Justice Sloan's 
statement in his 1954 railway arbitration 
award that the revenue loss due to^the 
Crowsnest Pass rates should no longer be 
shouldered by the railway employees, their 
employers and certain customers of the 
railways but that this condition should be 
adjusted through acceptance of financial 
liability by the Government; it urged 
action at the coming session of Parliament. 

The TLC also requested enactment of: — 

A Vacations with Pay Act in line with 
provincial legislation, providing for a 
minimum of two weeks' paid vacation and 
at least nine paid statutory holidays. 

Legislation providing for minimum wages 
and salaries for both men and women. 

Legislation that will provide for equal 
pay for equal work for all male and female 
employees within the jurisdiction of Parlia- 
ment. 

Recommending incorporation of the 
present Fair Wage Act and Order in 
Council P.C. 5547, with certain amend- 
ments, into one Act, the Congress asked 
that the new legislation cover all govern- 
ment contracts including post office and 
service contracts and that the non- 
discrimination provisions in the Orders in 
Council be included in the new Act. 

Housing 

"Further encouragement is necessary 
through lowered down payments and 
interest rates for those in the lower income 
groups to purchase and own their own 
homes," the memorandum declared. "Where 
necessary, possession should be made 
possible without down payment." 

The TLC also said the demand for low- 
rental homes was not being met, urged 
greater encouragement for slum clearance, 
asked that loans be obtainable directly 
from Central Mortgage and Housing 



Corporation and requested that provision 
be made in the administration of the 
National Housing Act to protect prospec- 
tive home-owners from discrimination on 
account of race, creed or colour. 

Taxation 

The federal tax structure should be 
adjusted to spread the total tax load more 
equitably over the entire population, the 
TLC said, recommending increases in 
exemptions to $3,000 for a married person, 
$1,500 for a single person and $400 for a 
dependent child. 

Exemptions should also be allowed for: 
cost of purchase and maintenance of 
equipment and protective clothing, all 
medical expenses including the cost of 
medicines, and out-of-town living and 
travelling expenses for workers in the 
construction and building trades. 

Government Employees 

Speaking to the Government as an 
employer, the TLC called for an imme- 
diate upward revision of salary scales of 
government employees, reduction of work- 
ing hours to 37£ per week, extension of the 
five-day week throughout Canada, and 
compensation for overtime at the rate of 
time and one-half. 

But the greatest improvement the Gov- 
ernment could initiate, the brief declared, 
"is collective bargaining". 

Other requests on behalf of government 
employees were that: — 

In the Post Office, overtime should be 
at the rate of time and one-half after eight 
hours in the day and 40 hours in the week 
and at double time for work done on 
Sundays and statutory holidays. 

The railways be encouraged to maintain 
adequate mail services and assisted in the 
provision of highway post offices. 

Under the Superannuation Act, the best 
five years be used to set the pension. 

A system of bonuses be established to 
bring pensions of superannuated employees 
into line with present living costs. 

The Government contribute to the Group 
Hospital-Medical Plan of the Public 
Service of Canada. 

Other Requests 

"It is our view that trade in the widest 
sense should be encouraged with any and 
all countries," the TLC declared in its 
memorandum. However, the Congress 
added, products not produced under free 
labour conditions should not be admitted 
into Canada in competition with the 
products of free labour; and any restric- 
tions placed upon imports when such 



40 



imports are "nothing more than an 
importation of unemployment" should not 
be looked upon as ordinary trade restric- 
tions but as measures of encouraging 
maximum employment. 

The qualifying ages under the Old Age 
Security Act should be lowered to 65 years 
for men and 60 for women and old age 
assistance payments should be increased "on 
the basis of need" to $75 per month, the 
TLC said. In addition, medical, surgical 
and dental services, and drugs, should be 
provided free to old age pensioners and 
the construction of suitable housing for 
"senior citizens" should be fostered. 

Pensions for the blind and the disabled 
should be "adequate" and should be 
granted from the time that the blindness 
or disability begins. Too, the Government 
should take the responsibility for mothers' 
and widows' allowances, the Congress 
believes. 

"Family allowance payments should be 
adjusted in relation to the cost of living" 
and should be continued beyond the age 
of 16 years where the child is still attending 
school, was another TLC recommendation. 

In its request for the enactment of a 
Bill of Rights, the TLC warned that the 
legislation "should provide against the 
misuse of our fundamental freedoms by 
those who may attempt to replace our 
democracy with a dictatorship" by using 
these freedoms to destroy them. 

"We favour the fullest control of radio 
and television broadcasting," the TLC said 
in recommending that any attempts to 
relieve the Canadian Broadcasting Corpora- 
tion of its regulatory powers over broad- 
casting be resisted. It also recommended 
that the CBC be aided financially so that 
free time could be made available for 
programs of a "forum and cultural 
character" and that provision be made for 
the broadcasting or televising of regular 
sessions of Parliament. 

In its memorandum the TLC also 
requested that:— 

The ceiling on government annuities be 
raised to at least $2,400 a year. 

A national industrial pension plan be 
established. 

An advisory council be set up to assist 
the Department of Labour in the admin- 
istration of the Canada Fair Employment 
Practices Act. 

The British North America Act be 
amended so that uniform labour and social 
laws may be enacted throughout Canada. 

The elimination of railway level cross- 
ings be included in a public works program 
aimed at reducing seasonal unemployment. 



A high rate of development of Canada's 
natural resources be encouraged and that 
a natural gas conservation commission be 
established. 

Parliament adopt and approve a national 
flag and designate "O Canada" as the 
national anthem. 

A full enquiry be made into price 
spreads on food and clothing. 

The Election Act be amended to provide 
for voting at advance polls by full-time 
union representatives and delegates to 
labour conventions, that party affiliation 
appear on ballots and that the voting age 
be reduced to 18 years. 

Prime Minister's Reply 

The Government is endeavouring to 
proceed just as expeditiously as conditions 
permit in the matters mentioned in the 
TLC's memorandum, the Prime Minister 
told the delegation after Mr. Jodoin had 
completed the reading of the brief. 

"I assure you," he said, "that your 
representations will all be given as careful 
consideration as is possible and that it will 
be our desire to have as many of them 
realized as quickly as it is possible in the 
interests of Canada as a whole." 

The Government does wish to produce 
and maintain conditions in which the 
country can enjoy both a high level of 
production and a high level of employ- 
ment, Mr. St. Laurent declared. 

A major part of the Prime Minister's 
reply was given to comments on the TLC's 
statement that the provisions of the Indus- 
trial Relations and Disputes Investigation 
Act had been "abridged" by the Govern- 
ment. He first pointed out that legislation 
cannot be abridged by the Governor-in- 
Council. 

"I do not think there is any desire 
anywhere to abridge or interfere with the 
right to strike," he went on, "but there 
do, at times, arise situations which create 
deadlocks and which have an effect upon 
the whole Canadian economy. No one 
wants to bring about a prejudicial effect 
upon the economy because everyone 
realizes that we all share in and depend 
upon the functioning of our Canadian 
economy. 

"When deadlocks do arise there has to 
be found some way to overcome them. It 
is not an easy problem to deal with because 
it is one in which we all have the same 
interest in bringing about a prompt resump- 
tion of the necessary functions that have 
to be operated for the very social existence 
of the whole community." 

The Prime Minister pointed out that the 
decision to appoint a conciliation board in 



41 



the current railway negotiations without the 
initial appointment of a conciliation officer 
was made in response to a request from 
the unions representing the railway 
employees. "There was no arbitrary 
derision taken by the Department of 
Labour in that regard," he asserted. 

"It is always in that spirit that we 
endeavour to do whatever we can to help 
in the settlement of these disputes that 
have such possibilities of serious prejudice 
for BO many of our Canadian citizens," he 
continued. "I hope it will be possible for 
them to avoid these situations which are 
so prejudicial to themselves, as well as to 
the whole Canadian public, because of the 
essentiality of those services to the way 
of life that we enjoy in this country." 

Commenting on the TLC's statement 
that trade unionists are "paying more than 
their rightful share" of taxes, Mr. 
St. Laurent explained that tax rates were 
established in conformity with the share of 
the gross national income received by every 
group in the country's population. "You 



can be assured," he promised, "that it is not 
only our desire but our constant effort to 
have the burden spread as equitably as 
possible among those who constitute the 
taxpayers of the country." 

In answer to the recommendation that 
the Government approve a national flag, 
the Prime Minister said he would be happy 
if the TLC could suggest a flag that would 
be accepted by "an overwhelming majority" 
of Canadians. On the question of a 
national anthem he said he felt that general 
adoption and acceptance by the people 
themselves rather than legislation was the 
best method of choosing a national anthem. 

He noted that the TLC had recognized 
in its memorandum that many of its 
requests would involve the expenditure of 
much greater revenues than those avail- 
able under present taxation levels. But, he 
told the delegation, "I think we can agree 
that these constant representations about 
improvements in legislation are useful and 
help to prepare the way to bring them 
about." 



Canadian Congress of Labour 



Attacks Government for failure to implement national health insurance 
plan and gives prominent place in memorandum to international affairs, 
unemployment and criticism of parts of new Unemployment Insurance Act 



The federal Government came under 
sharp attack by the Canadian Congress of 
Labour for failure to implement a national 
health insurance plan. In its brief, the 
400,000-member labour group said that 
health insurance is "the biggest remaining 
gap in Canadian social security". 

An important place in the 9,000-word 
document was given to CCL views on inter- 
national affairs. 

Unemployment was also dealt with at 
length. The Congress commended the 
Government for its efforts to deal with the 
problem but expressed fear for the displace- 
ment effects of automation, even though 
only temporary, and suggested that the 
Government summon a conference repre- 
senting labour, management and the federal 
and provincial Governments to consider the 
effects of automation and to formulate 
plans for dealing with them. 

Considerable space was devoted to a 
criticism of the new Unemployment Insur- 
ance Act, with particular reference to the 
alleged "discriminatory treatment" of 
married woman claimants. 



Under "social security" the Congress 
requested that Old Age Security payments 
be increased to $65 a month, payable at 
age 65 for both men and women, that 
veterans' pensions and allowances be in- 
creased to restore them to their original 
purchasing power and that pensions for the 
blind be paid without a means test. 

The CCL repeated its request for the 
establishment of a National Labour Code, 
for the right for Government employees to 
bargain collectively and for a Bill of Rights. 

The Congress also requested: — 

Provision in the National Housing Act 
for low-cost homes and low-rental housing; 

An amendment to the NHA to provide 
penalties for refusal on the grounds of 
discrimination to sell or rent homes built 
under the provisions of the Act; 

Establishment of industrial councils; 

Equal pay for equal work; 

An industrial pension plan; 

Outlawing of injunctions in labour 
disputes ; 

Restriction of Canadian coastal trade to 
Canadian vessels. 



42 



Other subjects dealt with in the brief 
included . immigration, fair employment 
practices, the wheat marketing situation, 
the Trans-Canada pipeline and the textile 
industry. 

The memorandum was presented by 
President A. R. Mosher and Secretary- 
Treasurer Donald MacDonald. The Prime 
Minister received the delegation, accom- 
panied by 12 of his Ministers: Rt. Hon. 
C. D. Howe, Minister of Trade and 
Commerce and Minister of Defence Produc- 
tion; Hon. J. G. Gardiner, Minister of 
Agriculture; Hon. J. J. McCann, Minister 
of National Revenue; Hon. Milton F. 
Gregg, Minister of Labour; Hon. S. S. 
Garson, Minister of Justice; Hon. R. H. 
Winters, Minister of Public Works; Hon. 
Hugues Lapointe, Minister of Veterans 
Affairs; Hon. George Prudham, Minister 
of Mines and Technical Surveys; Hon. 
W. R. Macdonald, Solicitor General; Hon. 
J. W. Pickersgill, Minister of Citizenship 
and Immigration; Hon. Jean Lesage, 
Minister of Northern Affairs and National 
Resources; and Hon. G. C. Marler, Min- 
ister of Transport. 

The CCL Memorandum 

Before calling on Secretary-Treasurer 
Donald MacDonald to present the Con- 
gress memorandum, Mr. Mosher, referring 
to the approaching merger of the CCL and 
the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada, 
said he was appearing before the Cabinet 
"probably for the last time as a representa- 
tive of the Canadian Congress of Labour". 

He said it was a "privilege" to be there 
"because there are still a good many 
countries in the world where a delegation 
of this kind could not appear before a 
government and criticize it as openly as we 
have done, and will do, yet have no fear 
for having made those criticisms and 
recommendations". 

The CCL appreciated the opportunity to 
come before the Cabinet "regardless of the 
results that may be obtained." he said. "I 
do not think our presentations have been 
entirely barren, although they have not 
been as productive and effective as we have 
always hoped they would be." 

Mr. MacDonald then read the brief. 

Foreign Policy 

The Congress urged the Government to 
persevere in its efforts to secure a genuine 
disarmament agreement; also to press for a 
firm international agreement on the aboli- 
tion of all stocks of atomic and hydrogen 
weapons and prohibition of the manufac- 
ture and use of such weapons, under 
effective international control. As a first 
step towards this end, the Government 



should take the initiative to obtain an 
agreement to stop nuclear weapon tests, it 
suggested. 

Continuing, the brief said: 

But defence is not simply a matter of 
guns and planes and bombs, of armies and 
navies and air forces. It is also a matter 
of rooting out poverty and exploitation, 
especially in the under-developed countries 
where these are most acute . . . The Con- 
gress has repeatedly urged the Government 
to increase Canada's contribution to (the 
Colombo) Plan, and is therefore glad to 
note that the Government has at last decided 
to propose an increase. But the contribution 
is still far too small, and the Congress 
reiterates that Canada should give at least 
$100,000,000 to the Colombo Plan and UN 
Technical Assistance, and also increase its 
payments to the United Nations Fnnd for 
Refugees. 

Regret at the Government's "renewed 
refusal" to press for the setting-up of a 
United Nations Special Fund for World 
Economic Development was recorded. 

The Congress expressed agreement with 
the Secretary of State for External Affairs 
that a fresh attempt should be made to 
implement Article 2 of the North Atlantic 
Treaty "and make NATO a real 
community, not just a military alliance". 

With the exception of Spain, the Con- 
gress endorsed the Government's attempt 
to secure the admission of other countries 
to membership in the United Nations, but 
was unable to see why the Government 
did not seize the occasion to propose that 
"the effective Government of China should 
occupy China's seat in the United Nations". 
It is not a question of admitting a new 
member, stated the brief, but one of 
deciding who should represent an existing 
member-state. 

Referring to the present crisis in the Near 
and Middle East, the CCL shared the 
general anxiety. What is needed, it said, 
is, first, a stop to Soviet bloc arms ship- 
ments to Egypt and, second, immediate 
negotiations between Israel and the Arab 
states for a just and durable peace. The 
Congress urged the Government to give 
full support to every effort made to attain 
these ends. 

"If such efforts fail, Israel, the one really 
democratic state in the area, must not be 
left without sufficient means to defend 
itself. There must be no repetition of the 
Spanish tragedy, when a one-sided arms 
embargo, veiled as 'non-intervention', con- 
demned the -democratic Spanish Republic 
to be destroyed by Hitler and Mussolini." 

General Economic Situation 

Since Congress last appeared before the 
Cabinet the economic situation has greatly 
improved "but disquieting features remain," 



43 



the brief stated. "In agriculture, the con- 
tinuing drop in farm income has reached 
alarming proportions." 

Unemployment 

Unemployment in 1955 has been below 
last year for every month from May on but 
it has also been steadily increasing above 
the same months in 1953, the brief stated. 

The indications are that unemployment 
this winter will not worsen as badly as it 
did two years ago. But it looks as if by 
March 1956 the number of unplaced appli- 
cants might well be higher than in any 
March since the war, except 1954 and 1955, 
and the number of persons without jobs and 
seeking work higher than in any March since 
the war, except 1950, 1954 and 1955, all 
notoriously bad years. 

The Congress said it recognizes that a 
great part of Canada's unemployment is 
seasonal and it welcomed the efforts being 
made by the Government to deal with 
it. A considerable part, however, is not 
seasonal, it added. Throughout 1955, indus- 
trial production has been above 1953 but 
unemployment has also been above 1953. 
The low point this summer was 131,000; in 
1953 it was 85,000. "The number of 
workers available for work had indeed gone 
up but only about six per cent; the 
number of unemployed had gone up 54 per 
cent." 

Some of this, the brief continued, is 
undoubtedly the result of technological 
progress and, with the advance of automa- 
tion, the rate of technological progress is 
likely to increase, with consequent displace- 
ment, even though only temporary. 

"The Congress believes the Government 
should summon a conference representing 
labour, management and the Dominion and 
provincial governments, to consider the 
effects of automation (notably on employ- 
ment) and to formulate plans for dealing 
with them," the memorandum declared. 

The brief pointed out that on the Royal 
Commission on Canada's Economic Pros- 
pects, labour and provincial governments 
are not represented and, therefore, its 
recommendations will not have the force 
that they would if coming from a repre- 
sentative conference such as suggested by 
the Congress. Also, the Commission may 
take some time to report. "Some action, 
if only for the period before the Commis- 
sion reports, is urgently neeessary, especi- 
ally in view of the widespread uneasiness 
among workers about the effect of automa- 
tion on their jobs," the CCL urged. 

"The Congress wishes to make plain that 
it does not oppose automation. But it 
does insist that management and govern- 
ments take proper steps to see that the 
benefits and the costs are equitably shared." 



Inauguration of the Dominion-Provincial 
public assistance plan was welcomed but 
the Congress criticized it on the grounds of 
exclusions, which it termed "indefensible", 
and the amount of the federal contribution, 
which it considered too small. 

"The exclusions are objectionable in prin- 
ciple because they tend to freeze the 
system of public assistance by categories, 
while the best modern social work theory 
and practice favour generalized assistance, 
on the basis of need alone, regardless of 
the cause of need." Even apart from that, 
there is no justification, the CCL memo- 
randum asserted, for excluding recipients of 
Mothers' Allowances, Old Age Security, 
Unemployment Insurance, Old Age Assist- 
ance, Blind Assistance and Disabled 
Assistance. Payment under any of these 
would, of course, be taken into considera- 
tion but receipt of any of these should not 
be disqualification. 

Subject to the criticisms just made, the 
Dominion's 50-per-cent contribution may be 
satisfactory enough for normal times and 
wealthy provinces. But these can take care 
of themselves. It is when unemployment 
becomes abnormal that the provinces and 
municipalities need help; the poorer the 
province, the more it needs help; and the 
more abnormal the situation, the more help 
it needs. The Congress therefore thinks the 
Dominion contribution should be not a flat 
50 per cent, regardless of circumstances, but 
a graduated percentage, rising as the relief 
load increases. 

Unemployment Insurance 

The CCL recognized that the new Unem- 
ployment Insurance Act had been in opera- 
tion for only a short time and therefore 
sufficient experience had to be accumulated 
before it can be properly evalued. There 
are, however, it said, various features which 
do not require the passage of time in order 
to be judged. Among them are: 

Continued exclusion of large numbers of 
wage and salary earners, particularly 
employees of non-profit-making hospital and 
charitable institutions. 

The more onerous conditions attached to 
entitlement to benefit; more specifically, the 
requirement that the basic 30 contribution 
weeks must be no more than a year old in 
the case of benefit periods other than the 
first. 

Inadequate relationship of benefit to earn- 
ings, especially in the higher insurance 
classes and more particularly in the top 
insurance class, which has an open end on 
earnings. 

Reduction in the maximum period of 
benefit from 51 to 36 weeks. 

Continued anomalies with regard to 
claimants who are incapable of or unavail- 
able for employment because of illness, injury 
or quarantine. 

Continued discriminatory treatment of 
married women claimants. 



44 



The Congress made special reference to 
Section 45(2) of the Act. A considerable 
number of workers, it said, have been 
unable to establish a new benefit period 
because of its requirements. "In an Act 
established to insure against unemployment, 
it is obviously unjust to make that very 
unemployment a means of defeating the 
purpose of the Act. Yet that is precisely 
what is happening." The Congress urged 
that the section be rescinded as soon as 
Parliament convenes. 

Registering protest against the changed 
status of the Unemployment Insurance 
Advisory Committee, the Congress asked 
that it be restored to its former status, so 
that one of its main functions will again 
be to report on proposed regulations. 

National Labour Code 

The Congress again urged the Govern- 
ment to establish a National Labour Code. 
There is, it said, lack of uniformity in 
labour legislation and in its administration 
and enforcement. 

Even apart from its limited coverage, the 
present Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act is unsatisfactory in a 
number of ways. Four amendments are 
particularly necessary. 

1. The Act should provide for the 
voluntary revocable check-off, as several 
provincial Acts already do, and as the Indus- 
trial Relations Committee of the House of 
Commons has twice recommended. 

2. Section 45 should be amended to allow 
a union to prosecute, as well as be prose- 
cuted for unfair labour practices. The 
present position, which is probably the result 
of a draftsman's oversight, is manifestly 
unfair. 

3. The Canada Labour Relations Board 
should be empowered to amend certifications 
where the union has changed its name 
because of a merger with another union or 
for any other reason. 

4. The procedure for compulsory concilia- 
tion should be drastically revised. The 
recent Congress Convention expressed strong 
dissatisfaction with the long delays involved 
in the present procedure, the way in which 
employers have taken advantage of the law 
by refusing to bargain in good faith or by 
deliberately prolonging the delays, the refusal 
of the Boards to recommend retroactive pay 
in spite of the long delays for which they 
are responsible, and the restrictions which 
all these things impose upon basic freedoms 
of workers. The Convention decided to ask, 
specifically, that the Conciliation Board be 
made optional, as under the Saskatchewan 
Act; that the Minister be empowered to 
deny a Board in cases where the Labour 
Relations Board finds that the employer has 
not bargained in good faith; and that, where 
a Board has been set up and fails to settle 
the dispute, the employees be given the right 
to strike at the termination date of their 
agreement with the employer. 



Compulsory Arbitration 

Again expressing its "unalterable opposi- 
tion" to any form of compulsory arbitration 
of labour disputes, the Congress said that 
"legislation which takes away from workers 
the traditional and inherent right to strike, 
and imposes compulsory arbitration, belongs 
only on the statute books of totalitarian 
regimes; it has no place in a society which 
calls itself free and democratic, and cer- 
tainly it has no place in Canada". 

Government Employees 

For Government employees, the Con- 
gress asked for the following: — 

The right to organize and bargain 
collectively; 

Extension to all bona fide labour organ- 
izations having members in any branch of 
Government service of the procedure now 
being followed with regard to the check-off 
of union dues or membership fees; 

Early consideration to staff representa- 
tions regarding salary revisions; 

Extension of the five-day 40-hour week 
to all civil servants; 

Establishment of benefits for prevailing- 
rate employees. 

Social Security 

Under the heading "social security", the 
Congress requested the following: — 

That Old Age Security payments be 
increased to $65 a month, payable at age 
65 for both men and women; 

That Old Age Assistance and veterans' 
pensions and allowances be increased to 
restore their original purchasing power; 

That family allowances be continued to 
20 years of age where the children are 
attending school or college; 

Payment of pensions for the blind with- 
out a means test. 

On health insurance, which the Congress 
referred to as "the biggest remaining gap 
in our social security system," it declared 
that it "will be satisfied with nothing less 
than a genuine national plan". 

Immigration 

The Congress expressed "disappointment 
that the Government is so stubborn about 
maintaining the many sections of the 
Immigration Act which place the immi- 
grant at the mercy of officials endowed 
with sweeping arbitrary powers, subject to 
almost no judicial control, and which, in 
the opinion of the Congress, seriously 
threaten civil liberties." 

It reiterated its support of the efforts of 
the Canadian Welfare Council to secure 
repeal of that part of the Immigration Act 
which gives the Government power to 
deport an immigrant simply because he 
has become a public charge. 



45 



The Congress repeated its protest against 
"the racial discrimination enshrined in the 
Act (Section 61(g)(i)) and faithfully 
carried out in its administration". Our 
immigration policy, in theory and practice, 
"involves racial discrimination and no 
juggling with words can get around the 
fact.'* the brief asserted. 

The whole Immigration Act, stated the 
brief, needs to be revised, with full oppor- 
tunity for interested citizens and organiza- 
tions to make known their views. For this 
purpose a Royal Commission or special 
committee should be appointed. 

The brief expressed support of the 
general principle of Government immigra- 
tion policy, that the number and types 
of immigrants admitted should be governed 
by the country's absorptive capacity. 

Housing 

While noting that housing completions 
are now running substantially ahead of net 
new family formation, the Congress pointed 
out that a large housing backlog still exists. 
Housing under the home-ownership sections 
of the National Housing Act is still too 
expensive for the ordinary wage-earner, it 
pointed out, and good low-rental housing 
is still "deplorably scarce". Subsidized low- 
rental housing under Section 46 is not being 
encouraged as it should be, it stated. 

Referring to discrimination in housing, 
the Congress said: "We urge upon the 
Government an amendment to the National 
Housing Act which would forbid, under the 
threat of suitable penalties, the refusal to 
sell or rent homes built under the provi- 
sions of this Act where such refusal is 
based on racial, religious or similar 
prejudices." 

Taxation 

The Congress made a number of recom- 
mendations concerning income tax. These 
included: raising the exemption to $2,000 
for single and S3 ,000 for married persons, 
with $400 for each dependent child qualify- 
ing for family allowance or attending 
school; deduction from taxable income of 
all medical, dental and optical expenses, 
unemployment insurance premiums, charges 
for board for married workers who are 
supporting homes but living in camps, 
travelling expenses for workers required to 
spend a large part of their income in 
travelling to and from work, and special 
clothing required for work. 

Special mention was made of the married 
woman who works. "They are being 
discriminated against by being treated as 
though they had single status when, in fact, 
their position is a special one," the Con- 
gress asserted. A married woman who is 



employed must frequently hire someone to 
care for her children or home, "just as a 
dentist or doctor must hire a receptionist 
to take his 'phone calls; yet she is not 
allowed to deduct any part of this cost as 
an expense." A remedy could be found in 
one of two ways, the Congress suggested: 
either allow the husband a $1,000 deduc- 
tion for "maintaining a self-contained 
household" or allow the working wife to 
deduct from her income domestic costs up 
to a specified limit. 

Reduction of the sales tax, as a step 
towards its abolition, was also called for. 

Other Recommendations 

The Congress urged the Government to 
take the initiative in establishing industrial 
councils, particularly for the large national 
industries such as automobile, steel, mining 
and textile. Such councils should be com- 
posed of representatives of government, 
labour and management, and should make 
a continuing study of such problems as 
obtaining raw materials, marketing, main- 
tenance of equality and uniformity of 
products, etc. 

Concerning the textile industry, the Con- 
gress repeated its previous request that the 
Government call a conference to consider 
methods for alleviation of the conditions 
that the industry is at present facing. 
It also urged more effective enforcement of 
anti-dumping legislation. 

On equal pay for equal work the Con- 
gress regretted that necessary legislation 
had not been enacted. 

The Congress recommended that the 
Government establish an industrial pension 
plan to provide for universal industrial 
pension coverage of all workers, a fund of 
employee-employer contributions adminis- 
tered by the Government through an 
industrial pension commission, and pension 
credits accruing to employees during their 
working life regardless of the number of 
their employers. 

On the wheat situation, the Congress 
endorsed the proposal made by representa- 
tive farmers' organizations that a 75-per- 
cent cash advance be made to farmers on 
grain harvested and stored in the current 
year. It urged that other steps be taken 
to increase grain sales and that generous 
contributions from surplus stocks be made 
to under-developed countries. 

In commending Government action in 
appointing a Royal Commission on Broad- 
casting and Television, the Congress hoped 
the Commission would carefully investigate 
the operation of privately-owned radio and 
television stations, with a view to ascer- 
taining: (1) if they are performing any 
needed or useful public service; (2) if they 



46 



are complying with the federal statutes and 
regulations governing their operation; and 
(3) if there is any justification for inade- 
quate wages and unsatisfactory working 
conditions and lack of job security for their 
employees. 

The sale and distribution in the United 
States of films produced by the National 
Film Board by an American publishing 
company came in for criticism. This, 
stated the brief, should be handled by the 
Board itself or some other Canadian gov- 
ernmental agency or by a non-profit agency 
in the United States on a cost basis. 

On the construction of a trans-Canada 
pipeline, the Congress expressed disapproval 
of the plan whereby the federal and 
Ontario Governments will construct the 
"bridge" section across Northern Ontario — 
"the part that will not pay" — leaving to 
private enterprise "the part that will pay". 
This arrangement, said the Congress, is 
wholly indefensible. "If the taxpayers are 
to risk the losses on the Northern Ontario 
section, they should get the profits on the 
other sections . . . The whole line should be 
built and operated by a Crown company as 
a public utility." 

Also recommended were: — 

Establishment of a Bill of Rights. 

Labour representation on the Dominion 
Coal Board. 

The outlawing of injunctions in labour 
disputes within federal jurisdiction. 

Restriction of Canadian coastal trade to 
Canadian vessels. 

Provision for a half-day holiday with pay 
on federal election days. 

Reduction of interest rates on small 
personal loans. 

Provision of free Salk polio vaccine. 

Indication on election ballots of party 
affiliations. 

Reduction of interest rates on farm 
improvement loans to 4 per cent or lower. 

Provision of long-term, low-interest loans 
to fishermen for the purchase of boats. 

Establishment of a federal Bureau of 
Standards for the protection of Canadian 
consumers. 

Prime Minister's Reply 

It is not surprising, the Prime Minister 
said in his reply, that the brief should be 
long and comprehensive "because we know 
that the Congress has prepared for amal- 
gamation with the Trades and Labour 
Congress and that this is apt to be the 
last separate brief we will receive from the 
representatives of the large body of 
organized workers who have belonged to 
the Canadian Congress of Labour". 

The brief, Mr. St. Laurent said, deals 
with a very large number of matters that 



are receiving earnest consideration by the 
Government. They are all important and 
many of them are quite controversial. 

It is not surprising that there cannot be 
unanimity of approach to all these problems, 
though I think you will agree that, happily 
for the Canadian people, there is a common 
objective which all of us are doing our best 
to reach just as rapidly and in a manner 
that will be as fair as possible to the whole 
Canadian public. 

I can assure you that it is in that spirit 
that we receive even the very outspoken 
criticism, of which we do not complain, 
because this is a part of our democratic 
system of government. 

Commenting on the CCL's statements on 
international affairs, the Prime Minister 
said that the lessening of international 
tension is "due in large measure to the 
fact that we and our friends in the free 
world have stuck together and have worked 
together". It is necessary, he continued, 
that we continue our efforts to have such 
defensive strength as will be apt to deter 
any aggression. 

That requires the expenditure of large 
sums that "unfortunately cannot be used 
for what we would all prefer to use them," 
he pointed out. 

Mr. St. Laurent assured the delegation 
that their criticism and recommendations 
would receive careful consideration. 

Added Remarks and Reply 

At the conclusion of the Prime Minister's 
reply, Mr. Mosher said he wished to 
mention two additional matters. He asked 
for clarification of the Prime Minister's 
reply the day before to the TLC's expres- 
sion of opposition to compulsory arbitration 
in railway disputes and, secondly, for an 
investigation into the "high cost" of drugs. 

In answer to the first request, Mr. 
St. Laurent said much the same as he had 
told the TLC: that no one wanted to 
curtail the right to strike, that in the 
event of deadlocks that could "prolong to 
the point of exhaustion interruptions of 
necessary services" some other solution 
would have to be found, and that "when 
we are convinced that we are in the right, 
we are always disposed to submit to 
impartial appraisals of such situations". 

"No one, I think, will contemplate the 
possibility of doing without public trans- 
portation in a country like ours," the Prime 
Minister added. 

In answer to the second request, -he 
reminded the delegation of the existence of 
combines legislation. "If any specific cases 
are brought to the attention of the 
Combines Investigation organization, I am 
sure they will be gone into very carefully 
and very thoroughly," he said. 



47 



Canadian and Catholic Confederation of Labour 



For the first time in its annual brief, requests a health insurance 
plan. This year's memorandum dealt especially with social security, 
utilization of natural resources and new Unemployment Insurance Act 



For the first time in an annual brief to 
the Cabinet, the Canadian and Catholic 
Confederation of Labour has asked for a 
health insurance scheme, thus joining the 
increasing number of labour and other 
organizations who feel the time has come 
to establish such a program. 

The CCCL brief, read by the General 
Secretary, Jean Marchand, and part of 
which was commented on by the General 
President, Gerard Picard, was presented to 
the Prime Minister of Canada and his 
colleagues on December 16. The Executive 
Committee of the CCCL was accompanied 
by a smaller delegation than in the past. 

This year, the brief dealt especially with 
social security, the utilization of our 
natural resources, the new Unemployment 
Insurance Act, the International Labour 
Conference and the problem of unem- 
ployment. 

Specifically, the CCCL requested, among 
other things: — 

That Canada continue its economic aid 
to underdeveloped countries; 

That the Government publish statistics 
on the number of days each year when 
unemployed workers do not receive any 
benefits ; 

That the federal Government take a 
greater interest in the setting up of enter- 
prises for the processing of our raw 
materials ; 

That unemployment insurance benefits be 
paid to the unemployed as long as they 
have not succeeded in finding suitable 
employment, even if this meant increasing 
the rate of contributions; 

That a third category of benefits be 
created for unemployed persons who are 
responsible for a number of dependents 
equal to or higher than that of the average 
Canadian family; 

That old age pension and family allow- 
ance benefits be increased; 

That Canada complete its representation 
at the International Labour Conference 
and that the provincial Labour Depart- 
ments be asked to send delegates. 

The Prime Minister dealt briefly with 
certain recommendations contained in the 
memorandum and expressed his desire to 
meet, in so far as possible, the representa- 
tions made not only on behalf of the 
workers but also on behalf of the citizens 
in general. 



The following members of the Cabinet 
accompanied the Prime Minister when the 
CCCL's brief was presented: Hon. James J. 
McCann, Minister of National Revenue; 
Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour; 
Hon. Stuart S. Garson, Minister of Justice 
and Attorney General; Hon. Hugues 
Lapointe, Minister of Veterans Affairs and 
Postmaster General; Hon. George Prudham, 
Minister of Mines and Technical Surveys; 
Hon. John W. Pickersgill, Minister of 
Citizenship and Immigration; Hon. Jean 
Lesage, Minister of Northern Affairs and 
National Resources; and Hon. George C. 
Marler, Minister of Transport. 

The CCCL Brief 

The International Situation 

Dealing first with the international situa- 
tion, the CCCL encouraged the Govern- 
ment to continue its economic aid to the 
underdeveloped countries of the world, 
deeming this the best means of preventing 
these nations from turning one after the 
other to the Communist ideology. 

"Canada has shown generosity in the 
past," the brief stressed. "We hope that 
it will find it possible to carry on this 
policy for many years to come. This is, 
in our opinion, the best means of working 
for the maintenance and strengthening of 
peace in the world." 

Mentioning the recent trip made by the 
Minister for External Affairs to Russia and 
to the Middle and the Far East, the CCCL 
expressed the opinion that this trip will 
have contributed greatly towards lessening 
the dangers of war which may exist on a 
continent rapidly becoming more aware of 
international life. 

Moreover, the brief specified that events 
in the Middle East are certainly not of a 
nature to make peace more secure, adding 
that a drama is now being played in the 
Arab world in which the slightest serious 
incident could give rise to a conflict on a 
universal scale. 

The Unemployment Problem 

Feeling that there is no lack of signs to 
show that the number of unemployed will 
be very high again during the coming 
winter months, the CCCL asked the Gov- 
ernment to carry its research still further 



48 



in order to find technical methods and 
means calculated to reduce seasonal varia- 
tions in employment. 

Among other things, the brief suggested 
that the Royal Commission on Canada's 
Economic Prospects be asked to attach 
greater importance to the question of 
unemployment and to help to establish 
enterprises capable of ensuring steady 
sources of employment through the medium 
o!' an Industrial Expansion Bank. 

According to the CCCL, Canada's pros- 
perity depends to a large extent on 
whether or not Canadian workers are able 
to obtain employment for the whole year. 

The memorandum also urged the Govern- 
ment to publish more complete statistics 
on unemployment, including statistics to 
show the number of days every year when 
unemployed workers do not receive benefits. 

According to the CCCL, the winter 
employment campaign launched by the 
National Employment Service and the 
efforts of the Department of Labour in 
this respect have already shown good 
results. For this reason, it called on the 
Government to do still more. 

Utilization of Natural Resources 

Devoting a large section of its brief to 
the problem of the development of the 
country's natural resources, the CCCL 
stated that, while it favours in principle 
the private ownership of producer goods, 
it feels that the Government should play 
a more important part in the establish- 
ment of enterprises in co-operation with 
Canadian capital, rather than encouraging 
the flow of foreign capital. 

The CCCL recognized the fact that the 
development of our natural resources is 
primarily the concern of the provinces but 
felt that the question had now assumed 
such magnitude that it must be considered 
on the national level. 

The processing of our raw materials in 
the country, according to the brief, would 
make a singular contribution to the stabili- 
zation of our economy. 

The memorandum deplored the fact that 
Canada is still, to a large extent, a pro- 
ducer of raw materials which are exported, 
most of the time, unmanufactured. 

"We believe that, in several other sectors 
of the economy, it would be possible and 
even easy to have in this country factories 
for processing. This is particularly true in 
the sector of basic metals. This is a sector 
where the consequences are the most 
serious. The abundant mineral riches of 
the Canadian substratum should be as 
much as possible processed in Canada, 
which owns, in addition, the hydraulic 
power resources needed for the installation 



of vast iron works. It. should not. be 
forgotten that this is a case of riches which 
do not reproduce. 

"Even if they are very abundant, and 
they are far from having been entirely 
inventoried, the fact remains that the 
richest lodes are being worked. At a time 
when Canada, a young country facing a 
brighl economic future, must rely on all 
its immense resources to provide for the 
needs of a population which is rapidly 
increasing, is it not in danger of finding 
itself in a state of inferiority if it has 
already disposed of its best sources of 
supply? This is a question which workers 
ponder on very seriously, together with 
businessmen, economists and scientists." 

The CCCL also felt that the establish- 
ment of new concerns, whose existence 
would be based on the conversion of our 
raw materials, would be a means of gradu- 
ally replacing those decadent or marginal 
industries which have relied largely on 
protective tariffs, the principle of which is 
becoming more and more difficult to main- 
tain, as well as a means of enabling labour 
to readapt itself in professional fields 
offering guarantees for the future. 

Unemployment Insurance Act 

The present Unemployment Insurance 
Act, according to the CCCL, is still open 
to a good many improvements, and some 
of its provisions are unfair to certain 
categories of insured persons. 

Repeating some of the remarks made by 
the CCCL to the House of Commons 
Industrial Relations Committee last spring, 
the brief expressed the opinion that con- 
siderations of an actuarial nature have 
taken too much precedence over real social 
considerations, that regular benefits should 
be paid to the unemployed as long as they 
are unable to obtain suitable employment, 
that a third scale of benefits should be set 
up for unemployed persons responsible for 
a number of dependents equal to or greater 
than that of the average Canadian family, 
and, finally, that no concern involved in a 
labour dispute should be able to advertise 
for manpower under the authority of the 
National Employment Service. 

In view of the fact that more than two 
billion dollars have been collected by the 
Unemployment Insurance Fund since it was 
set up, and that from this amount the 
unemployed workers have received only 
slightly more than a billion, the CCCL 
maintained that the investments made by 
the Unemployment Insurance Commission 
mean that social security is a means of 
refinancing for the Government. While it 
is happy over the fact that the Commis- 
sion makes sound investments, the CCCL 



66180—4 



49 



considered that the money collected should 
be used in the first place to assure the 
unemployed of a more liberal purchasing 
power. 

For this reason the brief requested that 
regular benefits be paid to the unemployed 
as long as they have not succeeded in 
finding suitable employment. 

At this point the General President, 
Gerard Picard, stated that the CCCL would 
be in favour of increasing the workers' 
contributions, within reasonable limits, and 
also of adopting a formula according to 
which the cost of the insurance would be 
divided equally among the workers, the 
employers and the Government. 

The CCCL would therefore like to have 
a study made for the purpose of determin- 
ing the level of contributions necessary in 
order to reach this objective. This sugges- 
tion, Mr. Picard specified, is bound up with 
the one in which more information is 
requested concerning the extent of unem- 
ployment in Canada, this information to be 
obtained by means of compiling statistics 
on the number of days each year when 
unemployed workers do not receive any 
benefits. 

Stressing the fact that the principle of 
higher benefits for unemployed workers with 
dependents has already been recognized, the 
brief suggested that a third category of 
benefits be set up, adding to the benefits 
of insured persons with dependents the 
difference now existing between the scale 
for insured persons without dependents 
and the scale for insured persons with 
dependents, which would give the following 
figures: $10, $15, $19, $23, $27, $31, $35 and 
S37 a week. This third category of benefits 
would be paid to unemployed persons with 
dependents equal in number to, or greater 
than, the number of dependents in the 
average Canadian family. 

The CCCL also recommended that the 
Unemployment Insurance regulations be 
amended to provide that, in the event of 
a strike or lockout, the National Employ- 
ment Service could not be used in any 
way as a reservoir of strikebreakers. It 
suggested, too, that no unemployment 
insurance stamps be placed in the books 
of strikebreakers and that every labour 
dispute, strike or lockout should come to 
an end on the day on which an agreement 
is signed between the parties. 

While the CCCL was pleased to learn 
that the regulations concerning seasonal 
workers had been suspended for a year, 
the brief added that it would be better to 
do away with these regulations altogether. 
"The experience of the next 12 months," it 
stated, "will undoubtedly show the merits 
of our claim." 



Finally, the CCCL regretted that the 
Cabinet had not given effect to the recom- 
mendations of the UIC concerning the 
particular restrictions imposed upon 
married women. It would like to know 
what reasons the Cabinet had for adopting 
this attitude. 

Social Security Measures 

The CCCL made another appeal for 
certain improvements with regard to old 
age pensions and family allowances. For 
the first time, it asked for the establish- 
ment of a health insurance scheme. 

The CCCL feels that the time has come 
to turn resolutely in the direction of such 
a scheme. 

Too many Canadians, the brief empha- 
sized, are deprived of essential medical and 
surgical care for us to delay further the 
carrying out of this measure. 

On this point, the CCCL considered that 
a health insurance program should be set 
up jointly by the federal and the provincial 
Governments, and that the administration 
of the plan should be entrusted to the 
provinces. 

Noting that family allowances, which 
were a considerable help to Canadian 
families when they were first established, 
are worth a great deal less today, the 
CCCL felt that "to restore to this measure 
the full social value attributed to it, and 
rightly so, when it was established, it 
would be only reasonable to increase the 
minimum rate of the allowance to $8 and 
the maximum rate to $13 per month per 
child". The CCCL also considered that 
the payment of family allowances should 
be continued as long as the child is at 
his studies. 

As regards old age pensions, the CCCL 
was of the opinion that the monthly 
pension should be increased to $50 for 
women who have reached the age of 60 
and for men who have reached the age 
of 65, under a general plan the cost of 
which would be paid three-fifths by the 
federal Government and two-fifths by the 
provinces. 

The International Labour Conference 

This year the brief stressed particularly 
the importance of Canada's completing its 
representation at the International Labour 
Conference. 

"Canada is becoming one of the most 
industrialized countries in the world," it 
declared, "and it is imperative that it 
play its part fully at the International 
Conference." 

Furthermore, the CCCL suggested that 
the federal Government should ask the 
provincial Governments to participate in 



50 



these conferences by delegating high 
officials of the provincial Labour Depart- 
ments. 

The problems discussed at these meet- 
ings are perhaps of more interest to the 
provincial Governments, the brief pointed 
out, than to the central Governments, since 
labour legislation, to a very large extent, 
and particularly when it concerns collective 
bargaining, comes under provincial juris- 
diction. 

The CCCL also asked the Canadian 
Government to try to get the International 
Labour Office to set up specialized commis- 
sions to study the problems of employees 
in the graphic arts industry and of govern- 
ment and municipal employees. 

Second Part of Brief 

The second part of the CCCL brief was 
not read. It is mainly a summary of the 
requests already made to the federal 
authorities, which the last CCCL conven- 
tion decided to submit again "in the hope 
that the Government will grant them its 
entire attention". 

Income Tax — The CCCL again requested 
the Government to increase the basic 
exemption for unmarried persons from 
$1,000 to $1,500 and for married persons 
from $2,000 to $3,000. It also suggested 
that the exemption for a child should be 
$400 per year instead of $150. 

The brief also requested that the Income 
Tax Act be amended so that family income 
could be considered as earned equally by 
husband and wife, and that each should 
file an income tax return as if they were 
single, benefiting by the exemptions pro- 
vided for unmarried persons; that workers 
should be able to deduct annually from 
their taxable income an amount equal to 
10 per cent of the value of their equip- 
ment; that the need to produce receipts 
for the 10-per-cent reduction for charitable 
donations be done away with; and that 
medical expenses, contributions to accident 
insurance and sickness insurance funds and 
sums paid for unemployment insurance 
should be deducted from taxable income. 

Older Workers— The CCCL asked the 
Government to set up a Commission to 
study the problem of the older worker, 
suggesting that a law be passed to ensure 
more effective protection for this category 
of workers. 

Permanent Price Commission — The CCCL 
believes that the creation of a permanent 
commission on prices would be an 
excellent means of protecting the con- 
sumer against "sudden and unforeseen" 
price increases. 

Right of Association and Collective 
Bargaining — Emphasizing that freedom of 



association and its corollary, the right to 
bargain collectively, are among the great 
social cpnquests made by the wage- 
earners, the brief deplored the fact that 
large groups of wage-earners, particularly 
arsenals employees, are deprived of the 
privileges of the law. The Government 
was also requested to improve working 
conditions for the staff of the Government 
Printing Bureau, making them at least 
comparable to those of workers in private 
concerns of the same type. 

Other Recommendations — The CCCL 
also repeated its previous recommenda- 
tions concerning the housing problem, 
broadcasts for workers on the CBC net- 
work, diplomatic representation at the 
Vatican, the criminal code, immigration, 
the Bell Telephone Company, Government 
Annuities, Canada Day, the Canadian flag, 
immoral publications and the Elections Act. 

The Prime Minister's Reply 

The Prime Minister assured the CCCL 
delegation that its recommendations would 
be given careful study "in the light of 
whatever it may be possible to do towards 
the improvement of the measures discussed 
in your brief". 

"We always appreciate these occasions," 
he said, "when you come to make your 
representations to us concerning, problems 
which are of interest not only to the group 
you represent, but which, in your opinion, 
would be an advantage to all the people 
of Canada." 

Mr. St. Laurent then went on to review 
the main recommendations made in the 
brief. 

Stressing the fact that there is constant 
improvement in the efforts being made to 
publish statistics giving as much informa- 
tion as possible, the Prime Minister stated 
that the Government is going to see 
whether it is possible to provide still more 
information than is now being done, as 
desired by the CCCL. 

With regard to the suggestions concern- 
ing the Unemployment Insurance Act, Mr. 
St. Laurent specified that this is a problem 
which it is difficult to solve satisfactorily 
"without a considerable increase in pay- 
ments to the general fund". 

In asking the Government to pay a 
third of the contributions, he said, "you 
are making a suggestion which alters 
considerably the basis on which this 
Unemployment Insurance fund was estab- 
lished". As a matter of fact, this would 
amount to asking every taxpayer in the 
country to pay just as high a proportion 
as is paid by the employers and by the 
workers who benefit by these payments. 



1180 — 4^ 



51 



The Prims Minister repeated, however, 
that the Government is always prepared 
to recommend improvements which seem 
to it to be feasible. "We are trying to 
make this measure as advantageous and as 
practical as possible," he said. 

1 v « ferring to the "important reserves" in 
the Unemployment Insurance fund, Mr. 
St, Laurent observed that he "was under 
the impression Last year that the benefits 
were perhaps a little higher than the 
contributions". 

With regard to unemployment, the Prime 
Minister deplored the consequences of 
Canada's severe climatic conditions. 

''There is no doubt that certain types 
of work are necessarily interrupted during 
our Canadian winters. This brings about 
consequences which we deplore, and we are 
trying, just as you are, to stimulate 
employment during the winter. 

"I think we have reason to hope that 
unemployment will not reach the level this 
year that it did last, but we agree with 
you that it will inevitably reach a level 
higher than we would like to see it, and 
which we shall apply ourselves, just as 
you will, to reducing as much as possible." 

Turning to the social security measures 
suggested by the CCCL, the Prime Min- 
ister admitted that the dollar no longer has 
the purchasing power it had when family 
allowances were instituted. 

However, he pointed out, taxes have 
remained at a high level and it does not 
seem probable that people in general would 
like to see this level still higher. 

The Prime Minister stressed the fact 
that the CCCL's recommendations con- 



cerning old age pensions and family 
allowances would involve additional 
expenditure besides the large sums already 
distributed in pensions. 

He promised that the suggestions regard- 
ing the International Labour Conference 
would be given "very careful considera- 
tion". 

"We belong to this international organ- 
ization," he said, "for the satisfaction of 
the Canadian workers, and you may be 
sure that w 7 e are anxious to give as large 
a measure of personal and individual 
satisfaction to the Canadian workers as it 
is possible to do." 

Going on to the recommendations dealing 
with natural resources, the Prime Minister 
pointed out, as the brief had done, that 
natural resources belong to the provinces. 
He stated that, however, that the federal 
Government "must try to achieve the 
fullest co-operation between all the pro- 
vincial Governments in order to obtain, for 
the Canadian people in general, the best 
advantages which can be obtained from the 
development of these resources". 

In closing, Mr. St. Laurent added that 
the recommendations repeated in the 
second part of the brief "will all be exam- 
ined not only by the head of the Depart- 
ment concerned in each case, but by all 
members of the Government". 

He laid stress on the ministerial solidarity 
of each in all decisions made in this 
connection. "It is in acknowledging com- 
pletely this solidarity and this responsi- 
bility towards those who have elected us 
as their representatives that we shall study 
all these problems," he said. 



International Railway Brotherhoods 



As in past submissions, emphasize seriousness of the housing shortage 
and suggest that provision be made under National Housing Act for 
purchase of older houses and for lower interest rate on housing loans 



The National Legislative Committee* of 
the International Railway Brotherhoods 
presented its annual brief to the Govern- 
ment on December 16. 

As in the past, the brief emphasized the 
seriousness of the housing shortage, particu- 
larly as it affects workers earning $3,000 a 
year or less. Although changes made in 
the National Housing Act in 1954 had pro- 
vided a stimulus to building, financing the 
purchase of a new house was as much as 
ever beyond the means of the majority of 
Canadian workers, the brief said, suggesting 
that the provisions of the Act should be 
extended to cover existing homes in good 
condition. 



The Committee recommended the estab- 
lishment of an extended system of national 
scholarships to enable a much larger propor- 
tion of young Canadians to receive a higher 
education. 

The brief expressed approval of recent 
changes in the Unemployment Insurance 
Act. Renewed requests were made for a 
national transportation policy, national 
health insurance, an increase in the amounts 
of income tax exemptions and allowable 
deductions, an increase in social service 
allowances, and for labour representation in 
the 1 Senate. Certain changes were suggested 
in the Explosives Act, the Railway Act, 



52 



and the Industrial Relations and Dis- 
putes Investigation Act. The Committee 
reaffirmed its support of public ownership 
and government control of radio and tele- 
vision broadcasting. Reference was made to 
hardship caused to some railway employees 
by substitution of diesel power for steam 
power. 

The brief was presented on behalf of 
the Brotherhoods by W. H. Phillips, Chair- 
man of the Committee. The Prime 
Minister was accompanied by the following 
members of the Cabinet: Rt. Hon. C. D. 
Howe, Minister of Trade and Commerce 
and Minister of Defence Production; Hon. 
Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour; 
Hon. Stuart S. Garson, Minister of Justice; 
Hon. Robert H. Winters, Minister of Public 
Works; Hon. George Prudham, Minister of 
Mines and Technical Surveys; and Hon. 
George C. Marler, Minister of Transport. 

In replying to the Committee the Prime 
Minister said that one of the main causes 
of betterment in the international situation 
was the upbuilding of the strength of the 
free nations. In order to maintain our 
position we had to keep abreast of techno- 
logical developments in armaments and 
defence measures. Unfortunately, the 
expenditure needed for this purpose meant 
that revenue was not available for some 
other desirable purposes. 

"All these welfare services are desirable 
services. They are all geared to our ability 
to provide for them, and we have been 
endeavouring to provide and improve those 
services to the extent to which the sources 
of revenue that could be used were avail- 
able," Mr. St. Laurent said. 

The Railway Brotherhoods' Brief 
Social Security 

The Committee renewed the requests it 
had made in the previous year's brief for 
increased social security allowances. It 
requested that favourable consideration be 
given to: — 

Providing a pension for all persons of 
65 years and over without a means test. 

Increasing the monthly pension from the 
present $40 to $50. 

Giving assistance to women between 60 
and 65 years, with a means test, to a 
maximum of $50 a month. 

In connection with these suggestions the 
brief said: "It is recognized there has been 
an annual deficit in the Old Age Security 
Fund; however, a large portion of the 
Canadian budget is devoted to defence 
purposes and it is hoped that due to the 
lessening in world tension a proportion 
thereof may be re-allocated to this and 
other forms of social security." 



An increase of $5 a month in the scale 
of family allowance benefits was also 

suggested by the Committee, in order to 

make up for the decrease in the purchasing 
power of the allowances since they wen- 
last, revised in 1949. 

It was recommended that the Disabled 
Persons Act, which now provides for the 
payment of monthly allowances to disabled 
pei sons of 18 years and over, be amended 
to reduce the minimum age to 16 years. 

Unemployment Insurance 

The Committee signified its satisfaction 
with the recent changes in the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Act, which came into effect 
on October 2, 1955. It expressed "the 
appreciation of the railway employees to 
the Government, with particular reference 
to the Minister of Labour and to the 
Unemployment Insurance Commissioners, 
for the provisions of the current Act". 

Immigration 

The Committee agreed with the Govern- 
ment's policy of selective immigration but 
suggested that more attention should be 
given to adjusting the number of immi- 
grants and the time of their arrival to 
periods of the year when opportunities for 
employment were best. 

The request was again made "that the 
Department of Labour be charged with the 
responsibility of immigration, and that 
there be closer co-operation, through the 
creation of an immigration commission with 
equal representation from labour, manage- 
ment and the Government". 

Education 

"Colleges and universities are in financial 
difficulties and the situation will become 
more acute in the next few years as the 
university population doubles in size. This 
will call for more buildings, equipment and 
staff," the brief said. It went on to point 
out that national survival todajr depends 
upon scientific leadership, that the universi- 
ties have a vital role to play which cannot 
be filled by any other institutions, and that 
they therefore merit financial assistance. 

The provinces are finding it a burden to 
pay for their universities and the present 
federal grants to the universities, although 
very much appreciated, are inadequate and 
should be increased, the brief stated. 

"There is a growing fear that in the near 
future a university education will only be 
available to the wealthy or to those who 
live in the city where the university is 
located," the Committee said, suggesting a 
system of national scholarships such as was 
recommended by the Royal Commission on 
National Developments in the Arts, Letters 
and Sciences. 



53 



Housing 

"The housing shortage for workers earn- 
ing S3 .000 or less is still acute and we, 
therefore, reiterate the points raised last 
year which will bring NHA financing within 
the reach of the average Canadian wage 
earner," the brief said. 

Although changes made in the National 
Housing Act in 1954 had given a stimulus 
to the building trade by providing a new 
source of mortgage funds and decreasing 
somewhat the down payment, the provision 
of insuring the mortgage had increased the 
monthly payments and the resultant salary 
requirements and made it impossible for 
the average Canadian worker to finance a 
home under NHA, the Committee said. 

For a loan under NHA, monthly pay- 
ments, including principal, interest, taxes 
and insurance, may still amount to only 
23 per cent of the monthly income, the 
brief said. Under the new Act, therefore, 
to finance the purchase of a $10,000 home 
an annual wage of $3,480 is required. 

Since the great majority of Canadian 
workers are still earning less than $3,000 a 
year, a 810,000 house is thus beyond their 
reach. There are, however, the brief went 
on to say, available throughout Canada 
three-bedroom houses built in the 1920's, 
which would make an excellent source of 
housing for the average Canadian. The 
brief suggested that mortgage facilities 
should be made available under NHA to 
cover the purchase of existing homes in 
good condition. 

The Committee also suggested that the 
rate of interest on government loans be 
lowered to 3£ per cent, only to private 
citizens earning $3,000 or less per year, with 
certain restrictions designed to prevent 
speculation. 

National Health Insurance 

The Committee said it was pleased to 
note the Prime Minister's statement at the 
federal-provincial conference in October 
that his Government would take part in a 
health insurance plan if it were desired 
by "a substantial majority of provincial 
governments representing a substantial 
majority of the Canadian people". 

The Committee said that it was of the 
opinion, which it had advanced for some 
years past, that if the Government of 
Canada would pass the required legislation 
enabling those provinces prepared to do so 
to proceed, public demand would result in 
national coverage in a short period of time. 

National Transportation Policy 

"It is our conviction that where com- 
petitive transport agencies are involved, the 
control and regulations should ensure to 



54 



each the requisite economic security to 
meet the required service qualifications. It 
is obvious that to control one class, namely 
the railways, over which there is rigid 
regulation, and allow all competitors to 
operate without comparable regulation, will 
never be a sound basis for a 'national 
transportation policy'," the Committee said. 

The brief urged the Government to 
implement the recommendations of the 
Royal Commission of 1931-32, which in- 
quired into railways and transportation. 
From that report it quoted as follows: 
"... unless some form of restriction and 
limitation of their (the common carrier 
trucks) activities is brought about by 
competent authorities, a progressively in- 
creasing loss will be experienced by the 
railways in the future which cannot fail 
to have a damaging effect on earnings." 

The Committee said that it was a fact 
that in past years the earnings of the rail- 
ways have been damaged considerably by 
lack of control over the carrier truck. 

Taxation 

Although it expressed appreciation of the 
12-per-cent reduction in personal income 
tax in July 1955, the Committee urged 
further reductions by: increasing exemp- 
tions to $1,500 for single taxpayers and to 
$3,000 for those with dependents, by in- 
creasing the allowance for each dependent 
not eligible for family allowances to $500, 
by providing that all expenditures for 
medical and dental care be made deductible 
in computing taxable income, and by some 
other concessions. 

Use of Diesel Power 

The brief requested the Government to 
"enact legislation, comparable in principle 
to that specified in the Canadian National- 
Canadian Pacific Act, which would provide 
protection to those employees who are 
displaced or reduced due to the railways' 
utilizing diesel power as a substitute for 
steam". 

The Railway Act 

The Committee commended the Govern- 
ment for the action of Parliament at its 
last session in amending the Railway Act 
to implement those recommendations of the 
Board of Transport Commissioners which 
concerned the Railway Grade Crossing 
Fund. 

The brief repeated requests made in 
previous submissions that Section 253 of 
the Act be amended to require that safe 
side clearances, suitable for the use of 
present-day equipment, should be allowed 
on all railway tracks. 



Another request which was repeated was 
that the Act should be amended to provide 
that when municipal authorities seek restric- 
tion of warning whistle or bell signals at 
highway crossings, subject to the approval 
of the Board of Transport Commissioners, 
such approval should not be given unless 
proper manual or mechanical warning 
devices were provided. 

I.R. & D.L Act 

Certain changes in the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act or in 
its administration were suggested. The 
Committee recommended that: — 

The Minister should use as effectively as 
possible the services of conciliation officers 
in respect of delays. 

After a union has been certified and an 
agreement entered into, the employer 
should not be allowed to "farm out" work 
covered by the agreement. 

The Act should be amended to provide 
that decisions or orders of the Canada 
Labour Relations Board be recorded in 
writing, and be available to all interested 
persons. 

The brief also asked that the Govern- 
ment give serious consideration to means of 
correcting inequality of opportunity for the 
railways and their employees brought about 
by the control of railway income by the 
Board of Transport Commissioners. 

Other Recommendations 

The Committee repeated its recommenda- 
tion that the Government's policy of 
appointing labour representatives to public 
bodies, boards and commissions be broad- 
ened. It also suggested that "it would be 
in the national interest if labour were rep- 
resented in the Senate". * 

The national program of rehabilitation 
services, which was started in 1951, involv- 
ing the participation of federal and pro- 
vincial agencies, was recommended. 

The Committee reaffirmed its "support of 
public ownership and government control of 
radio broadcasting and telecasting under the 
trusteeship of the Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation." 

The Prime Minister's Reply 

The Prime Minister told the Committee 
that the Government, because it realized 
that the submission was for the most part 
one of views for the betterment of social 
and other conditions affecting Canadians at 
large, always gave very careful and earnest 
consideration to these briefs. 

The Prime Minister said that he noted 
that one of the paragraphs on the first page 
of the brief was written before "the in- 
creased tenseness of the cold war". He said 



that one of the main causes for the better- 
ment in the international situation was the 
upbuilding of the strength of the free 
nations. 

This, enables us to feel, he said, that no 
potential aggressor would likely undertake 
to use the destructive implements of war 
that are now available, because he must 
feel that, by reason of our strength, it 
would be as disastrous for the one who 
started the aggression as it would be for 
those against whom it was directed. 

Very great technological developments are 
taking place in the field of armaments and 
defence measures, the Prime Minister con- 
tinued. In order to maintain our position 
we had to keep up to date, and this meant 
that anything that had become obsolescent 
had to be replaced by something much 
more complicated and costly than the thing 
it replaced. 

He thanked the Committee for the para- 
graph in their brief in which they com- 
mended the actions that had been taken; 
but he said that the inevitable consequence 
of such action was that revenue used for such 
purposes was not available for other desir- 
able recommendations which they had made. 

In regard to immigration, he said that he 
thought we all felt that immigration was 
desirable to the extent that we can make 
and provide conditions here that will result 
in the immigrant being happy that he came 
here. This, he believed, should be the 
governing factor in any immigration policy. 

With respect to education the Prime 
Minister said he was much impressed by 
the presentation made in the brief. There 
is no doubt, he said, that the costs of 
education are rising and that many more 
persons than before require these facilities. 

But he said that taxing capacity used by 
the federal Government was not available 
for other taxing authorities, and it was that 
matter which constitutes the substance of 
the discussions at dominion-provincial con- 
ferences. Tax-paying capacity remained the 
same, he said, no matter what authority 
gathered the taxes. There were differences, 
however, in the tax-paying potential of 
different areas of the country, and the 
Government tried to bring about some 
degree of uniformity in the distribution of 
the proceeds of some taxes for the public 
services to which they are applied. 

With respect to housing, the Prime Min- 
ister said that costs have increased, and 
the conveniences necessary in modern 
housing have also increased. For a certain 
portion of our people there was a disparity 
between that part of their earnings avail- 
able for housing and the inevitable charges 
that have to be paid by somebody to 
provide that housing. 



55 



This, he said, was something that had to 
be given careful consideration in trying to 

have the national income of Canada as 
fairly distributed as possible. All these 
welfare services are desirable services, he 
said, but they are all geared to our ability 
to provide lor them. 

There are certain features which deal 
with the transportation system of this 
country. Mr. Sr. Laurent said, in regard to 
which serious efforts will be made, as 
always, to bring about such improvements 
as are practicable. Adjustment problems 
accompany the introduction of new things, 
and these have to be dealt with as effec- 
tively as possible. 

The Committee's recommendations with 
regard to orders of the Board of Transport 



Commissioners, and the recording of those 
orders, would be drawn to the attention of 
the members of that Board, he said. 

With regard to broadcasting and tele- 
vision, the Prime Minister said that as the 
Committee were aware, a Royal Commis- 
sion had been set up, and he hoped they 
would appear before that Commission to 
in form it of their views. 

When the Prime Minister had finished 
speaking Mr. Phillips asked him whether 
he would send the Committee a letter 
making some comment on their recom- 
mendations, as he had done one or two 
years ago. Mr. St. Laurent said they would 
certainly be informed of such action as the 
Government might take in respect to their 
recommendations. 



AFL-CIO Merger Consummated 

Amalgamation of major segments of organized labour in United States 
effected at New York convention. George Meany elected President of 
new AFL-CIO; Reuther named President of Industrial Union Department 



Unity of the major segments of United 
States trades unionism became a reality 
last month at the first constitutional con- 
vention of the organization, known as the 
American Federation of Labour and Con- 
gress of Industrial Organizations, formed 
through merger of the AFL and CIO. 
Delegates to the convention numbered 
1,487 and represented a membership of 
15,700,000. 

George Meany, AFL President, was 
unanimously elected President of the 
AFL-CIO. Walter Reuther, President of 
the CIO, was elected President of the 
organization's new Industrial Union Depart- 
ment. Of the 27 Vice-presidents elected, 
17 were from the AFL and 10 from the 
CIO. 

Two of the Vice-presidents are Negroes, 
the first time in American trade union 
history that a Negro has been named to 
a major office in a national labour organ- 
ization. 

In addition to the Executive Council, the 
convention named an Executive Committee 
of six, plus the President and Secretary- 
Treasurer. The Executive Committee will 
at frequent intervals to process and 
carry out convention policy and mandates, 
as well as to translate into action day-to- 
day matters as may be required. The 
utive Committee is responsible to the 
Executive Council and which, in turn, is 
responsible to the biennal conventions of 
the AFL-CIO. 



The first convention of the new organ- 
ization was a busy one : some 50 resolutions 
were disposed of and some scores of 
speakers from all walks of life were heard. 
Some hundreds of foreign trades union 
dignitaries from some 40 countries were in 
attendance, in the dual capacity of 
observers at the opening convention of the 
new organization as well as being official 
delegates from their countries to the execu- 
tive meeting of the International Con- 
federation of Fijee Trades Unions, whose 
sessions were being held in New York City 
for this occasion. 

Convention speakers included the 
President of the United States, Secretary 
of Labor Mitchell, Governors Harriman of 
New York and Williams of Michigan, Adlai 
Stevenson and several dozen more from all 
levels of political, social and religious life 
of the United States. Because of his 
inability to be present, President Eisen- 
hower delivered his speech by telephone to 
the convention. Most addresses had to do 
with the significance of the merger, with 
occasional reference to the future economic 
and political impact of union amalgama- 
tion. 

Resolutions covered the whole range of 
national and international affairs. One 
group of resolutions covered the stated 
need of improving the economic position 
of labour. Such resolutions covered the 
need of improved living standards through 



56 



action at the collective bargaining table, 
as well as through legislative measures on 
the federal, state and local level. 

A second group reflected the need for 
increased political education and political 
action. From President Mcany down, all 
speakers emphasized the need for more 
political education and action. However, 
stress was laid on the legitimacy of such 
proposed action. 

"There was," said President Mcany, "no 
policy or intention of starting a third 
political party, or in attempting to 
dominate any existing political party. 
Political action would be resorted to by 
labour in the interests of the whole 
country." 

A third group of resolutions dealt with 
international affairs. Emphasis was placed 
on the need for a resolute policy towards 
Communism as well as for aid to under- 
developed countries and, through the 
ICFTU, to the trades union movements 
therein. 

High on the list of immediate objectives 
of the new organization was union organ- 
ization of the unorganized. To head up 
such organization Jack Livingstone, Vice- 
president of the United Automobile 
Workers, was appointed National Director 
of Organization. The United States will 
be subdivided into 13 areas, with each area 
having a Regional Director. While several 
convention speakers dealt with separate 
areas of the problem of organization, a 
semi-official target of doubling trades 
union strength within five years found 
ready response and approval. This would 
mean that — presuming such target was 
reached — the new organization would have 
a membership of more than 30 million by 
1961. 

Part of the problem of organization is 
securing enough money to do the job. 
Several speakers announced that an initial 
organizing fund of four million dollars was 
in being, and that much more was forth- 
coming. Questioned by the press, Mr. 
Livingstone, Director of Organization, said 
that no matter how much money was at 
hand for organizing, there would never be 
enough on hand to do the job required. 

Opening Ceremonies 

The convention was held in the 71st 
Regimental Armory, following two-day 
"closing out" conventions of the two major 
federations now making up the new 
national trades union centre. 

W'alter Reuther, President of the United 
Automobile Workers of America and former 
President of the CIO, presided over the 
opening sessions of the convention. Cardinal 



Spellman, Archbishop of the Roman 
Catholic Diocese of New York, gave the 
opening invocation and was followed by 
speeches of welcome from Mayor Wagner 
of New York City and state and city trade 
union officials. 

The first official act of the convention 
was the report of the Credentials Com- 
mittee. The report was submitted by 
William Schnitzlcr, Secretary-Treasurer of 
the AFL and, subsequently, Secretary- 
Treasurer elect of the new organization. 
Mr. Schnitzler's report showed 1,487 dele- 
gates present from 135 national and inter- 
national unions, five trades union depart- 
ments, 93 state federations and state 
councils, 490 local labour councils, and 148 
local unions chartered directly by the two 
federations. 

Election of Officers 

Traditionally, it had been the custom in 
the AFL for the President of that body 
to be "named" by a member of his own 
union. This had been an honour respected 
and adhered to over the years of AFL 
history. 

The convention of the new organization 
recognized this long tradition but, out of 
deference to the facts and factors of the 
merger, the honour of placing in nomina- 
tion the name of the first President 
of the new organization was accorded 
Walter Reuther. 

Mr. Reuther dealt at some length with 
Mr. Meany's qualifications for the Presi- 
dency of the merged organization, citing 
him as the unanimous choice of both 
organizations party to the merger. 

Mr. Meany's election was unanimous. 

His acceptance speech covered the whole 
range of national and international affairs. 
The new President laid great stress on 
labour's future, emphasized the need for 
labour's responsibility as well as for its 
future opportunities. He said that labour 
unity must be good for the whole country 
as well as for labour. "In the interna- 
tional field," said Mr. Meany, "labour must 
be in the forefront of strengthening a free 
society as a means of disposing of the 
challenge of world tyranny." 

Mr. Meany's election as President was 
followed by the unanimous election of Mr. 
Schnitzler as Secretary-Treasurer and of 27 
Vice-presidents. The twenty-nine officers 
will make up the Executive Council of' the 
AFL-CIO. 

Xhe 27 Vice-presidents are: Harry C. 
Bates, Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers' 
International Union of America; Dave 
Beck, International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and 



66180—5 



57 



Structure of the AFL-CIO 

The biennial convention is the top policy-making body. 

President and Secretary-Treasurer administer and interpret policy, are subject 
and responsible to executive bodies and biennial convention. 

Executive Council has power to take action between conventions, meets three 
times j^early. 

Executive Committee is authorized to act between meetings of the Executive 
Council, meets every two months. 

Trades or Union Departments basically deal with occupational interests of 
affiliates within each Department, must conform to constitutional prerogatives of 
the parent organization. 

State and local organizations have policy-making rights within state and local 
areas, subject to the powers of the national organization. 

Administrative Departments (see list on page 59). 

Standing committees (see list on page 59). 



Helpers of America; Joseph A. Beirne, 
Communications Workers of America; 
William C. Birthright, The Journeymen 
Barbers, Hairdressers, Cosmetologists and 
Proprietors' International Union of 
America ; L. S. Buckmaster, United Rubber, 
Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of 
America; James B. Carey, International 
Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine 
Workers; Joseph Curran, National Maritime 
Union of America; William C. Doherty, 
National Association of Letter Carriers; 
David Dubinsky, International Ladies' 
Garment Workers' Union; George M. 
Harrison, Brotherhood of Railway and 
Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, 
Express and Station Employees; Al J. 
Hayes, International Association of Machin- 
ists; Maurice A. Hutcheson, United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America; Joseph D. Keenan, International 
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; 0. A. 
Knight, Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers 
International Union ; Charles J. MacGowan, 
International Brotherhood of Boiler Makers, 
Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers 
and Helpers; David J. McDonald, United 
Steelworkers of America; William L. 
McFetridge, Building Service Employees' 
International Union;. James C. Petrillo, 
American Federation of Musicians ; Jacob S. 
Potofsky, Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of America; A. Philip Randolph, Brother- 
hood of Sleeping Car Porters; Walter P. 
Reuther, United Automobile, Aircraft 
and Agricultural Implement Workers of 
America; Emil Rieve, Textile Workers 
Union of America; A. L. Spradling, 
Amalgamated Association of Street, Elec- 
tric Railway and Motor Coach Employees 
of America; William S. Townsend, United 
Transport Service Employees; Richard F. 
Walsh, International Alliance of Theatrical 



Stage Employees and Moving Picture 
Machine Operators of the United States 
and Canada; Herman Winter, Bakery and 
Confectionery Workers' International Union 
of America; and Matthew Woll, Interna- 
tional Photo-Engravers' Union of North 
America. 

Industrial Union Department 

The constitution of the new organization 
provides for equal recognition of industrial 
and craft unionism and for the establish- 
ment of an Industrial Union Department. 

It was originally thought that this 
Department would have to do with the 
particular problems of CIO unions. How- 
ever, it was found that, as the effect of 
trades union evolution over the years, many 
former AFL craft unions had become partly 
industrial organizations, thereby making 
such unions eligible for participation in the 
affairs of the Industrial Union Department. 

The new organization decided, therefore, 
that all unions, craft or otherwise, would 
be entitled to affiliate with the Industrial 
Union Department to the extent of their 
industrial union membership. This decision 
brought some 37 former AFL craft unions 
into affiliation with the new Industrial 
Union Department. The Department has 
now affiliated with it 68 unions, represent- 
ing an estimated membership of more than 
seven millions. 

Walter Reuther and James B. Carey 
were elected President and Secretary 
respectively of the new Department. 
Directing the affairs of the new Depart- 
ment will be Al Whitehouse, a former 
regional director of the United Steel- 
workers. Provision is made for election 
of 12 Vice-presidents of the Department. 
Seven of such offices have been filled by 



58 



CIO representatives. Of the five vacancies 
remaining, four will be filled by nominees 
from former AFL unions. 

Other Departments 

The establishment of the new Industrial 
Department brings to six the number of 
trade subdivisions of the AFL-CIO: Build- 
ing and Construction Trades Department, 
Maritime Trades Department, Metal Trades 
Department, Railroad Employees Depart- 
ment, Union Label and Service Trades 
Department, and Industrial Union Depart- 
ment. 

In addition, there will be an auxiliary 
joint committee between the Industrial 
Department and that of the Building 
Trades, the purpose of such committee 
being to iron out any dispute that may 
arise between the two Departments. 

All of these Departments will be 
autonomous within their particular spheres 
of occupational interest. They will levy 
their own dues, hold their own conventions, 
elect their own officials, administer their 
own affairs and pay all help serving the 
Departments. While maintaining their 
autonomy, they must conform to basic 
policy decisions of the parent AFL-CIO. 

State and Local Organizations 

Exclusive of top constitutional organs of 
the AFL-CIO, such as Executive Council, 
Executive Committee, Trade or Union 
Departments, will be state federations and 
local councils. It will take an estimated 
two years to merge into functioning units 
the numerous duplicate state and local 
bodies. If, at the end of two years, merger 
has not been completed on state and local 
levels, the national organization may take 
such steps as may be deemed necessary to 
effectuate such amalgamation. 

A recognition that many factors are 
involved in the consolidation of state and 
local organizations was seen in the speech 
of William McGowan of the Boilermakers. 
Mr. McGowan pleaded for early merger of 
state and local units by citing, as a good 
example of willingness to serve the general 
labour interest, the willing sacrifice of 
Walter Reuther and James Carey to drop 
out of the running for the offices of 
President and Secretary of the AFL-CIO. 
Mr. McGowan's speech was well received. 

Administrative Subdivisions 

Apart from the policy-making branches 
of the new labour centre, there will be a 
number of administrative subdivisions. 
These are: Press and Publicity, Publica- 
tions, Organization, International, Social 



Security, Research, Education, Political 
Education and Action, and Civil Rights. 

By mutual consent and approval the 
directorships of such administrative units 
have been allocated on a reciprocal basis 
between personnel formerly serving similar 
areas of work in the AFL and CIO. In a 
few cases there will be a director and 
co-director of an administrative unit, the 
hope being that time and atmosphere will 
make co-directorships superfluous. 

In addition to all of the foregoing, there 
will be a number of standing committees, 
each of which will deal with varying admin- 
istrative areas. These committees will be 
largely advisory, their studies and work 
being channelled through and dealt with 
by executive and convention consideration. 
The committees are (Chairmen in paren- 
theses) : Legislative (George Meany), 
Political Education (George Meany), Civil 
Rights (James Carey), Ethical Practices 
(Al Hayes), International Affairs (Jacob 
Potofsky and Matthew Woll), Education 
(George Harrison), Social Security (Maurice 
Hutchison), Community Relations (Joseph 
Beirne), Housing (Harry Bates), Research 
(William Schnitzler), Public Relations and 
Publications (William Birthright), Economic 
Policy (Walter Reuther), Occupational 
Safety and Health (David Beck), and 
Veterans (William C. Doherty). 

Personnel of four of the committees have 
been announced. Committee members 
will be: — 

Ethical Practices — Messrs. Curran, Harri- 
son, Dubinsky and Potofsky. 

Civil Rights — Mr. Dubinsky, Ralph 
Helstein of the United Packinghouse 
Workers of America, Milton P. Webster of 
the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 
Mr. Woll, Emil Mazey of the United Auto 
Workers, Mr. Doherty, Steelworkers' Presi- 
dent David J. McDonald, and Messrs. 
McFetridge, Townsend, Walsh, Buckmaster, 
Harrison and Hayes. 

International Affairs — Messrs. Dubinsky, 
Reuther, Beck, Harrison, Rieve and Knight, 
and William J. McSorley of the Wood, 
Wire and Metal Lathers' International 
Union. 

Housing — Mr. McFetridge, Richard J. 
Gray of the Building and Construction 
Trades Department, John Edelman of the 
Textile Workers, Messrs. Keenan, Mac- 
Gowan and Hutcheson, Ben Fischer of the 
Steelworkers, A. F. Hartung of the Inter- 
national Woodworkers of America, John 
Lyons of the International Association of 
Bridge, Structural and Ornamental Iron 
Workers, John Moran of the Communica- 
tions Workers, Peter Fosco of the Inter- 
national Hod Carriers, Building and 



66180— 5i 



59 



Common Labourers' Union of America, and 

Morris Pizer of the United Furniture 
Worl^ - 

Resolutions 

Key resolutions passed at the first 
American Federation of Labor and Con- 
_ as of Industrial Organizations conven- 
tion in New York called for: — 

"Elimination of the evils of the Taft- 
Hartley Act and the enactment of a sound 
and fair national labour relations law based 
on the principles of the Wagner Act"; 

A fight for the repeal of all state anti- 
labour laws ; 

The continued defence and nurture of 
free collective bargaining as a major 
means of gaining higher wages, improved 
working conditions, and other benefits; 

Full support to all unions in their efforts 
to keep "our organization free from any 
taint of corruption or Communism"; 

Support for certain guiding principles 
making for an effective American demo- 
cratic foreign policy and sound interna- 
tional labour relations; 

A continuing and expanding non-partisan 
program of political education, while avoid- 
ing "entangling alliances with any other 
group", and "supporting worthy candidates 
regardless of their party affiliation"; 

An expanded organizing program and 
doing ''everything in our power to further 
. . . organization of the unorganized" ; 

Strong support "for an effective and 
enforceable Fair Employment Practices 
Act" and for other measures against 
discrimination on account of race, colour, 
religion or national origin. 

The convention also passed a resolution 
in favour of legislation to keep foreign flag 
la out of Canadian coastal trade and 
United States and Canadian lake ports, to 
be passed before the St. Lawrence Seaway 
opi OS. 

Another resolution asked for the estab- 
lishment of a S1.25-an-hour minimum wage 



under the Fair Labour Standards Act, plus 
a short m- work week and extended coverage. 

The Path Ahead 

The proceedings of the first convention 
are but declarations of aims, hopes and 
aspirations. All three have to be inter- 
preted by future events. The basic aim 
is to become the most powerful trades 
union body that the world — free or other- 
wise — has seen. 

To achieve such a goal, many ways will 
have to be trod by the AFL-CIO. The 
central path will, however, lie in first 
organizing more unprganized workers and, 
secondly, in consolidation of a substantial 
number of duplicating organizational 
activities. 

Today, one-fourth of the labour force 
is organized. In addition there are, at 
least, a score or more organizations within 
the AFL-CIO competing with each other 
and subject to merger. One such merger 
is in the process of completion. The CIO 
Packinghouse Workers and the AFL 
Butchers have agreed to merge. Others 
will follow by voluntary action, since there 
is now little point in continuing jurisdic- 
tional wars, which have been proved to 
be but costly luxuries. 

To gear organizational work to maximum 
effectiveness, all other branches of related 
activity will be consolidated. This applies 
with some force to research, press and 
publications. The publications of both the 
AFL and the CIO are now merged into 
substitute organs, with staff being allocated 
where it will be most effective. 

Whatever political impact the new organ- 
ization may have, only the future can tell. 
Those who dislike or fear labour allege 
that the merger is a menace to freedom. 
Those who like and support labour say 
that the merger is a good thing for the 
country. The answers to these forecasts lie 
ahead. 



Directors of AFL-CIO Departments 

Directors of some of the staff departments in the AFL-CIO will be (former 
affiliation in parentheses) : — 

Political Action — James L. McDevitt (AFL) and Jack Kroll (CIO), co-directors. 

International Relations — George Brown (AFL) and Michael Ross (CIO), co- 
directors. 

Research — Stanley Ruttenberg (CIO). 

Education — John Connors (AFL). 

Social Security — Nelson Cruikshank (AFL). 

Public Relations— Philip Pearl (AFL). 

Legislation — William C. Hushing (AFL) and Robert Oliver (CIO), co-directors. 

Editor, AFL-CIO News— Henry Fleisher (CIO). 

The Director of Organization, as previously announced (L.G., Dec, p. 1355), 
will be John W. Livingston (CIO). 



60 



Chronology of Events Leading to 

Organic Unity of AFL and CIO 



The merger of the American Federation 
of Labor and the Congress of Industrial 
Organizations thai took effect in New York 
on December 5, 1955, is bigger in numbers 
and power than its predecessors and is the 
culmination of 120 years of effort. It is a 
reflection of the growth during the last 
and the present century; a portrait of the 
evolution from small, local, community 
enterprise to large-scale organization of 
t lie- mid-Twentieth Century in Business, 
Government and Labour. 

The merger is but the most recent 
attempt to weld United States trade 
unionism into one united body, to have 
all American trade unionists in one 
organization. 

The first attempt at unity was in 1834, 
when representatives from local worker 
groups in a half dozen eastern cities met 
in New York City to form the National 
Trades Union. In those days unionism 
was in its infancy. Workers belonged to 
purely local "trade societies" with few 
connections or affiliations with outside 
groups. National or international unions 
as we recognize them today were non- 
existent. The National Trades Union had 
a short life and disappeared with the panic 
of 1837. 

The second attempt at unity was not 
made until thirty years later, until 1866 
to be exact. Conditions in the immediate 
post-Civil War period were bad. The 
impact of a growing industrialization and 
a developing "big business" was hard on 
a poorly-organized labour force. 

Low wages and bad conditions literally 
forced unions to begin attempting to 
organize on a wider or national basis. One 
of the key figures in the second effort to 
"unite" American labour was William H. 
Silvas, President of the infant Iron Molders 
International Union. Silvas was able to 
bring together a number of young unions 
in 1866 in Baltimore and to there found 
the National Labour Union. 

Silvas was elected head of the new 
national group. In a short time he and 
his new organization became involved in 
some disastrous strikes. In addition Silvas 
found himself in trouble with his own 
union. 

The National Labour Union was a babble 
of voices. Born out of desperation and 
conditions of the times, it was a mixture 



of believers in the strength of craft 

unionism, plus adherents of social and 
political action of varying kinds. 

Silvas got tangled up in political action, 
with the result, that the crafl unions left 
the new national body. The second 
attempt at a national labour unity was 
also a failure and the National Labour 
Union went out of existence in 1872. 

The third effort to build an American 
national labour centre that would speak 
and act for all workers in the country took 
form with the formation of the Knights 
of Labour in 1869 in Philadelphia. 

The Knights set out to be the One Big 
Union of its day. It believed in the 
formation of mass unionism that would 
take in all workers, regardless of craft or 
calling. 

In fact the constitution of the Knights 
of Labour was as wide as the labour force. 
It provided for everyone to join, the only 
exclusions being "lawyers, doctors, bankers, 
stockbrokers, professional gamblers and 
those who made their living making or 
selling liquor". 

At first, The Noble Order of the Knights 
of Labour was a secret brotherhood and 
continued so until 1878, when it became 
an "open" organization. 

The organization scored some sensa- 
tional successes. It took on the powerful 
railroads, notably the Jay Gould lines, and 
won many strikes. Its clarion call was for 
the eight-hour day. In 1885 the Knights 
claimed a membership of more than 700,000 
members, a tremendous organization for 
that time. 

In the late seventies and early eighties, 
the Knights of Labour were the labour 
"menace" of the day. Their growing and 
commanding strength united big business 
and newspaper editors. The spectre of 
labour unions naming the President and 
who would be elected to Congress gave 
business the jitters. Controlling the reins 
of government had, therefore, been regarded 
as a business prerogative and, conse- 
quently, the possibility of labour doing so 
converted the Knights into something of a 
nightmare. 

However, the very popular strength of 
the Knights was its basic weakness. In 
bracketing everyone of every kind of 
belief in mass unionism from pragmatic, 
job unionists to social and political ideal- 
ists, the organization was in a continuous 



61 



internal turmoil. Some wanted emphasis 
on wages and working conditions; others, 
on political action. 

Terence Powderly, the head of the 
Knights, was a peculiar mixture of organ- 
izing genius and libertarian who believed 
in political power. His support for political 
action and crusades for co-operative owner- 
ship of business drove the craft unionists 
out of the organization in the middle 
eighties. From then on the organization 
started a lingering decline until its demise 
at the turn of the century. 

The departure of the craft unions from 
the Knights of Labour in the mid-eighties 
laid the basis for the fourth attempt at 
American labour unity with the formation 
of the American Federation of Labor in 
1886. 

The AFL was the outcome of a strike 
in 1886 by more than 300,000 workers who 
downed tools in a demand for the eight- 
hour day. The famed Haymarket riots of 
the same year in Chicago were the climax 
of the strike. The strike had been under 
the auspices of the Federation of the 
Organized Trades and Labour Union, yet 
another group setting out to represent all 
labour. 

The riots in Chicago had an adverse 
public effect and, temporarily, put the 
quietus on mass action. Such effects made 
inevitable the formation of the AFL, an 
organization of craft unionists who saw the 
solution of their problems in the person 
and creed of a man by the name of 
Samuel Gompers. 

Gompers was a Jewish cigar-maker from 
London, England. He was a hard-headed 
unionist and had little patience with union 
political action of any kind. He talked 
the language of practical, bread-and-butter 
trades unionism. 

The Steps Leading to 

November 25, 1952 — George Meany, 
immediately following his election as 
President of the American Federation of 
Labour, declared "We are ready, willing 
and anxious to talk to the CIO about this 
very vital question of the unity of labour 
in the United States." The CIO imme- 
diately responded to this declaration of 
AFL policy. 

January 1953 — The first meeting 
between the AFL and CIO took place in 
Washington. A series of meetings were 
held throughout the rest of the year. 

December 16, 1953 — No-raiding agree- 
ment signed. 

June 9, 1954 — No-raiding agreement, 
which was subject to ratification by indi- 
vidual unions in both organizations, became 



In December 1886, the AFL came into 
being at Columbus, Ohio. Gompers was 
elected President. With the exception of 
one annual term when he was replaced, 
Gompers remained President of the AFL 
until his death in 1924. 

The AFL did not, of course, unite all 
American workers. In the nineties, as well 
as in the first and succeeding decades of 
the Twentieth Century, there were break- 
aways. What the AFL did accomplish was 
bring together and keep together for a 
longer period of time more American 
workers under one national labour centre 
than any group that preceded or came 
after it. 

The AFL became for roughly 70 years 
the main spokesman of American labour, 
although its voice and position was . 
weakened in the 1930's with the formation 
of the CIO. 

The birth of the CIO compelled the AFL 
to fight for its existence and it has been 
only in the last seven or eight years that 
the AFL achieved marked superiority in 
numbers and strength over the CIO. 

However, continuing competition between 
the AFL and CIO made the present merger 
of the two federations necessary and 
inevitable. 

The new organization — the AFL-CIO — is, 
therefore, the fifth major attempt to unite 
all organized workers in the United States 
under one banner. Even now, there are 
groups of American workers — numbering 
between two and three million — still out- 
side the new organization. Attempts will 
be made to attract most of these workers 
to the AFL-CIO but only time will tell 
whether such effort will be successful. 

AFL-CIO Organic Unity 

effective when enough unions in both had 
signed. 

October 15, 1954 — Joint committee of 
both organizations issued a statement 
calling for "the creation of a single trades 
union centre in America through the 
process of merger". AFL and CIO Presi- 
dents authorized to name sub-committees 
to draft detailed plans. 

The 1954 conventions of both organiza- 
tions endorsed the "constructive progress" 
made towards unity. 

February 8-9, 1955— Joint AFL-CIO 
committee met at Miami Beach and 
arrived at draft agreement on merger. 
This agreement was approved immediately 
by the AFL Executive Council, by the 
CIO Executive Board in March. 



62 



May 1955 — Joint unity committee met 
to draft a constitution for the new organ- 
ization. At subsequent meetings a con- 
stitution was drafted and approved by the 
executive bodies of the AFL and CIO. 

December 1-2, 1955 — Separate conven- 
tions in New York of AFL and CIO gave 



final approval to the proposed constitution 
and merger of the two organizations. 

December 5, 1955 — At the first con- 
stitutional convention of the AFL-CIO in 
New York, delegates gave unanimous 
approval to the merger. 



Thirteenth Federal-Provincial 

Farm Labour Conference 

Greater demand for farm labour in 1956 is forecast. Need to increase 
mobility of available supply of domestic farm labour is foreseen in 
view of likely buoyant conditions in industry and reduced immigration 



A greater demand for farm labour in 
1956 was forecast by delegates to the 13th 
Federal-Provincial Farm Labour Confer- 
ence held at Ottawa December 8-9. The 
delegates generally felt, too, that because 
of the likelihood of a scarcity of farm 
labour in Canada in 1956 due to anticipated 
buoyant employment conditions in industry, 
plus a falling-off in immigration, it would 
become necessary to increase the mobility 
of the available domestic farm labour. 

The conference was attended by dele- 
gates from the federal and provincial 
governments and observers from the 
United States, German and Netherlands 
governments, the International Labour 
Organization, the Canadian Federation of 
Agriculture, the Canadian National Rail- 
ways and other interested organizations. 

W. W. Dawson, Director of the Special 
Services Branch of the Department of 
Labour, chaired the two-day conference. 
He asked that the program be carefully 
reviewed by the conference in the light 
of the agricultural industry's requirements 
for the coming year and also in the light 
of the longer-term agricultural outlook in 
Canada. 

Items on the agenda included reports of 
provincial directors of farm labour and 
regional employment officials on the past 
year's activities, general economic and 
employment outlook, the farm labour 
outlook, the immigration program, and 
seasonal movements of farm workers. 

Minister of Labour 

The delegates were welcomed by the Hon. 
Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour, who 
paid tribute to the work of the Federal- 
Provincial Farm Labour program and the 



great value it had been to Canada. He 
urged the conference to take a look at the 
whole picture of agriculture and to relate 
it to the manpower field in order that the 
close co-operation between federal and 
provincial governments and organizations 
interested in farm labour would be used 
to the full. 

Deputy Minister of Labour 

Arthur H. Brown, Deputy Minister of 
Labour, said that it appeared as though 
employment generally would be higher 
during the early part of 1956. Should this 
occur, he said, more pressure from other 
industries on available supplies of farm 
labour could be expected. 

Mr. Brown said he hoped consideration 
would be given to "what further plans 
should be made to recruit and utilize our 
own Canadian labour force more fully in 
order to meet any emergencies which may 
arise". This was particularly important, he 
said, since the number of available immi- 
grants with previous farm experience may 
be lower than in recent years. 

Mr. Brown stressed the importance of 
reviewing the aims and objectives of the 
farm labour program by both federal and 
provincial groups. 

He drew the delegates' attention to three 
aspects of the joint farm labour program. 
He said that in the first place the co- 
operative program served as a highly 
important stand-by operation. Had "the 
close working arrangements not been 
established and maintained, he said, the 
emergency manpower situations that have 
arisen over the past 12 years could not 
have been met. 



63 



A second feature Mr, Brown pointed out 
was that through action together the 
federal and provincial agencies had accom- 
plished much more than either could have 
alone. 

"The extension services of the provincial 
Departments of Agriculture on the one 
side are close to agriculture and hence 
have a good appreciation of the daj'-to-day 
developing needs of farm labour. The 
National Employment Service on the other 
side is in a position to know who are 
available in the labour market with experi- 
ence in agriculture and are also able to 
help in effecting quick transfers of workers 
from one part of the country to another 
to meet peak demands." 

A, third feature, Mr. Brown said, was 
that the program 'was helping "to bring 
about an increasing recognition of the vital 
part labour plays in agriculture and of the 
steps that need to be taken to improve its 
effectiveness". 

Canadian Federation of Agriculture 

R. A. Stewart, a director of the Canadian 
Federation of Agriculture, told the con- 
ference that he felt the stress should be 
on bringing family-group immigrants to 
Canada. He said this would do away with 
many of the immigrant farm labour 
problems faced at present and would give 
greater stability. Mr. Stewart, who repre- 
sented Canadian farmers at the September 
meeting of the Permanent Agricultural 
Committee of the International Labour 
Organization in Paris, said that Canada has 
as good employment service for farm 
workers as there was anywhere in the world. 
He agreed with provincial delegates that 
the farm labour agreements had been 
valuable to agriculture in supplying farm 
labour where it was needed and when it 
was needed and that there was likely to be 
a strong demand for farm labour in 1956. 

International Movements 

Don Larin, Chief, Farm Placement 
Service, United States Department of 
Labor, described the utilization of pools of 
labour in large urban centres for emer- 
gency work in agriculture. Mr. Larin said 
this was felt to be a useful- method where 
such urban pools of labour are close 
enough to the growers to transport the 
workers out to work in the morning and 
back at night. 

Mr. A. Gillespie, U.S. Department of 
Labor, Boston, Mass., also attended the 
conference. 



Provincial Directors' Reports 

Prince Edward Island — The supply of 
farm labour in Prince Edward Island has 
not shown any appreciable change during 
1955 and the demands of the farmer have 
been reasonably well looked after during 
the season. There have been very few 
times when a farmer has had to wait for 
any length of time to have his farm labour 
needs supplied. During the past two years 
there has apparently been more local labour 
available, and the farmer was able to supply 
many of his labour needs from his own 
communit}'. 

The requirements for labour during the 
haymaking season were very light, with a 
total of 14 local placements being made in 
the province and 11 workers transferred to 
the Charlottetown area. 

Labour requirements for the saving of 
the potato crop constitute the largest move- 
ment in this province, and during the 1955 
season 656 placements were made. Of this 
number 446 were recruited in the neigh- 
bouring provinces. This amounted to 
almost the same number that was recruited 
during the previous year. 

The paying of return transportation of 
satisfactory workers from outside the prov- 
ince was continued this season, and again 
proved very satisfactory. It was found that 
since this policy was adopted the class of 
worker in general has improved and the 
better workers are returning year after 
year. Paying return transportation has 
reduced considerably the number of workers 
necessary to transfer into the province each 
year. 

Under the seasonable labour category the 
Charlottetown office again in 1955 placed 
223 strawberry pickers and, as a new 
venture, eight blueberry pickers. This is a 
service that has been well received by the 
strawberry growers in the areas adjacent to 
Charlottetown, and is making it much 
easier for the producers of strawberries to 
harvest their crops. 

Regular farm placements through the 
local offices in Charlottetown and Summer- 
side have remained about the same as 
during 1954, with a total of 167 placements 
being made. 

In addition to the labour forces that have 
been placed by the National Employment 
Offices a number of immigrants have been 
brought into the province under the auspices 
of the Department of Citizenship and 
Immigration. These settlers, the most of 
whom are from Holland, have proven very 
satisfactory and are apparently able to 
adapt themselves quite readily to Canadian 
methods. 



64 



New Brunswick— A small surplus of 
labour was reported in New Brunswick at 
the beginning of the year. By the opening 
of the cropping season this surplus had 
virtually disappeared as a result of con- 
siderable activity in public works projects 
and in private enterprises. A shortage of 
farm labour developed early iii the cropping 
Beason but it was not acute. Only a few 
demands were made for farm labour and 
these were largely met by immigrants. 

The weather was favourable during the 
planting season, resulting in a normal crop 
being planted. A favourable growing season 
followed and weather conditions during the 
having season were very favourable and a 
crop of excellent quality was harvested. 
The grain harvest was out of the way before 
the potato harvest began. Fine weather 
made possible an uninterrupted harvesting 
of potatoes and apples. 

As a result of the favourable season more 
economical use of labour was possible and 
as a result, demands for farm help were 
reduced. 

Placements of labour locally as well as 
by national and international agreement 
totalled 4,416, as follows: within the prov- 
ince, 1,149; outside the province, 3,267; 
Ontario farm labour pool, 96; planting in 
Maine, 96; potato pickers, Maine, 2,028; 
bean pickers, Maine, 1,047. 

Prospects for 1956 are that labourers will 
be in demand in both public and private 
enterprise. As a result, the supply of farm 
labour may be shorter during the coming 
year than in 1955. Wages for labour will 
likely be maintained and farm help may 
demand higher wages. 

Nova Scotia — The demand for farm 
labour in Nova Scotia does not vary a 
great deal from year to year. Most of the 
farmers requiring additional labour can give 
year-round employment. A smaller number 
require summer help only, while in the 
Annapolis Valley much seasonal labour is 
needed during apple picking time. 

Early in the spring of 1955, owing to 
unemployment conditions in the province's 
mining towns, it appeared as though a con- 
siderable amount of local labour would be 
available for seasonal farm work when it 
got underway. As a result of advice to 
farmers who needed help to contact their 
local National Employment Office, more 
local workers were placed as regular farm 
help than in previous years. 

Some immigrant farm workers were again 
available. The Department of Citizenship 
and Immigration reported that 82 single and 
18 family units were placed on farms in 
1955. Of the single workers placed, 48 
were Portuguese, 26 were Dutch, 6 were 
German, 1 was French, and 1 was Polish. 



Of the families placed, 10 were Dutch, I 
German, and 1 Latvian. 

The Portuguese workers were brought in 
when it, was found that only a few single 
workers 'with farm experience were avail- 
able-. They proved to be fairly faithful 
workers, although quite a number moved 
on to the industrial areas of Central 
Canada. The Portuguese workers' difficulty 

in learning English was a serious handicap 
both to them and their employers. 

Seven German farm workers for Nova 
Scotia were obtained through the Depart- 
ment of Labour at a time when very few 
were arriving in Canada. Five of these are 
still on farms in the province. 

As has been stated in previous years at 
this conference, Nova Scotia is mainly inter- 
ested in immigrants as potential future farm 
owners. Each year the number is increasing 
of those who want to purchase farms of 
their own. During the past year, 27 new 
loans totalling $122,101 have been granted to 
immigrants by the Nova Scotia Land Settle- 
ment Board. Additional loans to already 
settled immigrants amounted to $22,547. 
This makes a total of $144,648 loaned to 
46 immigrants to assist them in becoming 
established as citizens of this country. 

The apple crop in the Annapolis Valley 
gave promise of being a heavy one quite 
early in the season. At a meeting of the 
Nova Scotia Farm Labour Committee on 
July 27 it was estimated that from 750 to 
850 men would be required as pickers to 
harvest the crop. However, only 158 
transportation warrants were issued by 
National Employment Service offices and 
farm help officers. This comparatively 
small number of men actually required 
resulted from the uncertainty of marketing 
all the crop even though it was harvested. 

Quebec — Abundant crops were grown in 
Quebec during 1955. While no food ' was 
lost due to the shortage of labour, there 
were many delays in preparing produce for 
the market. However, the demand was met 
without the need for more than two 
German immigrants. 

Assistance was provided in recruiting and 
assuming transportation charges for a large 
part of the workers engaged in the sugar 
beet fields but fewer workers were required 
this year because more growers are using 
mechanical implements and because skilled 
workers are now covering, in contrast to 
the past, larger areas of land. Workers 
hired for thinning numbered 234, compared 
with 462 in 1954, and for pulling, only 42, 
as against 166 in 1954. Had the labour 
demand been heavier, it would have been 
possible to recruit a much larger number 
of men for sugar beet cultivation. 



65 



Again in 1955 the policy of assisting 
Ontario fruit growers was maintained. All 
applications were filled. 

Harvesters dispatched to the Prairie 
Provinces by the NES numbered 231, as 
against US last year. 

In exchange for 43 tobacco curers 
recruited in the states of Virginia and 
Carolina, assistance was given in recruiting 
160 workers for the apple and potato 
growers in northern New York state. 

Immigrants placed for the past four or 
five years in the northwest clay belt of 
the province have converted 65 acres of 
land, covered with bush and trees from 20 
to 25 feet high, into deeply ploughed land. 

The Farm Labour Supply Bureau has 
maintained a local office in the city of 
Quebec and another one in Montreal for 
13 years. Farmers desiring to obtain 
permanent help apply at these offices. 
During the 12 months ending November 30, 
1955, a total of 1,508 placements was made, 
this figure being slightly above the previous 
year's. 

In 1954 the supplying of farm labour 
began on June 5 and the last workers were 
delivered to growers November 17. During 
that period, 3,238 man-working days were 
made available, compared with 4,691 for the 
same period in 1955. In 1955 the day-to-day 
farm labour centre began supplying workers 
two months earlier, on April 1, and the last 
delivery of workers several days later than 
in 1954, on November 24. It procured 5,527 
man-working days supplied by 924 different 
workers (including nine women) to 213 
growers. 

It should be noted that only 28 per cent 
of the labour was supplied by immigrants 
in 1955, as against tw 7 o-thirds of the labour 
engaged in 1954. Many immigrants engaged 
to help gardeners in 1954 took work in 
construction in 1955 and the increase of 
wages to 60 cents per hour has contributed 
to draw an increased number of Canadians 
to farm employment. In 1954 wages were 
S5 for a nine-hour working day, sometimes 
10 hours. 

Ontario — The 1955 season presented more 
than the average number of problems. 
Production increased, competition for 
workers from industry and construction was 
more severe, and the flow of immigrant 
farm workers dwindled to a trickle. Alle- 
viating factors were the . late pickup in 
employment, the early spring and, until 
autumn, the ideal weather which permitted 
men and machines to work effectively week 
after week. 

Industrial employment, which reached an 
all-time high in late summer, did not con- 
stitute stiff competition early in the season, 
which was a contributing factor to an 



increase of about 40 per cent in farm 
placements through National Employment 
Service offices. In 1955 there were 30,122 
placements compared with 21,594 in 1954. 

The number of immigrants available for 
long-term help in 1955 numbered 187, com- 
pared with 416 for 1954. In 1953, 2,280 
were placed under the supervision of the 
Farm Labour Committee. The demand for 
long-term farm help was consistent through- 
out the season. 

In other long-term placements, more than 
400 single Portuguese immigrants were 
placed on Ontario farms in 1955. 

When it became evident few immigrants 
could be expected for spring work, and 
applications from farmers were building up, 
the Committee decided on two courses of 
action. First, as there was considerable 
unemployment at the time, a program was 
developed to publicize in towns and cities 
that farm jobs were available. The second 
procedure was the advancement of the 
movement from the Maritime Provinces. 
Before 1954 these workers were brought in 
at the commencement of haying. Owing 
to conditions prevailing in 1954, the date 
was moved up to mid-May. As this experi- 
ment proved satisfactory, this year the first 
men from the Maritimes arrived in Ontario 
on April 23. 

There was also a desire to move workers 
from the West earlier, as haying and 
harvest began some 10 days earlier than 
average, but it was thought unwise to 
attempt recruiting in the West until the 
end of seeding. As a result, the earliest 
Prairie workers arrived on July 18. Unfor- 
tunately, numbers from both East and West 
decreased, as many more could have been 
placed. 

Sugar companies, anticipating an increased 
acreage, appealed to the Committee for 
immigrants to be placed in camps for the 
field working of beets. As it would have 
been impossible to assign many immigrants 
for this work, it is fortunate the applica- 
tion was withdrawn. The increase in 
acreage did not materialize, the season was 
very early, with much planting done in 
April. Later weather was so favourable for 
thinning and weeding that the work was 
done by the local labour force. 

For the first time in many years there 
was a shortage of tobacco workers. This 
resulted in farmers asking for border 
crossing permits for primers. There was 
also a request for a publicity and recruiting 
program. The Committee feared publicity 
might result in a movement of unemployed 
workers, many of whom would not be 
acceptable. A plan was developed through 
National Employment Service offices for 
the enlistment of workers deemed suitable. 



66 



This, with more effective canvassing of 
local people, produced sufficient workers to 
complete the harvest. 

The day-by-day placement service to 
fruit and vegetable growers made 1,212 
placements with 19,542 days worked in 1955. 
In 1954 there were 1,089 placements and 
13,189 days worked. 

The program was continued to bring the 
protection offered by Workmen's Compensa- 
tion to the attention of farmers. Mention 
was made of this at meetings and in 
exhibits, and a wide distribution of a 
circular was continued and a reprint issued. 
The steady increase in the number of 
farmers subscribing has continued and the 
total using this type of insurance is now 
approximately 2,000. 

The Compensation Board's experience 
with farm coverage provides confirming 
evidence that farming is a hazardous occu- 
pation. A deficit in the agricultural section 
last year caused an increase in rates from 
75 cents to $1.50 per 100 of payroll; the 
minimum payment figure was raised from 
$5 to $10. 

Manitoba — The lesser utilization of farm 
labour in spring and summer operations 
suggested that the economic welfare of 
employing farmers has an important influ- 
ence on the volume of help engaged. 

The poor crop of 1954 and the inability 
of growers to market their grain led to a 
greater exchange of labour between neigh- 
bours and a corresponding drop in the 
numbers of workers employed. This 
tendency, together with wider use of 
mechanical equipment, enabled Manitoba 
farmers to seed and harvest their crop with 
a reduced labour force. 

Difficulties that were anticipated in meet- 
ing the requirements of sugar beet growers 
did not materialize. Help was obtained 
from Indian reserves and from districts 
affected by flooding. 

Continued fine weather with high tem- 
peratures in July and early August brought 
harvest in rapidly, and first orders for 
harvest help were received on August 2 and 
continued to arrive in fair volume through- 
out the month. 

Adequate supplies of local labour were 
available throughout the season and the 
services of men brought in under the 
special tariff from Eastern Canada were not 
needed badly in Manitoba. 

Recruiting of workers for Ontario haying 
and early harvest was disappointing: only 
55 were sent. It should be mentioned, 
however, that accounts of crops drying up 
in excessive heat, given wide publicity in 
the West, had some effect. 

There was no demand from North Dakota 
for potato pickers, as many growers there 



have turned to other crops. Some demand 
for pulp cutters developed in the beginning 
of October, and some farmers and workers 
from flooded areas were placed with woods 
operators. 

Immigration was sharply down from 1954 
and, while there were enquiries for single 
workers and married couples, demand was 
not as active as in other years. Ninety- 
seven agricultural units were placed on 
farms in the province during the season. 

Saskatchewan — With the exception of 
flooded farms in various communities 
throughout the eastern portion of the prov- 
ince, Saskatchewan experienced one of the 
most satisfactory crop production years in 
her history. 

At a meeting of the Federal-Provincial 
Farm Labour Committee for Saskatchewan 
held in March, it was revealed that the 
demand for farm labour was low in com- 
parison with 1954. This was attributed to 
some extent to the poor financial condition 
of farmers which resulted from the poor 
crop of 1954. Also, farmers do not now 
experience the peak period of labour need 
during seeding time, as was the case 10 
or 15 years ago, because of the degree of 
farm mechanization under modern farming 
conditions. 

It was reported that, of 49 German 
workers placed on farms in Saskatchewan 
under the Assisted Passage Plan in 1954, 
36 were still on farms. The Committee 
confirmed an order for the placement of 
30 German farm immigrants on Saskat- 
chewan farms under the Assisted Passage 
Plan during 1955. 

A movement of 126 berry pickers to 
British Columbia took place during 1955. 
There was little evidence of any movement 
of beet workers either to Alberta or 
Montana this year. There were 107 haying 
and harvest workers dispatched to Ontario 
this year, compared with 112 in 1954. 

The placement of local harvesters through 
National Employment Service offices began 
during the first week in August and by 
October 15 a total of 2,519 harvesters had 
been placed from all NES offices. 

As in past years, a comparatively large 
number of harvesters provided their own 
transportation or came at their own 
expense to participate in Saskatchewan 
harvesting operations. 

The Farm Labour Division of the Agri- 
cultural Representative Branch at Regina 
maintained close contact with farm place- 
ment officers at the local NES offices. 
Information pertaining to the immediate 
and future needs of the various zones was 
collected at the Division. This facilitated 
ordering and dispatching of workers from 



67 



the NES regional office at Winnipeg and 
from areas where they were available to 
areas in need of workers. 

It was felt that too many unqualified 
workers were dispatched from Eastern 
Canada during the first two weeks of the 
excursion. Out oi a total of 621, approxi- 
mately 116, or 20 per cent, were unsatis- 
factory for one reason or another. 

A worker should not be recruited for 
harvesting in Western Canada unless he 
fulfils the following requirements. He 
must: have his driver's licence with him, 
be able to speak English, be willing to 
work on farms, be able to drive a truck, 
In^ able to drive a tractor, have had 
previous farm experience with farm 
machinery and mechanized equipment, be 
willing to be placed in work as an indi- 
vidual and not in a group, be over 16 
- old and under 50 and be physically 
fit : and he should not be destitute on 
arrival. 

There were no placements of German 
farm immigrants on Saskatchewan farms 
under the Assisted Passage Plan in 1955. 
The placement of immigrants on farms 
was. therefore, confined to those sponsored 
by church and nationality organizations and 
the two railway colonization departments. 

Alberta — The continuing mechanization 
of agriculture has resulted in a reduced 
demand for farm labour. The general 
financial situation of farmers in Alberta 
has, however, been such as to reduce also 
the purchases of farm machinery. General 
conditions in the farm labour field have 
shown no change from 1954. 

It seems to be increasingly difficult to 
recruit appreciable numbers of Ontario farm 
workers. Construction and industrial oppor- 
tunities offer wage scales with which those 
offered by Ontario farmers for this move- 
ment cannot hope to compete. 

The demand for prairie farm workers 
began in 1955 by the middle of August, 
which was at least ten days earlier than 
average and probably the earliest on 
record. The movement continued without 
undue difficulty and finished also much 
earlier than usual. 

Wages were approximately the same as 
last year: S7.50 to $9 per day plus board 
and room, and upward to Si or more per 
hour for experienced combine operators. 

It was not. necessary to resort to radio 
or press appeals for Alberta harvesters. 
Sufficient of these workers, supplemented 
by the prairie farm workers, were found 
to satisfactorily complete the harvest. 

So few berry pickers are now being sent 
forward that it w T ould seem doubtful that 
their contribution to the fruit harvest in 
British Columbia could be appreciable. 



A reduced number of immigrant workers 
tor sugar beasts was recorded. There is no 
doubt that growers, notwithstanding their 
complaints in some previous years regarding 
the acceptability of these workers, have 
now reached the point where they would 
be very pleased to see more immigrants 
coming forward. The mechanization of 
sugar beet work is proceeding; however, 
it is almost as much an embarrassment as 
an advantage, since it has the general effect 
of reducing the earning power of hand 
labourers but not completely replacing 
them. It is estimated that 44 per cent of 
the 1955 crop was harvested mechanically. 

The movement of Indians to the beet 
fields was repeated again this year with a 
somewhat greater measure of success. 
Several of them returned for the second 
year and consequently with a better under- 
standing and more experience of the duties 
required of them. 

British Columbia — Keen demand for 
labour in industrial expansion made it 
extremely difficult to obtain casual farm 
labour, largely because of the difference in 
wage rates. This situation caused one 
emergency after another in the farm labour 
program. 

In the Fraser Valley during the straw- 
berry picking season, wet weather ruined 
much of the crop and provided low returns 
for the pickers, causing dissatisfaction 
among those recruited from the Prairie 
Provinces. 

During the apple picking season in the 
Okanagan, the crop matured three weeks 
later than usual. Although approximately 
300 extra pickers were transported from 
Vancouver and New Westminster to the 
Okanagan, sufficient labour could not be 
obtained and some crop loss was 
experienced. 

Close relations existed between the 
provincial authorities and the National 
Employment Service throughout the season. 
Eleven temporary federal-provincial farm 
labour officers were engaged at various 
periods and locations between May and 
November, while nine National Employ- 
ment Service offices carried out full farm 
labour activity. 

The National Employment Service in 
1955 assumed the responsibility for all 
placements throughout the region, working 
in conjunction with provincial officials. 

A heavy demand for all types of agri- 
cultural workers was noted throughout this 
period and agricultural placements totalled 
11,794. 



68 



Conference Speakers 

Waller E. Duffett, Director, Economics 
and Research Branch, Department of 
Labour, outlined to the delegates the 
genera] economic and employment outlook 
for L956. 

Laval Fortier, Deputy Minister of 
Citizenship and Immigration, addressed the 
conference on the immigration program. 
Mr. Fortier said two of the main reasons 
for the decrease in the number of immi- 
grants were: (1) pessimistic views spread 
abroad on Canadian unemployment and 
(2) the better economy of Europe. 

Farm Labour Agreements 

It was generally agreed by the provincial 
delegates to the conference that there was 
a need for continuation in 1956 of the 
Federal-Provincial Farm Labour Agree- 
ments which have been in operation since 
1943. 

Those Attending 

Three provincial Deputy Ministers of 
Agriculture attended the conference. They 
were: S. C. Wright, Prince Edward Island; 
E. M. Taylor, New Brunswick; and R. M. 
Putnam, Alberta. Ontario's Assistant 
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, J. A. 
Carroll, was also in attendance. Other 



provincial officials presenl were: S. E. 

Lewis, Director of Farm Labour, Nova 
Scotia; II. F. Stairs, Director of Field 
Husbandry, New Brunswick; A. J. Rioux, 
Director, Farm Labour Supply Bureau, 
Quebec; H. R. Richardson, Director, Farm 
Help Service, Manitoba; L. J. Hutchison, 
Director, Farm Labour Division, Saskat- 
chewan; and F. H. Newcombe, Director of 
Agricultural Extension Service, Alberta. 

Led by W. K. Rutherford, Director of 
Administrative Services, Unemployment 
Insurance Commission, the National 
Employment Service's delegation to the 
conference included six employment 
advisers, five of whom represented regional 
offices. They were: M. C. Crosbie, Ottawa; 
C. M. Belyea, Atlantic region; G. J. 
Primeau, Quebec region; D. Davison, 
Ontario region; F. C. Hitchcock, Prairie 
region; and B. G. White, Pacific region. 

Officials of other organizations who 
attended were: V. C. Phelan, Director, 
Canada Branch, International Labour 
Organization ; F. B. Kirkwood, Canadian 
National Railways; E. L. Charles, Depart- 
ment of Immigration, Australia; A. S. 
Tuinman and J. H. Athmer of the Royal 
Netherlands Embassy, Ottawa; and K. E. 
Cardinal, German Embassy, Ottawa. 



Fatal Industrial Accidents in Canada 

during the Third Quarter of 1955 

Fatalities* increased by 56 over the previous three-month period. Of 
390 accidental deaths in the quarter, 86 occurred in construction, 56 
in manufacturing, 53 in transportation, 51 in mining and 48 in logging 



There were 390 1 industrial fatalities in 
Canada in the third quarter of 1955, 
according to the latest reports received by 
the Department of Labour. This is an 
increase of 56 fatalities from the previous 
quarter, in which 334 were recorded, includ- 
ing 12 in a supplementary list. 

During the third quarter, there were five 
accidents that resulted in the deaths of 
three or more persons in each case. On 

*See Tables H-l and H-2 at back of book. 

a The number of industrial fatalities that occurred 
during the third quarter of 1955 is probably greater 
than the figure now quoted. Information on acci- 
dents which occur but are not reported in time 
for inclusion in the quarterly articles is recorded 
in supplementary lists and statistics are amended 
accordingly. 



July 23, three tugboatmen were drowned 
when the Canadian tug Helena capsized 
and sank in the Calumet River in Chicago, 
111. A plane crash in British Columbia on 
August 5 resulted in the deaths of the pilot, 
co-pilot and three men travelling in con- 
nection with their work. At the time of 
the accident they were on a flight between 
Kemano and Kitimat, B.C. Four men, all 
employees of a large oil company, were 
killed August 13, at Sturgeon Lake, Man., 
when the plane in which they were 
travelling developed engine trouble and 
crashed. In an accident at Montreal, Que., 
three construction workers lost their lives 
on August 30 when a cement marquee fell 
from the third storey and struck the three 



69 



The industrial fatalities recorded in 
those quarterly articles, prepared by the 
Economics and Research Branch, are 
those fatal accidents that involved per- 
sons gainfully employed and that occurred 
during the course of, or which arose out 
of, their employment. These include 
deaths that resulted from industrial 
diseases as reported by the Workmen's 
Compensation Boards. 

Statistics on industrial fatalities are 
compiled from reports received from the 
various Workmen's Compensation Boards, 
the Board of Transport Commissioners 
and certain other official sources. News- 
paper reports are used to supplement 
these data. For those industries not 
covered by workmen's compensation legis- 
lation, newspaper reports are the Depart- 
ment's only source of information. It is 
possible, therefore, that coverage in such 
industries as agriculture, fishing and 
trapping and certain of the service groups 
is not as complete as in those industries 
which are covered by compensation legis- 
lation. Similarly, a small number of 
traffic accidents which are in fact indus- 
trial may be omitted from the Depart- 
ment's records because of lack of 
information in press reports. 



men working two floors below. On 
September 3, three loggers were burned to 
death when a forest fire swept through their 
camp in the Sandilands Forest Reserve in 
Manitoba. 

Grouped by industries, the largest 
number of fatalities, 86, was recorded in 
the construction industry. This includes 
39 in buildings and structures, 26 in high- 
way and bridge construction and 21 in 
miscellaneous construction. In the third 
quarter last year 87 fatalities were recorded 
in this industry, including 39 in highway 
and bridge construction, 27 in buildings 
and structures and 21 in miscellaneous 
construction. 

In manufacturing, accidents were respon- 
sible for 56 deaths. Of these, 14 were in 
wood products and eight in each of the 
iron and steel, transportation equipment 
and the non-metallic mineral products 
groups. During the same period of 1955, 
51 deaths were reported: 14 in iron and 
steel and eight in each of the wood products 
and non-metallic mineral products groups. 



During the quarter under review acci- 
dents in the transportation industry resulted 
in the deaths of 53 people. These include 
19 in local and highway transportation, 14 
in steam railways and nine in water trans- 
portation. In the same period last year 
50 fatalities were listed, including, 20 in 
steam railways, 13 in water transportation 
and nine in local and highway transporta- 
tion. 

Accidents in mining caused 51 deaths, 25 
occurring in metalliferous mining, 14 in 
non-metallic mining and 12 in coal mining. 
During the third quarter of 1954, 54 fatali- 
ties were recorded in this industry. These 
included 31 in metalliferous mining, 13 in 
coal mining and 10 in non-metallic mineral 
mining. 

In the logging industry 48 workers died 
as a result of accidents, an increase of six 
from the 42 reported in the previous three 
months. During July, August and Sep- 
tember last year 40 employees lost their 
lives in the logging industry. 

There were 36 accidental deaths in 
agriculture, an increase of four from the 
32 reported in the preceding three months. 
During the third quarter of 1954, accidents 
in agriculture resulted in 39 deaths. 

An analysis of the causes of these 390 
fatalities shows that 118 (30 per cent) of 
the victims had been "struck by tools or 
machinery, moving vehicles or other 
objects". Within this group 74 were in 
the category "other objects", 27 involved 
"moving vehicles" and 17 died as a result 
of accidents involving "tools, machinery, 
etc." "Collisions, derailments, wrecks, etc." 
were responsible for 90 (23 per cent) of 
the deaths during the period. These in- 
cluded 41 fatalities involving automobiles 
and trucks, 17 as a result of aircraft 
accidents and 16 involving tractors or load- 
mobiles. In the classification "falls and 
slips" 63 fatalities were reported. Of these, 
61 were caused by falls to different levels. 

By province of occurrence the largest 
number of fatalities was in Ontario, where 
there were 118. In Quebec there were 83 
and in British Columbia 81. 

During the quarter under review, there 
were 118 fatalities in July, 142 in August 
and 130 in September. 



Of every 1,000 persons employed in industry in Canada in 1954, 225 were women, the 
highest proportion since 1946, when the figure was 234 per 1,000, the Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics reports. At the wartime peak of employment for women — October 1, 1944 — 
they filled 271 of every 1,000 positions in industry. 



70 



From the Labour Gazette, January 7906 



50 Years Ago This Month 



Most industries experience high degree of prosperity, and employment 
higher than in any previous year, according to review of industrial 
and labour conditions during 1905 published in January 1906 issue 



Industry as a whole was more pros- 
perous and employment was higher than in 
any previous year — during 1905. A review 
of industrial and labour conditions cover- 
ing that year was published in the January 
1906 issue of the Labour Gazette. 

Farm yields were higher than ever before, 
largely owing to favourable weather in the 
West, where the progress of settlement was 
more rapid than in any preceding year. 
The acreage under crop on the Prairies 
showed a large increase over 1904. Dairy 
farmers experienced the best year in the 
history of the industry, with high prices for 
their produce prevailing. Returns from the 
fruit crop were poorer than in 1904, 
however. 

The 1905 season was a poor one for 
Atlantic fishermen, partly owing to bad 
weather in January, February and March, 
which reduced the catch and caused 
damage to gear. On the Great Lakes the 
catch was only fair, but British Columbia 
fishermen had an exceptionally good season. 
As a result of an increase in the run and 
an unusually long season, the earnings of 
salmon fishermen were double those of the 
preceding year. 

Sawmills in Ontario and Quebec had a 
very good season, and the improved 
demand for lumber during the year led to 
plans being made to increase the cut con- 
siderably in the next season. At the close 
of 1905 the mining industry was stated to 
be "on the whole, in a more prosperous 
condition and with a more favourable out- 
look than at any previous time". 

In Ontario, the most important event of 
the year was the discovery of exception- 
ally rich silver and cobalt deposits along 
the line of the Lake Temiscamingue and 
Northern Ontario Railway, where many 
persons were engaged in prospecting and 
development. 

Rich strikes of oil were reported in 
northern New Brunswick, southwestern 
Ontario and in Alberta. The gold output 
of the Yukon, more than $7,000,000, was 
less than in 1904. 

Almost all branches of manufacturing 
had "an exceptionally bus}' year". Iron 
and steel mills at Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., 
and Sydney, N.S., were working at full 



capacity and were adding to their plant. 
Many new factories were erected, especi- 
ally in Montreal, Toronto, Hamilton and 
Winnipeg, and good progress was made in 
power development at Niagara Falls. 

During the last three months of 1905 
a number of facts were brought to light 
about the existence of illegal trade com- 
bines, in which manufacturers, dealers and 
employees were involved. The most 
important disclosures were those made in 
connection with a combine in the manu- 
facture and sale of plumbers' supplies and 
in the plumbing trade. Three associations 
were found to be concerned, namely: the 
Master Plumbers, Gas and Steamfitters 
Co-operative Association of Toronto ; Local 
No. 46 of the International Association 
of Journeymen Plumbers, Gas and Steam- 
fitters and Steamfitters Helpers; and an 
association of the allied plumbers' supply 
houses, operating under the name of the 
Central Supply Association. 

It was proved that the several supply 
houses, associated together under the name 
of Central Supply Association, had agreed 
to furnish supplies exclusively to members 
of the Master Plumbers' Association, who 
in turn agreed to buy only from those 
supply houses. Later, owing to conflict 
with the Customs Act, this arrangement 
was changed to a system of rebates to 
members of the Master Plumbers' Asso- 
ciation. The agreement between the 
plumbers' union and the Master Plumbers 
was that the Master Plumbers would 
employ only members of the union, and 
that members of the union would work 
only for members of the 1 Master Plumbers' 
Association. 

It was also proved that the Master 
Plumbers' Association had a system of 
dividing contracts between themselves by 
agreement, of tendering at agreed prices, 
and of submitting sham tenders. 

This combine was first brought out into 
the open when an employing plumber of 
Toronto instituted a criminal prosecution 
against a Toronto manufacturer of 
plumbers' supplies who had refused to sell 
him supplies on the ground that he was 
not a member of the Master Plumbers' 
Association. 



71 



International 
Labour Organization 



130th Session of Governing Body 



Discrimination in the field of employ- 
ment and occupation will ho one of the 
subjects on the agenda of the 40th (1957) 
id of the International Labour Con- 
ference, to open in Geneva on June 5, 
1957. The agenda for this conference was 
approved at the 130th Session of the ILO 
Governing Body held in Geneva November 
19. 1955, under the chairmanship of 
A. II. Brown. Canadian Deputy Minister 
of Labour. 

More than twenty items were discussed 
at the Governing Body's session, including: 
discrimination in regard to employment and 
occupation; action to be taken on resolu- 
tions adopted at the 38th Session of the 
ILO; the extent of the freedom of 
employers' and workers' organizations; 
occupational safety and health; technical 
assistance to underdeveloped countries; 



man-power and employment; and the 
reports of a number of committees dealing 
with other subjects. 

The complete agenda for the 1957 
International Labour Conference will be: — 

1. Report of the Director-General, 

2. Financial and Budgetary Questions, 

3. Information and Reports on the 
Application of Conventions and Recom- 
mendations, 

4. Forced Labour (second discussion), 

5. Weekly Rest in Commerce and Offices" 
(second discussion), 

6. Living and Working Conditions of 
Indigenous Populations in Independent 
Countries (second discussion), 

7. Discrimination in the Field of Employ- 
ment and Occupation, and 

8. Conditions of Employment of Planta- 
tion Workers. 



Less Job Discrimination in World, ILO Finds 



Highlights of the report on discrimination 
in the field of employment and occupation 
ordered by the International Labour 
Organization's Governing Body and sub- 
mitted at its November meeting (see 
above) were as follows: — 

In recent years there has. been in many 
parts of the world a tendency toward 
fuller implementation of the non- 
discrimination clauses in the ILO's 1944 
Declaration of Philadelphia, which states 
that "all human beings, irrespective of 
race, 'iced or sex have the right to pursue 
both their material well-being and their 
spiritual development in conditions of . 
freedom and dignity, of economic security 
and equal opportunity." 

The achievement and maintenance of full 
employment is probably the greatest single 
contribution which can be made towards 
employment equality. 

Discrimination rarely results these days 
from legislation but is for the most part 
rooted in long-established custom "which is 
sometimes reflected, consolidated and per- 
petuated by official action or adminis- 
trative practice". 

Religion and social origin today seem 
to play a less considerable part in employ- 
ment discrimination than formerly. Race 
and colour account for most cases of 
different treatment. Sex and national 



origin are also foci of employment discrim- 
ination. Little evidence has been found 
of discrimination on grounds of language, 
property, birth or other status. 

Membership in a trade union in certain 
circumstances may facilitate or hinder 
access to employment. 

It is becoming increasingly evident that 
the difficulties which older unemployed 
persons of, say, 45 to 65 years of age 
face in obtaining employment "are due to 
some extent to factors unconnected with 
their working capacity". 

There is no doubt that the present trend 
in law and practice is to eliminate differ- 
ences between labour legislation for in- 
digenous and non-indigenous workers in 
underdeveloped countries and territories 
where wage-earning employment was largely 
introduced by foreign capital. 

Unequal opportunity for vocational or 
technical training appear in the majority 
of cases to be much less the result of 
discrimination than of other factors, such 
as the high cost of such education. How- 
ever, there is a "residue of obstacles" which 
affect some groups more severely than 
others. 

There is a possibility that selection of 
apprentices may be less objective than for 
entry to vocational training schools. 
(Continued on page 77) 



72 




Ik ^ ^ ^\\^ 




TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



The employee-management committee at 
the John Wood Company in Winnipeg 
emphasizes ideas to help improve plant 
operations. Improvement in production, 
general plant operations and services, safety 
and labour-management relations are the 
principal concerns of this committee. 

Contributing greatly to the success of the 
committee has been the particular attention 
paid to holding regular meetings, the use 
of notice board communications, and the 
application of suggestions submitted. 

Employees of the firm are members of 
Local 4066, United Steelworkers of America 
(CIO-CCL). 

Recently four employees of the company 
received a total of $500 for suggestions 
submitted through the committee. 

The largest award, amounting to $365, 
went to Otto Schmidt, a sheet metal 
worker. Mr. Schmidt's suggestion was 
instrumental in speeding up and simplifying 
the layout and assembly operations involved 
in the manufacture of various types of 
storage tanks. 

Other suggestions which were acceptable 
included: the use of new types of dies to 
combine operations in the press depart- 
ment; ideas to improve interdepartmental 
communications for handling materials and 
products; better measures for improving the 
safety factor in the assembly of large 
storage tanks; and new types of jigs and 
fixtures for use in fabricating storage tanks. 

The awards were presented to the award 
winners by V. A. Kirby, Vice-president and 
Manager of the Winnipeg plant. 



A useful procedure for the guidance of 
labour-management committee chairmen is 
practised by the committee of a Western 
Canada company where the chairmanship is 
rotated regularly. 

Under the heading, Order of Business, the 
committee has prepared a standard routine 
for conducting business of the meeting, and 
attaches a copy of the plan to the minutes 
distributed to the staff. In this way each 
new chairman always has before him a 
guide to govern activities. 

The "Order of Business" reads as 
follows: — 

Chairman calls meeting to order; intro- 
duction of guests; reading of minutes of 



last meeting; discussion of minutes; 
adoption; secretary reads correspondence; 

discussion; filing of Idlers; unfinished 

business; new business ; management's 
report; election of chairman for next 
meeting;, visitors' remarks; secretary 
announces place and date of next meeting 
and names the chairman; adjournment of 
meeting. 

* * * 

A routine designed to help keep 
employees safety-conscious and illustrate to 
them the cost involved if someone gets 
injured is followed by a labour-management 
committee operating in Calgary, Alta. 

Attached to the monthly minutes of 
committee meetings, which are distributed 
to all employees, are statements on acci- 
dents in all departments. The statement is 
presented in two parts, as follows: — 

(1) The number of lost time accidents 
that have occurred in each department 
from the beginning of the year up to the 
time the latest minutes are issued, along 
with a table showing frequency rate, and 
a table listing the record for the same 
period in the previous year. 

(2) A table showing the name or names 
of persons injured during the month pre- 
ceding the issue of the current minutes, and 
what the Workmen's Compensation Board 
charges for the individuals were. 



More frequently than not, when a plant 
tour is made it is the production end that 
comes in for inspection. It is inspected 
from portal to portal by a chosen group of 
visitors, or is perhaps opened on a particular 
day to the general public. 

Recently the idea of inspections was 
given a different twist when the plant 
staff of a Vancouver firm, where a successful 
labour-management committee operates, 
was taken on a tour of the company's 
offices. 

The production staff enjoyed the oppor- 
tunity afforded them to look through the 
offices and learn a few things about this 
end of keeping a large company operating 
efficiently. 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Production Committees (LMPCs) is 
encouraged and assisted by the Labour- 
Management Co-operation Service, In- 
dustrial Relations Branch, Department 
of Labour. In addition to field repre- 
sentatives located in key industrial, 
centres, who are available to help both 
managements and trade unions set up 
LMPCs, the Service provides publicity 
aids in the form of booklets, films and 
posters. 



73 



inn us trial iterations 
and 



? 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board 
met for two days during November. The 
Board issued 18 certificates designating 
bargaining agents and rejected two appli- 
cations for certification. During the month, 
the Board received 14 applications for 
certification, one request for review of 
decision, and allowed the withdrawal of one 
application for certification. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. Sept-Iles Railway Employees Associa- 
tion, on behalf of a unit of warehouse and 
stores employees of the Quebec North 
Shore and Labrador Railway Company, 
Sept-Iles, Que. (L.G., Oct., p. 1157). 

2. International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, ; Warehousemen and 
Helpers of America, Local 880, on behalf 
of a unit of employees of Wyandotte 
Chemicals Corporation, Wyandotte, Mich., 
employed on Fighting Island, Ont. (L.G., 
Oct., p. 1157). 

3. Froomfield Marine Association, on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
employed by Canadian Oil Companies 
Limited, Toronto, aboard the SS John 
Irwin (L.G., Oct., p. 1157). 

4. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
employed by Sea Traders Limited, Halifax, 
aboard the MV Arctic Prowler (L.G., 
Nov., p. 1285). 

5. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
employed aboard vessels operated by the 
Davie Transportation Limited, Montreal 
(L.G., Nov., p. 1285). 

6. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
employed by Guy Tombs Marine Services 
Limited, Montreal, aboard the MV Ethel 
Tombs (L.G., Nov., p. 1285). 

7. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District,, on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
employed aboard vessels operated by 
Quebec Paper Sales and Transportation 
Company Limited, Donnacona, Que. (L.G., 
Nov., p. 1285). 



8. United Steelworkers of America, on 
behalf of a unit of employees employed 
by Clarke Steamship Company Limited in 
the loading and unloading of vessels at 
Sept-Iles, Que. (L.G., Nov., p. 1286). 

9. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc. (Great Lakes and 
Eastern District), on behalf of a unit of 
marine engineers, including chief engineers, 
employed aboard vessels operated by Davie 
Transportation Limited, Montreal (L.G., 
Dec, p. 1384). 

10. International Brotherhood of Elec- 
trical Workers, Local 244, on behalf of a 
unit of employees of Northern Construction 
Company and J. W. Stewart Limited, 
employed on Project No. 572 in the Yukon 
Territory and Northwest Territories (L.G., 
Dec, p. 1384). 

11. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc. (Great Lakes and 
Eastern District), on behalf of a unit of 
marine engineers, including the chief 
engineer, employed by Guy Tombs Marine 
Services Limited, Montreal, aboard the 
MV Ethel Tombs (L.G., Dec, p. 1384). 

12. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc. (Great Lakes and 
Eastern District), on behalf of a unit of 
marine engineers, including chief engineers, 
employed aboard vessels operated by 
Quebec Paper Sales and Transportation 
Company Limited, Donnacona, Que. (L.G., 
Dec, p. 1384). 

13. International Alliance of Theatrical 
Stage Employees and Moving Picture 
Machine Operators of the United States 
and Canada, on behalf of a unit of 
employees of Atlantic Broadcasters Limited, 
employed at Radio Station CJFX, Antigo- 
nish, N.S. (L.G., Dec, p. 1384). 

14. Building Material, Construction and 
Fuel Truck Drivers' Union, Local 213, on 
behalf of a unit of warehousemen and 
checkers employed by The British Yukon 
Railway Company, Whitehorse, Y.T. (L.G., 
Dec, p. 1384). 



This section covers proceedings under 
the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, involving the admin- 
istrative services of the Minister of 
Labour, the Canada Labour Relations 
Board and the Industrial Relations 
Branch of the Department. 



74 



15. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc. (Great Lakes and 
Eastern District), on behalf of a unit of 
marine engineers below the rank of chief 
engineer employed aboard vessels operated 
by Transit Tankers and Terminals Limited 
(L.G., Dec, p. 1384). 

16. Building Service Employees' Interna- 
tional Union, Local 298, on behalf of a unit 
of building service employees employed by 
the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation at 
Montreal (L.G., Dec, p. 1384). 

17. International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and 
Helpers of America, Local No. 514, on 
behalf of a unit of truck drivers and ware- 
housemen employed by Northern Construc- 
tion Company and J. W. Stewart Limited 
on Project No. 572 in the Yukon Territory 
and Northwest Territories (L.G., Dec, 
p. 1384). 



18. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc. (Great. Lakes and 
Eastern District), on behalf of a unit of 
marine engineers, below the rank of chief 
engineer, employed aboard vessels operated 
by Beaconsfield Steamships Limited, Mont- 
real (L.G., Dec, p. 1385). 

Applications for Certification Rejected 

1. United Steelworkers of America, appli- 
cant, and Iron Ore Company of Canada, 
Sept-Iles, Que., respondent. The applica- 
tion was rejected because it was not 
supported by a majority of the employees 
affected in a representation vote conducted 
by the Board (L.G., Dec,' p. 1384). 

2. United Steelworkers of America, appli- 
cant, and Quebec North Shore and 
Labrador Railway Company, Sept-Iles, Que., 
respondent. The application was rejected 
for the reason, that it was not supported 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Indus- 
trial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act are provided by the Minister 
of Labour through the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch. The branch also acts as 
the administrative arm of the Canada 
Labour Relations Board in matters under 
the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on 
September 1, 1948. It revoked the War- 
time Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 
1003, which became effective in March, 
1944, and repealed the Industrial Dis- 
putes Investigation Act, which had been 
in force from 1907 until superseded by 
the Wartime Regulations in 1944. Deci- 
sions, orders and certifications given 
under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime 
Labour Relations Board are continued in 
force and effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, ship- 
ping, interprovincial railways, canals, 
telegraphs, interprovincial and interna- 
tional steamship lines and ferries, aero- 
dromes and air transportation, radio 
broadcasting stations and works declared 
by Parliament to be for the general 
advantage of Canada or two or more of 
its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if 
they so desire, may enact similar legis- 
lation for application to industries 
within provincial jurisdiction and make 
mutually satisfactory arrangements with 
the federal Government for the admin- 
istration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is 
directly responsible for the appointment 
of conciliation officers, conciliation boards, 
and Industrial Inquiry Commissions con- 
cerning complaints that the Act has been 
violated or that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively, and for applications 
for consent to prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the cer- 
tification of bargaining agents, the writ- 
ing of provisions — for incorporation into 
collective agreements — fixing a procedure 
for the final settlement of disputes con- 
cerning the meaning or violation of such 
agreements and the investigation of com- 
plaints referred to it by the minister that 
a party has failed to bargain collectively 
and to make every reasonable effort to 
conclude a collective agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regula- 
tions made under the Act, and the Rules 
of Procedure of the Canada Labour 
Relations Board are available upon 
request to the Department of Labour, 
Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: 
(1) Certification and other Proceedings 
before the Canada Labour Relations 
Board, and (2) Conciliation and other 
Proceedings before the Minister of 
Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the 
Department of Labour are stationed at 
Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, 
Montreal, Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's, Newfoundland.^ The territory of 
two officers resident in Vancouver com- 
prises British Columbia, Alberta and the 
Yukon and Northwest Territories; two 
officers stationed in Winnipeg cover the 
provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba 
and Northwestern Ontario; three officers 
resident in Toronto confine their activi- 
ties to Ontario; three officers in Mont- 
real are assigned to the province of 
Quebec, and a total of three officers 
resident in Fredericton, Halifax and St» 
John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. 
The headquarters of the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch and the Director of 
Industrial Relations and staff are situated 
in Ottawa. 



75 



by a majority of the employees affected in 
a representation vote conducted by the 
Board (L.G., Dec p. 13S4). 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship 
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Si at ion Employees, on behalf of ticket 
office employees of the Canadian Railway 
Company (B.C. Coasl Steamship Service) 
(Investigating Officer: G. R. Currie). 

2. Brotherhood of Railroad Signalmen of 
America, on behalf oi a unit of signals and 
communications employees of the Quebec 
North Shore and Labrador Railway Com- 
pany, Sept-Hes, Que. (Investigating Officer: 
Remi Duquette). 

3. International Union of Operating Engi- 
neers Local Xo. 796, on behalf of a unit 
of employees of the Toronto Terminals 
Railway Company, Toronto, employed in 
its Central Heating Plant and Union 
Station Engine Room (Investigating Officer: 
F. J. Ainsborough). 

4. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed employees 
employed by Holden Sand and Gravel 
Limited, Toronto, aboard the SS Niagara 
(Investigating Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

5. International Union of Operating Engi- 
neers, Locals 115 and 955, on behalf of a 
unit of employees of Northern Construc- 
tion Company and J. W. Stewart Limited, 
employed on Project No. 572 in the 
Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories 
(Investigating Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

6. National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians, on behalf of a 
unit of employees of Radio Saint Boniface 
Limitee, employed at Radio Station CKSB 
in St. Boniface, Man. (Investigating Officer: 
J. S. Gunn). 

7. Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators 
and Paperhangers of America, Local 1016, 
on behalf of a unit of employees of 
Northern Construction Company and J. W. 
Stewart Limited, employed on Project 
No. 572 in the Yukon Territory and North- 
Territories (Investigating Officer: 

D. S. Tysoe). 

8. General Drivers, Warehousemen and 
Helpers, Local 979, of the International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Wnrehousemen and Helpers, of America, on 
behalf of a unit of employees of Security 
Storage Company Ltd. (Highway Divi- 
sion), Winnipeg (Investigating Officer: 
J. S. Gunn). 

9. National Association of Marine Engi- 
ne is of Canada, Inc. (Great Lakes and 
Eastern District), on behalf of a unit 



of marine engineers, excluding chief engi- 
neers, employed aboard vessels operated 
by Quebec and Ontario Transportation 
Company Limited, Montreal (Investi- 
gating Officers: Remi Duquette and C. E. 
Poirier). 

10. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc. (Great Lakes and 
Eastern District), on behalf of a unit of 
marine engineers, excluding chief engineers, 
employed aboard vessels operated by 
Mohawk Navigation Company Limited, 
Montreal (Investigating Officers: Remi 
Duquette and C. E. Poirier). 

11. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc. (Great Lakes and 
Eastern District), on behalf of a unit of 
marine engineers, excluding chief engineers, 
employed aboard vessels operated by 
Sincennes-McNaughton Lines Limited, 
Montreal (Investigating Officers: Remi 
Duquette and C. E. Poirier). 

12. British Columbia Locals 740 and 740A, 
Alberta Construction Camp, Culinary and 
Service Employees' Union of the Hotel and 
Restaurant Employees' and Bartenders' 
International Union, on behalf of a unit 
of employees of Northern Construction 
Company and J. W. Stew r art Limited 
employed on Project No. 572 in the 
Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories 
(Investigating Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

13. Canadian National Railway Hotel 
Employees, Local No. 93 of the Hotel and 
Restaurant Employees' and Bartenders' 
International Union, on behalf of a unit 
of tavern employees of the Macdonald 
Hotel, Edmonton, Alta. (Investigating 
Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

14. International Alliance of Theatrical 
Stage Employees and Moving Picture 
Machine Operators of the United States 
and Canada, on behalf of a unit of 
employees of Cape Breton Broadcasters 
Limited, Sydney, N.S., employed at Radio 
Stations CJCB and CJCX (Investigating 
Officer: D. T. Cochrane). 

Request for Review of Decision 

The Board received a request under 
Section 61(2) of the Act for a review of 
its decision in granting certification of 
January 11, 1951, affecting the Canadian 
Air Line Flight Attendants' Association and 
Canadian Pacific Air Lines Limited. The 
Board was requested to clarify the scope 
of the certificate issued (L.G. 1951, p. 1529). 

Application for Certification Withdrawn 

Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, applicant, and 
Marine Industries Limited, Sorel, Que., 
respondent (L.G., Dec, p. 1385). 



76 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During November, the Minister appointed 
conciliation officers to deal with the 
following disputes: — 

1. The Nova Scotian Hotel, Halifax 
(Canadian National Railways) and Local 
662, Hotel and Restaurant Employees' and 
Bartenders' International Union (Concilia- 
tion Officer: D. T. Cochrane). 

2. Westward Shipping Limited, Van- 
couver, and Seafarers' International Union 
of North America, Canadian District (Con- 
ciliation Officer: G. R. Currie). 

3. Ottawa Transportation Commission 
and Division 279 of the Amalgamated 
Association of Street, Electric Railway and 
Motor Coach Employees of America (Con- 
ciliation Officer: Bernard Wilson). 

4. Expressway Truck Lines (Canada) 
Limited, Vancouver, and General Truck 
Drivers and Helpers Union No. 31 (Con- 
ciliation Officer: G. R. Currie). 

5. Shipping Federation of Canada, Inc., 
and Local 273, International Longshore- 
men's Association, Saint John, N.B. (Con- 
ciliation Officer: H. R. Pettigrove). 

6. Buntain and Bell Company Limited, 
Charlottetown, P.E.I., and Local 9568, 
Labourers' Protective Union (Conciliation 
Officer: H. R. Pettigrove). 

Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

1. Canadian National Railways (Regional 
Accounting Office) and Canadian Brother- 
hood of Railway Employees and Other 
Transport Workers (Conciliation Officer: 
J. S. Gunn) (L.G., Dec, p. 1385). 

2. Ontario Northland Railway and 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
Enginemen (Conciliation Officer: F. J. 
Ainsborough) (L.G., Dec, 1954, p. 1724). 

3. Vancouver Hotel Company Limited 
(Canadian National Railways and Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway Company) and Local 
8820, International Union of Operating 
Engineers; Local 692, International Asso- 
ciation of Machinists; Local 213, Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Electrical Workers ; 



and Local 170, United Association of 
Plumbers and Steamfitters (Conciliation 
Officer: D. S. Tysoe) (L.G., Aug., p. 948). 
4. Buntain and Bell Company Limited, 
Charlottetown, P.E.I., and Local 9568, 
Labourers' Protective Union (Conciliation 
Officer: H. R. Pettigrove) (See above). 

Conciliation Boards Appointed 

1. The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in September to deal 
with matters in dispute between the Abitibi 
Power and Paper Company Limited, 
Toronto, and the Seafarers' International 
Union of North America, Canadian District 
(L.G., Nov., 1287) was fully constituted in 
November with the appointment of Prof. 
Bora Laskin, Toronto, as Chairman. 
Prof. Laskin was appointed by the Min- 
ister in the absence of a joint recommenda- 
tion from the other two members, J. E. 
Sedgwick, QC, Toronto, and Louis B. 
Daniels, Montreal, who were previously 
appointed on the nomination of the 
Company and Union respectively. 

2. The Board of Conciliation and Inves- 
tigation established in October to deal with 
matters in dispute between Oka Sand and 
Gravel, Inc., Montreal, and Seafarers' 
International Union of North America, 
Canadian District (L.G., Dec. p. 1385) was 
fully constituted in November with the 
appointment of the Hon. Mr. Justice 
Paul E. Cote, Montreal, as Chairman. Mr. 
Justice Cote was appointed by the Min- 
ister in the absence of a joint recommenda- 
tion from the other two members, Paul 
Emile Lejour and Louis B. Daniels, both 
of Montreal, who were previously appointed 
on the nomination of the Company and 
Union respectively. 

Settlement Following Board Procedure 

1. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 
Chalk River, Ont., and Local 165, American 
Federation of Technical Engineers (L.G., 
Aug., p. 948). 



Less Job Discrimination 

(Continued from page 72) 
The principle of equal remuneration for 
work of equal value by men and women 
has been accepted in many countries. 
However, in other countries and in many 
forms of activity lower rates of pay for 
the same occupation are paid to women. 



"It would seem desirable for govern- 
ments, after consultation with employers 
and workers' organizations, to issue a firm 
declaration that it is general public policy 
to promote the principle of fair employ- 
ment and eliminate existing discriminatory 
practices". 



77 



Collective Agreements 



Number of Workers Affected by 
Collective Agreements in Canada,1954 

1,515,010 Canadian workers, 1*5 per cent fewer than 1953, affected 
by collective agreements in 1954, first year in which decrease was 
recorded in nine years that Department has compiled these statistics 



The number of workers affected by 
collective agreements in 1954 was 1,515,010. 
This is the first year in which a decrease 
has been shown during the nine years in 
which the Department of Labour has been 
compiling statistics on coverage of agree- 
ments* 

The figure for 1954 is 1-5 per cent below 
the 1953 total, although still above the 
1952 level. However, the percentage of all 
non-agricultural paid workers in Canada 
covered by agreement is practically 
unchanged at 39-1. The decrease in 1954 
resulted from a slightly lower level of 
employment in sections of the manufactur- 
ing and transportation industries. 

For each of the past nine years, the total 
number of workers under agreement and 
the percentage of the total non-agricultural 
paid workers in the labour force who were 
working under the terms of collective agree- 
ments is shown in Table I. 

Of the main industry groups (see Table 
II), increases in the number of workers 
covered occurred in all except manufactur- 
ing and transportation. In manufacturing, 
changes in numbers of workers covered 
generally reflected changes in employment 



This article deals with the industrial 
distribution of workers under collective 
agreement in Canada. Further analyses 
of collective agreement coverage figures 
will appear in a future issue of the 
Labour Gazette. 



conditions, e.g., primary iron and steel, 
aircraft, motor vehicles, shipbuilding and 
electrical apparatus declined in 1954, while 
pulp and paper and non-ferrous metal 
smelting and refining showed increases. In 
transportation, the notable change both in 
employment and workers covered by agree- 
ment occurred in the steam railway indus- 
try, where in both cases the figure was 
considerably below the 1953 level. 

The other main industry groups showed 
increases in 1954. Logging and mining 
were well above the 1953 level, the increase 
in mining occurring in the metal mining 
division. Increases in other groups are 
partly accounted for by a number of agree- 
ments made for the first time in radio 

TABLE I.— NUMBERS OF WORKERS 
UNDER AGREEMENT, 1946 TO 1954 



*The Department of Labour maintains a file of 
collective agreements obtained, together with infor- 
mation on the number of workers affected, from 
employers, employers' associations and from unions. 
In the great majority of cases the number of 
workers is that reported by employers in the 
annual survey of wage rates and hours of labour. 
In seasonal industries, such as logging, fishing and 
construction, the figures shown are for the most 
part indicative of the peak employment level in 
the year. 

The numbers of workers covered by agreements 
extended under the terms of the Collective Agree- 
ment Act of the Province of Quebec are derived 
from information issued by the provincial govern- 
ment. Under this Act, certain of the provisions 
of agreements made between employers and a 
union or unions under certain conditions may be 
extended by provincial order in council to apply to *The number of paid workers was obtained from 

all employers and workers in the industry in the the Dominion Bureau of Statistics' reference paper, 
zone affected or in the whole province. More than ^ Lahour Force> November m5 -January, 1955 
a quarter of the workers covered by Orders in .. , . . , c ■ , * , Urk 

Council under this Act were also covered by usm ^ the last qua *^ y ***!; ™ ^ °* ^ 
separate agreements with their employers. The y ear * 1946 to 1951 - For 1952 ' the November fi S ure 
latter workers are counted only once in the total and for 1953 and 1954 the October figures were 
figures used in the industry. used. 



Year 


Number of 

workers 

under 

agreement 


Percentage 
of total 
non- 
agricultural 
paid 
workers* 


1946 


995,736 
1,120,310 
1,214,542 
1,225,569 
1,282,005 
1,415,250 
1,504,624 
1,538,323 
1,515,010 


31-4 


1947 


34-6 


1948 


36-4 


1949 


35-7 


1950 


36-2 


1951 


38-2 


1952 


39-0 


1953 


39-3 


1954 


391 







78 



TABLE II. 



NUMBERS OF WORKERS AFFECTED BY COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS 
IN CANADA, 1946, 1953 and 1951 



Industry group 



1946 



Total 



TOTALS 



Agriculture 



Forestry 

Logging 

Forestry Service. 



Fishing and Trapping. 

Fishing 

Hunting and Trapping. 



Mining (including, milling) 
Quarrying, Oil Wells 



Metal Mining . 



Fuels 

Coal mining 

Oil and natural gas. 



Non-metal Mining 

Asbestos mining 

Other non-metal mining. 



Quarrying, Clay and Sandpits. 
Manufacturing 



Foods and Beverages 

Meat products 

Dairy products 

Canned and cured fish 

Canned and preserved fruits and 

vegetables 

Flour mills 

Other grain mill products 

Biscuits and crackers 

Bread and other bakery products. 

Carbonated beverages 

Distilled liquors 

Malt liquors 

Wines 

Confectionery 

Sugar 

Miscellaneous foods 



Tobacco and Tobacco Products . 



Rubber Products 

Rubber footwear 

Tires, tubes, and other rubber 
products 



Leather Products 

Boots and shoes 

Boot and shoe repair 

Leather gloves and mittens 

Leather tanneries 

Miscellaneous leather products. . 



Number 
of workers 



1953 



Total 



Number 
of workers 



995,736 



30,800 

30,800 



7,671 

7,671 



48,975 

19,858 

24,116 

23,254 

862 

4,383 

3,984 

399 

1,118 

492,536 

56,326 

17,015 

798 

4,762 

6,790 
2,231 
1,659 
821 
8,977 
46 

9,082 

412 

2,286 
1,447 

6,174 
16,638 



21,357 
14,175 



2,307 
3,691 
1,184 



1,538,323 
34 

58,372 

58,372 



1954 



Agree- 
ments 
(other 
than 
those 
extended 

under 

Collective 

Agreement 

Act, 

Quebec) 



Number 
of workers 



7,800 

7,800 



61,882 

32,876 

19,765 

19,049 

716 

7,277 
5,368 
1,909 

1,964 

713,766 



16,192 
1,905 
6,526 

8,245 
3,192 
1,771 
3,365 
7,921 

762 
3,684 
7,024 

146 
3,506 
2,571 
2,084 

5,908 

15, 369 
4,826 

10,543 

20,969 

14,401 

22 

1,339 

2,927 

2,280 



1,348,714 
65 

60,431 

60,431 



Agree- 
ments 
extended 

under 

Collective 

Agreement 

Act, 

Quebec 



Number 
of workers 



225,681 



7,900 

7,900 



64,904 

36, 788 

19,201 

18,567 

634 

7,087 
5,278 
1,809 

1,828 

628,578 

66,643 

17,198 

2,267 

7,399 

4,531 
3,225 
2,225 
3,917 
6,657 

641 
3,804 
6,827 

158 
2,873 
2,731 
2,190 

5,886 

IS, 796 
4,042 

9,754 

12,028 
7,078 
22 
1,284 
2,482 
1,162 



Total (a) 



Number 
of workers 



40 



40 
(b) 
92,615 

154 



154 



15,008 
12,643 



790 

391 

1,184 



1,515,010 
65 

60,431 

60,431 



7,900 

7,900 



64,944 

36,788 

19,201 

18,567 

634 

7,127 
5,278 
1,849 

1,828 

678,924 

66, 797 

17,198 

2,267 

7,399 

4,531 
3,225 
2,225 
3,917 
6,811 

641 
3,804 
6,827 

158 
2,873 
2,731 
2,190 

5,886 

13,796 
4,042 

9,754 

21,227 

15,373 

22 

1,284 

2,692 

1,856 



79 



TABLE II. 



NUMBERS OF WORKERS AFFECTED BY COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS 
IN CANADA, 1946, 1953 and 1954 (Continued) 



Industry group 



1946 



Total 



1953 



Total 



1954 



Agree- 
ments 
(other 
than 
those 
extended 

under 

Collective 

Agreement 

Act, 

Quebec) 



Agree- 
ments 
extended 

under 

Collective 

Agreement 

Act, 

Quebec 



Total (a) 



Manufacturing (Cont'd)— 

Textile Products (except clothing) . 
Cotton thread, yarn and broad 

woven goods 

Miscellaneous cotton goods 

Woollen and worsted woven good 

Woollen and worsted yarn 

Miscellaneous woollen goods. . . . 

Silk and artificial silk 

Other primary textiles 

Dyeing and finishing textiles. . 

Laces, tapes and bindings 

Miscellaneous textile products. . . 

( anvas products 

Carpets, mats and rugs 

Cordage, rope and twine 

Other textile products 



Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's, Women's and Children's 

Clothing 

Custom tailoring and dress- 
making 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

Hosiery 

Other Knit goods 

Miscellaneous Clothing 

Corsets, girdles and foundation 

garments 

Fur goods 

Hats and caps 

Miscellaneous clothing 



Wood Products 

Saw and planing mills 

Plywood and veneer mills 

Sash and door and planing mills 

Sawmills 

Furniture 

M i -cellaneous wood products 

Boxes and baskets (wood) 

Mortician's goods 

Miscellaneous wood products.. . 

Paper Products 

Paper boxes and bags 

Pulp and paper .- 

Roofing papers 

Miscellaneous paper products 



Number 
of Avorkers 



Number 
of workers 



Number 
of workers 



Number 
of workers 



Number 
of workers 



Printing, Publishing and Allied 
Industries 



Iron and SteelProducts 

Agricultural implements 

Boiler- and plate work 

Fabricated and structural steel. 
Hardware and tools 



31,894 

17,400 
110 

6,709 

3,344 

(186) 
186 



(3,645) 

456 

535 

982 

1,672 

50, 140 

35.232J 



5,514 



(9,394) 

200 
4,312 

4,882 



32, 256 
21,770 



7,569 

(2,917) 

830 



2,087 



4,274 

39,276 

1,253 

2,083 



18,104 

73,618 

10,694 

2,560 

3,026 

1,360 



38,843 

16,244 

719 

4,641 

2,243 

483 

5,647 

(3,078) 

2,342 

736 

(5,788) 

132 

704 

886 

4,066 

71,328 

(51,884) 

199 
29,640 
22,045 
(9,626) 
9,611 
15 
(9,818) 

972 
5,738 
2,851 

257 

49,689 
(36,005) 

5,421 

4,737 
25,847 

9,572 
(4,112) 

1,725 
122 

2,265 

61 , 391 
8,332 

48,765 
1,660 
2,634 



23,658 

112,456 
9,592 
5,936 
6,331 
4,154 



35, 297 

14,764 
421 

4,003 

1,616 

412 

6,827 

(2,459) 

1,787 

672 

(4,795) 

100 

633 

898 

3,164 

51,701 

(34,482) 



18,741 
15,652 
(9,023) 
8,964 
59 
(8,196) 

1,309 

4,486 

2,210 

191 

47, 640 

(35,724) 

6,403 

4,509 

24,812 

6,838 

(5,078) 

2,534 

123 

2,421 

63,568 
7,171 

51,556 
1,683 
3,158 



21,596 

97,945 
9,186 
4,208 
5,790 
3,438 



(1,265) 



1,265 
42, 135 
(37,085) 



20,323 
16,762 



(5,050) 



3,354 
1,696 



5,794 



5,794 



3,269 
3,269 



3,384 



529 



36, 141- 

14,764 

421 

4,003 

1,616 

412 

6,827 

(2,459) 

1,787 

672 

(5,639) 

100 



4,008 

69, 712 

(51,166) 



28,670 
22,407 
(9,023) 
8,964 
59 
(9,523) 

1,309 

5,148 

2,875 

191 

51,846 
(35,724) 

6,403 

4,509 
24,812 
11,044 
(5,078) 

2,534 
123 

2,421 

65,303 
8,906 

51,556 
1,683 
3,158 



23,921 

100,539 
9,186 
4,725 
5,790 
3,438 



80 



TABLE H.— NUMBERS OF WORKERS AFFECTED BY COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS 
IN CANADA, 1946, 1953 and 1954 (Continued) 



Industry group 



Manufacturing (Cont'd)— 
Iron and Steel Products (Concl'd) 
Heating and cooking apparatus. 
Household, office and store 

machinery 

Iron castings 

Machine shop products 

Machine tools 

Machinery, n.e.c 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Wire and wire products 

Miscellaneous iron and steel 

products 



Transportation Equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Auto repair and garages 

Bicycles and parts 

Boat building and repairing 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicles parts and acces- 
sories 

Railroad and rolling stock equip- 
ment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

Miscellaneous transportation 
equipment 



Non-ferrous Metal Products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Jewellery and silverware 

Non-ferrous metal smelting and 

refining 

Watch and jewellery repair 

White metal alloys 

Miscellaneous non-ferrous metal 
products 



1946 



1953 



Total 



Number 
of workers 



Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 

Batteries 

Heavy electrical machinery and 

equipment 

Radios and radio parts 

Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners 

and appliances 

Miscellaneous electrical products. 



Non-Metallic Mineral Products . 

Abrasive products 

Asbestos products 

Cement, hydraulic 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Lime and gypsum products. 

Stone products 

Concrete products 

Miscellaneous non-metallic 
mineral products 



3,975 

3,222 
7,379 
244 
1,679 
7,511 
17,761 
9,357 
1,737 

3,113 

61,684 

7,112 

(c)9,574 



911 
17,700 

9,090 

5,280 
12,017 



21,537 
3,590 
3,686 
1,201 

12,383 



626 

51 

26,238 
786 

13,605 
2,681 

760 
8,406 

11,339 

1,517 

708 

811 

1,924 

3,353 

1,373 

615 



Total 



Number 
of workers 



1,038 



6,360 

5,100 

9,804 
719 

2,650 
12,214 
25,343 
12,596 

4,329 

7,328 

110,256 

28,253 

(c)12,812 

568 

730 

26,339 

15,989 

7,697 
17,390 

478 

34,248 
6,316 
5,043 
1,154 

19,065 

351 

1,636 

683 

48, 131 
933 

18,018 
7,432 

6,385 
15,363 

18,206 
2,022 
1,467 
1,881 
2,191 
5,848 
1,386 
933 
414 

2,064 



1954 



Agree- 
ments 
(other 
than 
those 
extended 

under 

Collective 

Agreement 

Act, 

Quebec) 



Number 
of workers 



6,191 

3,770 

7,885 

1,318 

2,243 

12,193 

20,653 

10, 137 

3,833 

7,100 

83,577 

23,934 

4,977 

266 

38 

20,648 

12,009 

5,992 
15,278 

435 

34,219 
5,244 
4,425 
1,150 

21,353 



1,476 

571 

43,750 
753 

15,574 
8,350 

4,237 
14,836 

16,718 
1,700 
1,555 
1,885 
2,237 
5,388 
1,498 
230 
520 

1,705 



Agree- 
ments 
extended 

under 

Collective 

Agreement 

Act, 

Quebec 



Number 
of workers 



2,203 



652 

11,853 

(c)ii,*853" 



450 



450 



103 



Total (a) 



Number 
of workers 



(b)l,321 



6,191 

3,770 

7,885 

1,318 

2,243 

12,193 

20,653 

11,562 

3,833 

7,752 

93,346 

23,934 

(c) 14, 746 

266 

38 

20,648 

12,009 

5,992 
15,278 

435 

34,669 
5,244 
4,425 
1,150 

21,353 

450 

1,476 

571 

43,750 
753 

15,574 
8,350 

4,327 
14,836 

17,651 
1,700 
1,555 
1,885 
2,237 
5,491 
1,498 
1,060 
520 

1,705 



66180—6 



81 



TABLE II. 



NUMBERS OF WORKERS AFFECTED BY COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS 
IN CANADA, 1946, 1953 and 1954 (Continued) 



Industry group 



1946 



Total 



1953 



Total 



1954 



Agree- 
ments 
(other 
than 
those 
extended 

under 

Collective 

Agreement 

Act, 

Quebec) 



Agree- 
ments 
extended 

under 

Collective 

Agreement 

Act, 

Quebec 



Manufacturing (Cone.)— 

Products of Petroleum and Coal 

Coke and gas products 

Petroleum refining and products 
Miscellaneous products of petro- 
leum and coal 



Number 
of workers 



Number 
of workers 



Number 
of workers 



4,968 

213 

4,750 



and 



Chemical Products 

Acids, alkalis and salts. . . 

Explosives, ammunition 
pyrotechnics 

Fertilizers 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical 
preparations 

Paints and varnishes. . 

Soaps, washing and cleaning com- 
pounds 

Toilet preparations 

Vegetable oil mills 

Primary plastics 

Miscellaneous chemical and allied 
products 



10,659 
4,245 

1,028 
427 

1,148 

2,281 

823 



Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 

Brooms, brushes and mops 

Fabricated plastic products 

Musical instruments 

Pens, pencils and typewriter sup- 
plies 

Professional and scientific instru- 
ments and equipment 

Sporting goods and toys 

Miscellaneous industries, n.e.c. . . . 

Construction 



707 

,228 
481 
298 
137 

512 

774 



Transportation 

Air Transport and Airports 

Bus and Coach Transportation 
interurban 

Steam Railways (including express 
and telegraph service) 

Urban and Suburban Transpor 
tation Systems 

Taxicab 

Truck Transportation 

Water Transportation 

Services incidental to Water Trans- 
portation 

Services incidental to Transporta- 
tion 

Other Transportation 



1,021 
(d)97,215 

210,148 

2,590 

2,418 

143,330 

20, 149 

992 

2,563 

21,887 

16,154 



Storage 

G/ain Elevators 

Storage and Warehouse . 



Communication 

Radio Broadcasting 

Telephone 

Other Communication Services. 



65 

1,837 

1,718 
119 

20,564 

70 

20,348 
146 



9,122 
1,453 
7,618 

51 

18,819 
4,460 

1,946 
1,521 

1,326 

2,358 

1,622 

97 

274 

1,633 

3,582 

6,479 
252 
437 
462 

597 

1,637 

559 

2,535 

(d) 192, 250 

263,062 

6,276 

3,816 

183,596 

20,934 

1,683 

12,498 

13,895 

19,762 

159 
443 

4,765 

3,672 
1,093 

42,462 

1,194 

40,862 

406 



8,887 
1,134 
7,671 

82 

19,340 
4,309 

2,036 
1,899 

1,258 
2,245 

1,547 

99 

267 

1,871 



5,987 
244 
477 
439 

311 

1,778 

584 

2,154 

99,768 

244,041 

7,173 

3,453 

167,405 

20,814 

1,576 

12,281 

12,337 

18,287 

247 
468 

5,911 

4,782 
1,129 

46,589 

3,184 

42,966 

439 



Number 
of workers 



Number 
of workers 



1,031 



1,031 



(d)101,255 
7,955 



3,425 
4,530 



82 



TABLE II.— NUMBERS OF WORKERS AFFECTED BY COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS 
IN CANADA, 1946, 1953 and 1954 (Concluded) 





1946 


1953 


1954 


Industry group 


Total 


Total 


Agree- 
ments 
(other 

than 

t hose 
extended 

under 

Collective 

Agreement 

Act, 

Quebec) 


Agree- 
ments 
extended 

under 

Collective 

Agreement 

Act, 

Quebec 


Total (a) 




Number 
of workers 


Number 
of workers 


Number 
of workers 


Number 
of workers 


Number 
of workers 


Public Utility Operation 


15,814 

13,837 

1,917 

(e) 

60 

21,684 

4,637 
(c)17,047 

(g) 106 

(f) 


28,328 
26,096 

2,168 

(e) 5 

59 

54,441 

19,204 
(c)35,237 

(g)l,474 

(f) 

468 
1,006 

109,687 

33,412 
8,949 

24,095 
15 
25 

328 

48,400 
8 

44,892 
3,500 


29,473 

27,379 

2,033 

(e) 5 

56 

53,966 

19,862 
34,104 

1,566 




29,473 


Electric Light and Power 




27,379 


Gas Manufacturing and Distri- 




2,033 


Water and Sanitary Services 




(e) 5 


Other Public Utilities 




56 


Trade 


11,936 

1,692 
(c)10,244 


59,914 


Wholesale 


19,864 


Retail 


(c)40,050 


Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 


1,566 




(f) 


(0 




508 
1,058 

105,522 

31 , 767 
11,115 

20,282 


508 


Real Estate 


106 

48,386 

6,115 

196 

5,919 




1,058 


Service 


11,880 

6,943 


117,044 


Community or Public 


38.352 




11,115 


Health 


6,943 


26,867 


Religion 




Welfare institutions 




25 
345 

49,974 

7 

46,507 
3,460 




25 


Community or public service, 
n.e.c 






345 


Government Service 


26,067 




49,974 


Dominion Government 




7 


Municipal or other local govern- 
ment 


22,367 
3,700 




46,507 


Provincial Government 




3,460 


Other government service, n.e.c 






Recreation Service 


280 
280 


1,407 

1,106 

301 

2,452 

24,016 

4,604 

824 

15 

14,366 

2,251 

1,389 

253 


1,333 

1,153 

180 

2,233 

20,215 

849 

713 

6 

13,939 

2,593 

1,825 

12 




1,333 


Theatres and theatrical services. . 




1,153 


Other recreational services 




180 


Business Service 


60 

15,864 

4,866 

106 




2,233 


Personal Service 


4,937 
4,561 


25, 152 


Barbering and hairdressing 

Dyeing, cleaning, pressing. ....... 


5,410 
713 


Photography 




6 


Hotels and lodging houses 

Laundries 


9,739 
794 
126 
233 


230 


14,169 
2,593 


Restaurants, cafes, taverns 




1,825 


Undertaking 


146 


158 


Other personal service 


314 278 


278 



(a) These totals are not the sum of the numbers in the two previous columns. Duplications are 
eliminated. 

(b) The agreement, for the building materials industry in the province of Quebec, is included under 
"Manufacturing" but also covers granite and marble quarrying. Information not available as to the 
number in each industry. 

(c) Agreements affecting workers in garages and service stations, in the province of Quebec, in- 
cluded under "Manufacturing" also affect "Trade" in so far as service stations are concerned. In- 
formation not available as to the number in each industry. 

(d) Agreements for construction workers extended under the Collective Agreement Act, Quebec, 
include maintenance work and certain shop work which is not included in the construction industry 
in the Dominion Bureau of Statistics classification. 

(e) Water supply covered under "Service-Municipal". 

(f) One agreement for several towns in Quebec included under "Trade" also includes employees 
of financial institutions. 



66180—6* 



83 



broadcasting, trade and in the service 
industry, particularly of service employees 
of school board? and hospitals. 

The proportion of paid workers covered 
by agreements in the main industry groups 
follows : 

TABLE HI.— PERCENTAGE OF PAID 
WORKERS* UNDER AGREEMENT, 
BY INDUSTRY 



Forestry 

Mining 

Manufacturing 

Construction 

Transportation, Storage and Com- 
munication 

Public Utilities 

Trade 

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate. 
Service 



Percentage 



61-9 
62-5 
55-1 
64-8 

84-6 

46-8 

9-3 

11 

12-4 



Collective agreements, except those 
requiring all employees to be union 
members, usually cover a certain proportion 
of non-union members as well as union 
members in the bargaining unit. The 
number of workers under agreement, there- 
fore, exceeds the total union membership 
figure in Canada, which at January 1, 1955, 
was 1,268,207. 



•Based on the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
reference paper The Labour Force, November 
1945 — January, 1955, using the October 1954 figure, 
except for Forestry, for which the average of the 
peak months of January, November and December 
was used. 



On the other hand, the collective agree- 
ment coverage figure includes 104,273 
employees who are members of some 
independent local unions, employees' asso- 
ciations and plant councils which are not 
included in the Department's survey of 
labour organization in Canada; such 
workers account for 6-9 per cent of the 
total number under agreement. An addi- 
tional factor to be considered in the 
comparison of agreement coverage and 
union membership figures is the fact that 
some union members may be employed 
in establishments where no agreement 
presently exists. 

There were 6,960 agreements in effect in 
1954 and on file in the Department. This 
number, however, does not correspond to 
the number of employers nor of establish- 
ments. There are some cases of several 
agreements with different craft unions in 
one establishment. More frequently, one 
agreement between a union and an associa- 
tion or group of employers covers a number 
of employers. 

Most agreements are re-negotiated or 
renewed each year, others less frequently. 
Almost all are settled by the parties them- 
selves or with the help of government 
conciliation services, without any cessation 
of work due to disputes. Although 6,960 
agreements were in force in 1954, only 93 
strikes occurred over the re-negotiation of 
agreements, involving about 51,000 workers. 

Disputes arising during the life of agree- 
ments are nearly always settled through 
the grievance procedure provided by them. 
Only 43 strikes, involving about 8,800 
workers, occurred in 1954 during the term 
of agreements. 



Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 



Under the Collective Agreement Act, 
Quebec, Orders in Council during October 
and November 1955, made binding a 
number of changes in wage rates, hours, 
overtime, vacations with pay and statutory 
holidays. 

In the construction industry at Montreal, 
minimum hourly rates were increased by 
10 cents per hour for skilled workers and 
by 5 cents for unskilled. New rates in- 
clude $2.12 per hour for plumbers, $2.10 
for bricklayers, $1.90 for carpenters and 
$1.30 for common labour. Minimum hourly 
rates for certain classifications, such as 
elevator construction mechanics, plumbers, 
etc., governed by special and supple- 
mentary provisions to the present agree- 
ment, were increased by from 2 to 10 cents 



per hour. Weekly hours were unchanged 
with 40 hours constituting a regular work 
week for skilled workers and 45 for 
labourers. In the ornamental iron and 
bronze industry at Montreal, minimum 
hourly rates were increased by from 3 to 
10 cents per hour in the three zones in 
most cases; the new rate for mechanics 
in Zone I is now $1.60 per hour. 

In the construction industry at Hull, 
minimum rates of Zone I for carpenters 
were increased by 7 cents per hour to $1.82 
per hour, for lathers by 35 cents to $1.85 
per hour and for plasterers by 5 cents to 
$1.95 per hour. The minimum rate for 
millwrights is unchanged at $1.75 per hour. 

In the printing industry, Montreal region, 
minimum hourly rates for day work were 



84 



increased by from 2 to 6 cents per hour. 
A scale of minimum rates for night work 
was included and these are approximately 
15 per cent higher than those established 
for day work. New minimum rates for day 
work in Zone I are now $1.90 per hour for 
journeymen compositors, proof readers and 
castermen (from 60 cents to 89 cents f ol- 
easter runners); from $1.64 to $2.11 for 
journeymen pressmen; $1.59 to $1.64 for 
assistant pressmen; $1.27 to $1.64 for press 
feeders, depending in each case on the type 
of press; $1.90 per hour for journeymen 
bookbinders, 96 cents per hour for hand 
operations considered as women's work, 96 
cents and $1.28 for other operations. 
Minimum rates for unskilled helpers (male) 
in all departments are 60 cents for the 
first six months and 72 cents thereafter. 
Apprentices' rates were also increased. 
Lower wage rates are specified for all 
classes in Zones II and III. 



Establishments of Zones II and III 
engaged in printing weekly newspapers 
prior to October 1, 1955, were deleted from 
the industrial jurisdiction of the present 
agreement. 

In the printing industry, Quebec region, 
minimum hourly rates were increased by 5 
cents per hour. Establishments publishing 
or printing weekly newspapers prior to 
October 1, 1955, except those in the city 
of Quebec, were deleted from the indus- 
trial jurisdiction of the present agreement. 

In longshore work (ocean and inland) at 
Sorel, minimum hourly rates were increased 
by 5 cents per hour for day work and by 
1\ cents per hour for night work. New 
minimum rates for longshoremen on day 
work now range from $1.48 to $1.58 per 
hour; $1.68 and $1.85 for handling premium 
cargoes. 



Industrial Standards Acts, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Saskatchewan 



During October and November 1955, a 
number of new schedules, one for car- 
penters at Saskatoon for the first time, 
were made obligatory under the Industrial 
Standards Acts. 

In Nova Scotia, a new schedule for 
carpenters at Sydney increased the minimum 
rate by 5 cents, making the new rate $1.95 
per hour. A deferred increase of 5 cents 
per hour effective June 1, 1956, was pro- 
vided for. Weekly hours were unchanged 
at 40. 

In Ontario, a new schedule for car- 
penters at Kenora — Keewatin, replacing that 
which was last gazetted in 1947, revised the 
minimum rate from $1.10 to $1.80 per hour 
and provided for one additional holiday. 
Weekly hours were unchanged at 40. 



A new schedule for electricians at 
Cornwall, replacing the 1952 schedule, in- 
creased the minimum rate from $1.65 to 
$1.92 per hour. Weekly hours were 
unchanged at 44. 

At Windsor, a new schedule for sheet 
metal workers, replacing the 1953 schedule, 
increased the minimum rate from $2 to 
$2.25 per hour; weekly hours were 
unchanged at 40. 

In Saskatchewan, a first schedule for 
carpenters at Saskatoon established a 
minimum rate of $1.90 per hour for a 
40-hour week and time and one-half for 
all overtime work in excess of regular 
hours. 



1955 Wage Increases in U.S. Range from 5 to 17 Cents an Hour 

Wage increases in major United States industries in 1955 ranged from 5 to more than 
17 cents an hour, the U.S. Department of Labor has announced. 

Wages rose in almost 95 per cent of the major contract settlements in manufacturing, 
mining, transportation, trade and utilities during the first nine months of the year. These 
covered about five million workers. 

Most of the contracts that did not contain a wage increase provided for improved 
fringe benefits. 

More than Million UAW Members Covered by Layoff Benefit Plans 

More than a million auto workers were covered by supplemental unemployment 
compensation plans at the end of 1955. 

The United Auto Workers announced on December 31 that 1,002,098 of its members 
were covered by such plans negotiated with 232 companies. This means, the UAW 
pointed out, that about two-thirds of the union's membership was covered by layoff 
benefit plans. 



85 



Labour Law 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 



New Brunswick Labour Relations Act held not to apply to members of 
city police force. United States Supreme Court finds discriminatory 
bargaining by union contrary to duties implied by Taft-Hartley Act 



Members of the Fredericton police force 
were held by the Supreme Court of the 
province not to be employees within the 
definition in the Labour Relations Act on 
the ground that they are public servants 
charged with the administration of the law. 

The Supreme Court of the United States 
reversed the decision of a district appeal 
court which had held that negotiation of a 
discriminatory provision respecting seniority 
was not a contravention of the Taft- 
Hartley Act. 

Supreme Court of New Brunswick... 

. . . holds members of city police force not to be 
"employees" as defined in Labour Relations Act 

On June 23, the Supreme Court of New 
Brunswick quashed an order of the 
Xew Brunswick Labour Relations Board 
certifying a union as bargaining agent for 
the Fredericton police force, and a second 
order requiring the City of Fredericton to 
bargain with the union. The question of 
the validity of the orders came before the 
court by way of certiorari proceedings 
instituted by the City of Fredericton. 

The first order, dated March 9, 1953, 
certified the Fredericton Policemen's 
Federal Protective Association, Local 502, 
as bargaining agent for members of the 
Fredericton police force. The second order, 
made after the City failed to meet the 
bargaining agent to consider revision of an 
agreement which expired on March 31, 
1955, required the City to commence 
collective bargaining and to make every 
reasonable effort to conclude an agreement. 

Chief Justice Michaud, in his reasons for 
decision, set out the events which preceded 
the orders made by the Board. On 
November 28, 1952, Local 502 was chartered 
as a labour organization by the Trades 
and Labour Congress of Canada. On 
January 13, 1953, the Fredericton City 
Council, pursuant to Section 1(4) of the 
Labour Relations Act, passed a resolution 
declaring the municipal corporation to be 
an employer within the meaning of the 
Act with respect to one group of its 



employees, the permanent policemen. Sec- 
tion 1(4) of the Act reads as follows: 

The Council of any city, town, incor- 
porated village or county may by resolution 
declare the municipal corporation, or any 
Board or Commission appointed by the. 
Council, to be an employer within the mean- 
ing of this Act with respect to any group 
of its employees designated in the resolu- 
tion, whereupon, with respect to such group, 
it shall become an employer and shall con- 
tinue to be such an employer until the 
resolution is rescinded. 

On the same date, January 13, Local 502 
applied for certification and on March 9 
the Board issued a certification order. The 
City and Local 502 entered into an agree- 
ment covering the period January 1, 1953, 
to December 31, 1953, and a second agree- 
ment for the period January 1, 1954, to 
March 31, 1955. When the Local notified 
the City of its desire to negotiate for the 
revision of certain terms of the agreement 
expiring March 31, the City refused to 
bargain, stating that those terms came 
under the jurisdiction of the Police Com- 
mission. Local 502 filed a complaint with 
the Labour Relations Board, and the Board, 
after a hearing, issued the order requiring 
the City to bargain. 

The grounds on which the City ques- 
tioned the jurisdiction of the Labour 
Relations Board in making the two orders 
were, first, that the policemen were not 
employees, and secondly, if they could be 
considered legally as employees, they were 
not employed by the City but by the 
Board of Commissioners of Police. 

Mr. Justice Michaud pointed out that if 
policemen were held not to be employees, 
it would be unnecessary to consider whether 
the City or the Board should bargain with 
them. The question whether members of 
the police department of a city stand in 
the relationship of employer-employee either 



This section, prepared by the Legisla- 
tion Branch, reviews labour laws as they 
are enacted by Parliament and the 
provincial legislatures, regulations under 
these laws, and selected court decisions 
affecting labour. 



86 



with the city or the police commission has 
already been before the courts. In the 
case of Bruton v. Regina City Policemen's 
Association (L.G. 1945, p. 1011) Chief 
Justice Martin concluded that "neither the 
Chief of Police or any police-officer or 
constable appointed under the City Act or 
by City Board of Police Commissioners was 
a servant or agent of the Board or of the 
City". In Nova Scotia, in The King v. 
the Labour Relations Board of N.S. et al 
(L.G. 1951, p. 1697), the Supreme Court 
of Nova Scotia decided that police officers 
are not employees within the definition of 
the Trade Union Act, the provisions of 
which are similar to those of the New 
Brunswick Labour Relations Act. 

His Lordship then described the position 
of policemen: 

Under the common law, the position of 
constables or police-officers is that they are 
holders of office of trust under the Crown, 
whose primary purpose is to exercise the 
rights and discharge the duties conferred or 
imposed upon the holders of that office by 
the common statutory law. From this has 
been established the rule that they are 
not servants or agents of the appointing 
municipality, for whose wrongful acts the 
municipality is or may be liable at law; but 
are officers appointed to perform public 
duties of an executive character in the 
general administration of justice . . . 

The members of the Police F'orce of the 
City of Fredericton are appointed by the 
Board of Police Commissioners, and their 
duties are determined by the Board. They 
hold office during pleasure and may be 
dismissed at any time. They are charged 
with the duty of preserving the peace and 
order and the duties and responsibilities 
which any constable or police-officer now has 
or may have. They are sworn to serve their 
Sovereign Lord the King or her Sovereign 
Lady the Queen, as the circumstances 
require; to prevent offences against the 
persons and property of his or her Majesty's 
subjects; and to discharge generally their 
duties according to law. They are not sworn 
to serve the City Council or the Board of 
Police Commissioners. 

He concluded that the members of the 
police force of the City of Fredericton 
occupy before the law the general position 
of public servants, persons charged with 
the administration of law, and not as 
employees of those who select them, and 
even pay them. 

He did not think that the City Council 
could by resolution declare the members 
of its police force to be employees, as they 
did not come within the definition of 
employee in the Labour Relations Act. 
They were not persons employed to do 
"skilled or unskilled manual, clerical or 
technical work". Had it been the intention 
of the Legislature to enable the police force 
to bargain by certified agents in the normal 



way, it should have made that intention 
clear. He noted that in other jurisdictions, 
such as Saskatchewan and Quebec, special 
legislation was enacted to enable members 
of police forces to bargain through certified 
agents. He found no such provision in the 
New Brunswick statutes. 

He held therefore that the Labour Rela- 
tions Board was in error in making the 
orders, and he therefore allowed the City's 
application to have them quashed. The 
Queen v. The Labour Relations Board 
ex parte the City of Fredericton, Supreme 
Court of New Brunswick, June 23, 1955. 

Supreme Court of the United States... 

. . . rules union deriving bargaining status from 
Taft-Hartley Act has duty to represent whole unit 

The United States Supreme Court on 
November 14 reversed a decision of the 
Court of Appeals of the Fifth Circuit 
dismissing an application by Negro 
employees of an oil company for an injunc- 
tion against the use of segregated seniority 
lists. As reasons for its judgment the 
Supreme Court merely referred to its prior 
decisions in the Steele and Tunstall cases 
in 1944 where it had ruled that unions 
deriving their bargaining status from the 
Railway Labor Act have the duty to repre- 
sent all members in their bargaining unit 
fairly and without discrimination based on 
race. 

The case arose from an allegation by a 
group of Negro employees of the Gulf Oil 
Corporation that a bargaining committee 
composed of all white employees negotiated 
a collective agreement providing for the 
maintenance of separate seniority lists for 
white and Negro employees. 

Two unions of the Oil Workers Inter- 
national Union (CIO), Local 254 composed 
of Negro emplo3^ees and Local 23 composed 
of white employees, both certified as bar- 
gaining representatives under the Taft- 
Hartley Act, agreed to amalgamate and be 
represented by one bargaining committee. 
They also agreed that there should be only 
one line for seniority. The committee 
which was chosen by majority vote to 
represent all the workers was composed 
entirely of white members of Local 23. 
The committee negotiated with the com- 
pany an agreement providing for two-line 
seniority. 

The Negro employees then applied in 
the district court for an injunction to 
prevent the enforcement of the bargaining 
agreement. The application was dismissed. 
An appeal taken to the Fifth Circuit Court 
was also dismissed on the grounds that it 
arose out of a private contract, not under 



87 



the Taft-Hartley Act, and so was out of 
the jurisdiction of the Court. By certiorari 
proceedings the issue was then taken to 
the Supreme Court. 

The Steele and Tunstall cases on which 
the Supreme Court based its decision both 
involved Negro firemen who alleged dis- 
crimination in contracts negotiated by 
unions certified under the Railway Labor 
Act. The Supreme Court held in both 
cases that the Railway Labor Act, giving 



unions the right to represent all employees 
in a bargaining unit on the basis of 
majority representation, imposed an implied 
duty on certified unions to represent all 
workers fairly and without discrimination 
based on race. 

The order of the Supreme Court remanded 
the case to district court for further pro- 
ceedings. Sykes et al v. Oil Workers Inter- 
national Union, Local No. 23, et al, 
37 LRRM 2068. 



Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 

Alberta issues new regulations for boilers and pressure vessels and 
for welders; Newfoundland, first general apprenticeship regulations 



Regulations have been issued under the 
new boiler legislation in Alberta estab- 
lishing standards for the construction and 
installation of boilers and regulating the 
granting of certificates of competency to 
engineers and firemen. Regulations under 
the Welding Act governing the licensing of 
welders in the province have also been 
brought up to date. 

In Newfoundland, apprenticeship regula- 
tions outline the obligations of apprentices 
and employers and also provide for the 
certification of tradesmen other than 
apprentices. 

The employers of the Fire Department 
of the City of Hamilton were brought 
under the collective liability section of the 
Ontario Workmen's Compensation Act. 

Alberta Boilers and Pressure Vessels Act 

The first regulations under the revised 
Boilers and Pressure Vessels Act (L.G., 
Dec. 1955, p. 1400) have been issued, replac- 
ing those approved by O.C. 1614-40, O.C. 
442-42 and O.C. 84-48. 

Three sections have been issued to date. 
Part I deals with the design, fabrication 
and installation of boilers and pressure 
vessels; Part IV contains the regulations 
regarding engineers and firemen; and 
Part V sets out the fees for registration, 
inspection, examinations and certificates. 

A significant feature of the new regula- 
tions is the adoption of the latest edition 
of the Canadian Standards Association 
Boilers and Pressure Vessels Code, the 
Canadian Regulations for the Construction 
and Inspection of Boilers and Pressures 
Vessels (CSA B51-1951). This makes 
Alberta the sixth province to adopt the 
1951 edition of the Code. Under the 
repealed regulations the standards of the 
ASME Code were adopted with some 
modifications. 



Design, Fabrication and Installation 
Part I, approved by O.C. 1266-55, 
gazetted October 31, covers standards of 
design and construction, rules for registra- 
tion and identification, inspection require- 
ments, and welding and safety provisions. 
Except as otherwise provided, the 
standards are to be those set forth in the 
CSA Code and the sections of the 1949, 
1950 and 1952 editions of the ASME Code 
on power boilers, material specifications, 
boilers of locomotives, low pressure heat- 
ing boilers, miniature boilers, suggested 
rules for care of power boilers, unfired 
pressure vessels and welding qualifications; 
the NBFU Pamphlet No. 58, "Standards 
for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied 
Petroleum Gases"; and the ASA Code for 
Pressure Piping. Revisions of these codes 
and published interpretations of the ASME 
Boiler Code Committee will become 
governing standards after approval by the 
Chief Inspector. 

Blue prints, specifications and designs for 
all proposed boilers and pressure vessels, 
all proposed steam plants and pressure 
plants, and all fittings or accessories pro- 
posed for use in connection with vessels 
to which the Act applies, must be sub- 
mitted in triplicate to the Chief Inspector 
for approval and registration in accordance 
with the rules set out in the CSA Code 
and some additional directions set out in 
the regulations. When a fitting is to be 
attached to a boiler or pressure vessel but 
does not form an integral part of that 
vessel, the size, rating and details of 
attachment must be included in the design. 
Fees for examination of designs and for 
registration are set out in this Part. The 
only exception is that designs for steam 
plants which do not exceed 100 horse-power 
and for steam plants carrying a pressure 






less than 20 pounds p.s.i. need not be sub- 
mitted, nor designs for refrigerating plants 
not exceeding 15 tons. 

When the design has been approved and 
registered by the Department and the 
manufacturer has completed the construc- 
tion of the pressure vessel, he is required 
to forward to the Chief Inspector an 
affidavit signed by the shop foreman and 
the inspector under whose supervision the 
pressure vessel was built. The user's name 
and the location of installation must also 
be reported by the manufacturer or his 
Alberta representative. 

After the initial inspection when the 
boiler is delivered the vessel is to be 
stamped in accordance with the Code. 

The maximum allowable working pres- 
sure and temperature for the pressure vessel 
or pressure piping will then be determined 
by the Department, using the formulae set 
out in the codes. An inspector may in- 
crease the factor of safety when he con- 
siders that an increased factor of safety is 
necessary. 

All boilers must be installed in con- 
formity with the CSA Code with respect 
to - boiler settings, fusible plugs, suspension 
rods, blow-off tanks and lines, handrails and 
guards, and exit doors. Among the require- 
ments specifically set out in the regula- 
tions are the following. A check-valve 
must be installed between the blow-off valve 
of the empty boiler and the blow-down 
header or tank if it can be demonstrated 
that the blow-down from any boiler can 
enter into an empty boiler provided with 
a man-hole opening. All gas and oil-fired 
steam boilers which are not under the 
continuous personal supervision of a 
competent attendant must not have a 
fusible plug but must be equipped with 
an approved low water fuel cut-off, an 
approved automatic fuel valve, and an 
approved high-limit pressure control and 
safety pilot. When the air to support 
combustion is taken from the boiler room, 
an adequate free air inlet must be pro- 
vided to the boiler room. Minimum 
requirements of free air inlet shall be one 
square foot for every two million British 
thermal units of energy input into the 
boiler. 

A pressure vessel is to be installed so 
that it is readily accessible for external and 
internal cleanings and inspection. If it is 
more than 36 inches in inside diameter it 
must have a man-hole providing ready 
access for internal inspection of all parts 
of the vessel. If the design or shape makes 
the installation of man-holes impractical 
there must be at least two hand-holes 4x6 
inches or two equal equivalent openings. 



All pressure vessels or parts of pressure 
vessels less than 36 inches in inside 
diameter must have inspection openings in 
accordance with the CSA Code. 

All pressure vessels must be equipped 
with safety devices. Every vessel must be 
protected by a pressure relieving safety 
device such as a spring-loaded safety valve 
or spring-loaded safety valve and rupture 
disc which meets all the requirements of 
the ASME Code. All liquid level and 
pressure gauges on pressure vessels in- 
stalled under these regulations must also 
be of an approved type and must conform 
in details to the construction and test 
requirements of the CSA Code. 

In the drilling of any oil or gas well, 
steam pressures in excess of 100 pounds 
p.s.i. must not be used except for operating 
machinery, boiler feed apparatus or snuff 
lines. Steam heating coils situated in the 
dog house of oil drilling rigs must not use 
steam having a pressure exceeding 15 
pounds p.s.i. unless approved for the 
desired working pressure. 

Only a person holding a welder's certifi- 
cate under the Boilers and Pressure Vessels 
Act may do any welding on a pressure 
vessel or piping in the province. The 
conditions under which piping or a pressure 
vessel fabricated by welding have to be 
inspected are set out, as under the previous 
regulations. 

Any person may make a written appeal 
to the Minister from a decision of an 
inspector made under these regulations 
within 30 days from' the making of the 
decision. The Minister's decision is final. 

Engineers and Firemen 

Part IV, authorized by O.C. 1360-55, 
gazetted November 15, contains the regu- 
lations respecting engineers and firemen. 
A new system of classifying engineers' and 
firemen's certificates was adopted by the 
new Act and the regulations regarding 
qualifications and the duties that may be 
undertaken by each class have been altered 
accordingly. A degree in mechanical 
engineering now counts towards an engi- 
neer's certificate in lieu of certain experi- 
ence and more credit is given than formerly 
for alternative qualifications. 

No person is to operate or have charge 
of any fired steam boiler with more than 
20 square feet of heating surface and a 
volume in excess of three cubic feet and 
carrying a working pressure of 20 or more 
pounds p.s.i. unless he is the holder of a 
valid certificate qualifying him to take 
charge of such a plant. However, boilers 
and steam plants used for heating plants 
in oil fields under the Petroleum and 
Natural Gas Conservation Board may be 



66180—7 



operated at a pressure of 35 pounds p.s.i. 
or less without the supervision of certified 
engini 

The new regulations provide for four 
classes of engineers' certificates, a fireman's 
certificate and temporary certificates. A 
valid Alberta 750 h.p. Second Class Engi- 
neer's Certificate under the old Act is also 
recognized, and a Special Certificate, also 
issued under the old Act, is accepted as a 
Special Limiting Certificate under the 
present Act. There is also a provision 
for exchanging valid and subsisting certifi- 
cates issued under the old Act for certifi- 
cates graded according to the new classifica- 
tion system. 

The certificates specify the type of posi- 
tion the holder is qualified for. A first 
class engineer's certificate qualifies the 
holder to be chief steam engineer or shift 
engineer of any steam plant. The holder 
of a second class engineer's certificate may 
be shift engineer of any steam plant or 
chief steam engineer of a steam plant not 
exceeding 750 boiler h.p. The holder of a 
third class certificate is qualified to be chief 
steam engineer of a steam plant not exceed- 
ing 300 boiler h.p. or shift engineer of a 
steam plant not exceeding 750 boiler h.p. 
A fourth class engineer's certificate quali- 
fies the holder to be chief steam engineer 
of a steam plant not exceeding 100 boiler 
h.p. or shift engineer of a steam plant not 
exceeding 300 boiler h.p. The holder of a 
fireman's certificate is qualified to be in 
charge of boilers with an aggregate 
capacity not exceeding 50 h.p. or in charge 
of a shift operating boilers having an 
aggregate capacity not exceeding 1.00 h.p. 
or watchman of a steam plant of any 
capacity when the fires are banked and no 
fluid is passing through except for the 
purpose of maintaining the liquid level in 
the vessel. The special certificates pre- 
viously issued to applicants without suffi- 
cient operating experience to qualify for 
examination, and now accepted as special 
limiting certificates, qualify the holders for 
the positions specified on the certificates. 
A valid Alberta 750 h.p. Second Class 
Engineer's Certificate qualifies the holder to 
be chief steam engineer of a steam plant 
not exceeding 1,000 h.p. or shift engineer 
of any steam plant. 

Temporary certificates, usually valid for 
not more than 90 days, may be issued by 
the Chief Inspector upon the application 
of the owner of a steam plant to authorize 
the temporary employment of an engineer 
in a capacity for which he is not certified. 

To qualify for a certificate, a candidate 
must pass an examination. When applying, 
he must submit testimonials as to his 
character, ability and experience. To 



qualify, a candidate for a first or second 
class engineer's certificate must obtain 70 
per cent of the total marks. A candidate 
for a third class certificate has to get 60 
per cent to pass, but if he receives 50 per 
cent he may be given a fourth class 
certificate, and if he gets 35 per cent 
he may be granted a fireman's certificate. 
A candidate for a fourth class engineer's 
certificate must receive 60 per cent; if he 
gets only 50 per cent he may be given a 
fireman's certificate. To qualify for a fire- 
man's certificate, a candidate must get 50 
per cent on the examination. A candidate 
who fails a first or second class engineer's 
examination cannot try again until six 
months have passed, and he must have 
three months' additional experience. Can- 
didates for other certificates may try again 
in three months but must have at least 
one month's additional experience. 

To qualify for an examination for a first 
class engineer's certificate, a candidate must 
be at least 25 years of age and be the 
holder of an Alberta second class engineer's 
certificate or equivalent. He must also have 
had 48 months' experience as chief steam 
engineer in a high pressure steam plant 
having a capacity exceeding 750 boiler h.p. 
together with engines not less than 300 
h.p.; or 48 months' experience as shift 
engineer in a high pressure steam plant 
having a capacity exceeding 750 boiler h.p. 
together with engines of not less than 300 
h.p.; or 48 months' as an assistant in- 
spector of boilers under the Act while hold- 
ing a second class engineer's certificate. If 
a candidate has a degree in mechanical 
engineering or equivalent, or if he has been 
employed for 36 months in an approved 
supervisory capacity on the design, con- 
struction, installation, repair or mainte- 
nance of equipment to which the Act 
applies, or if he has acted as assistant 
engineer in a high pressure steam plant 
having a capacity exceeding 750 boiler h.p. 
for 36 months after obtaining a second 
class engineer's certificate, he needs only 
25 months' experience, as chief engineer or 
shift engineer. 

A candidate for a second class engineer's 
certificate must be at least 22 years of age 
and the holder of an Alberta third class 
certificate or equivalent. He must have 
been employed for 36 months either as chief 
steam engineer of a high pressure steam 
plant having a capacity exceeding 100 boiler 
h.p. together with engines of not less than 
100 h.p. or as shift engineer in a high 
pressure steam plant having a capacity 
exceeding 300 boiler h.p. together with 
engines of not less than 100 h.p.; or he 
must have been employed for 48 months 
as assistant engineer in a high pressure 



90 



Bteam plant having a capacity exceeding 
750 boiler h.p. together with engines of not 

less than 100 h.p. subsequent to obtaining 
a third class certificate. The period of 
experience is reduced by half if the candi- 
dal has a degree in mechanical engineering 
or if he has been employed for 24 months 
in an approved capacity in the design, 
construction, installation, repair or main- 
tenance of any equipment under the Act. 

To qualify for a third class engineer's 
certificate a candidate must be at least 
19 years of age and, while holding a fourth 
class certificate, must have had 12 months' 
experience as chief steam engineer in a 
high pressure steam plant having a capacity 
exceeding 50 boiler h.p., or as shift engineer 
in a high pressure steam plant having a 
capacity exceeding 100 boiler h.p., or as 
assistant engineer in a high pressure steam 
plant having a capacity exceeding 300 boiler 
h.p.; or he must have been employed for 
30 months as a fireman in a high pressure 
steam plant having a capacity exceeding 
100 boiler h.p. under the supervision of 
the holder of a valid engineer's certificate. 
In all cases, the period of employment may 
be reduced by half if the candidate has 
a degree in mechanical engineering or 
equivalent, or has been employed for 12 
months in an approved capacity on the 
design, construction, installation, repair or 
maintenance of equipment to which the 
Act applies. 

A candidate for a fourth class engineer's 
certificate must be at least 18 years and 
have had 12 months' experience as a fire- 
man or engineer of a high pressure steam 
plant having a capacity of not less than 
10 boiler h.p. If he has been employed 
for 12 months in an approved capacity in 
connection with equipment to which the 
Act applies, or if he has a degree in 
mechanical engineering, he needs only six 
months' experience. 

To qualify for a fireman's certificate, a 
candidate must be 18 years and must have 
six months' experience as fireman operating 
a boiler. 

The regulations also provide that candi- 
dates for engineers' certificates may receive 
credit for technical courses in lieu of 
experience. A candidate may receive a 
credit of six months in lieu of practical 
experience if he is the holder of a certificate 
issued by an approved school of technology 
after completing a course in steam engineer- 
ing and can furnish proof that he received 
at least 70 per cent of the marks on the 
final examination. The credit is given only 
when the candidate has completed the 
correspondence course comparable to the 
class of certificate for which he is applying. 



In no case, however, is this credit to be 
given in lieu of the specified minimum 
experience as chief steam engineei shift 
engineer or assistant engineer as required 
lor each class of engineer's certificate. 
Moreover, credit for technical courses in 
lieu of practical experience may be allowed 
only once for each class of engineer's 

cfit ideate. 

Consideration is also given for oilier 
qualifications to allow experienced candi- 
dates to qualify even though their experi- 
ence does not correspond exactly with the 
requirements set out in the qualifications 
for certificates, but credit for practical 
experience previously used in qualifying for 
an engineer's certificate is not to be used 
again in qualifying for a higher certificate. 
A candidate for a first class engineers 
certificate who cannot furnish proof of 
having the necessary experience must obtain 
12 months' additional experience as chief 
steam engineer or shift engineer in a 
steam plant with the required boiler horse 
power but where the engine power is less 
than that set out in the regulations; 
similarly, a candidate for a second class 
certificate must spend an additional 12 
months as chief steam engineer, shift 
engineer or assistant engineer in a steam 
plant where the engine-horse power is less 
than the specified 100 h.p. 

In certain circumstances the Chief 
Inspector may evaluate the experience of 
candidates and allow whatever credit he 
thinks proper. He may allow credit in lieu 
of the specified experience to a candidate 
who has had experience with equipment 
under the Act but not the equipment 
specified in the qualifications for certifi- 
cates. If a steam plant is in operation for 
only part of a year, and an engineer is 
kept on during the non-operational period 
and employed on plant maintenance, the 
Chief Inspector may grant the engineer a 
credit of two-thirds the maintenance time 
towards experience required for a higher 
certificate. The Chief Inspector may grant 
an Alberta certificate, subject to such con- 
ditions as he may prescribe, to an applicant 
who has satisfactory proof that he is the 
holder of a certificate as stationary engineer 
from the Government of Canada, from 
another province or from another approved 
licensing authority. 

Provision is made for issuing certificates 
in lieu of those issued under the old Act. 
The Chief Inspector may issue certificates 
to holders of valid engineers' certificates 
without examination upon payment of the 
fee for duplicate certificates. The holder 
of any special certificate will not be issued 
another certificate, but the certificate will 



66180— 7i 



91 



be recognized as a special limiting certifi- 
cate subject to the conditions specified on 
the certificate. A valid Alberta fireman's 
certificate will be endorsed by the Chief 
Inspector to permit the holder to operate 
boilers. 

Any person may make a written appeal 
from the decision of an Inspector to the 
Minister, whose decision is final. 

The chief steam engineer of a plant is 
accountable to the Department for the 
proper care and operation of the boilers, 
pressure vessels, and machinery under his 
charge. He must report all accidents to 
the District Inspector and to his employer. 
When an engineer assumes charge of a 
steam plant he must examine all pressure 
vessels, piping, engines and auxiliaries under 
his charge, and report any defects to the 
District Inspector. The shift engineer must 
report in writing any defects or accidents 
to the chief steam engineer. 

Fees 

Part V, approved by O.C. 1267-55, 
gazetted October 31, sets the fees required 
for registration of boilers, shop inspection, 
other types of inspection, testing safety 
valves and pressure gauges, and for certifi- 
cates of qualification, search of records or 
the issuance of duplicate certificates. 

Alberta Welding Act 

Regulations under the Welding Act 
dealing with certificates of proficiency for 
welders were approved by O.C. 1422-55 and 
gazetted November 15. They set out the 
classes of certificates, the qualifications of 
applicants and the rules regarding exam- 
inations and the renewal, cancellation or 
suspension of certificates. 

The regulations (approved by O.C. 634- 
39) issued in 1939 for the trades of 
acetylene and electric welding under the 
Tradesmen's Qualifications Act and amended 
from time to time since then have been 
rescinded. Welding was designated as a 
trade to which the Tradesmen's Qualifica- 
tions Act applies before the special Act 
dealing with the trade, the Welding Act, 
was passed in 1941. A provision of that 
Act kept in force the regulations made 
under the Tradesmen's Qualifications Act 
with respect to welders. Now these regu- 
lations have been replaced by new regula- 
tions under the Welding Act. Certificates 
under the Tradesmen's Qualifications Act 
in a trade where welding constitutes a 
skill required in the performance of that 
trade may still authorize the tradesman 
to do welding in that trade only. 

The principal changes are the grading of 
journeymen's certificates and the provisions 
for appealing examination results. 



Certificates are issued by the Department 
of Industries and Labour. Instead of 
journeyman's, provisional and special certifi- 
cates, there are now only two kinds, 
journeyman's and provisional. A journey- 
man's certificate is either first class or 
second class depending upon the experience 
and skill of the applicant. All certificates 
will state whether the holder is qualified 
to do acetylene or electric welding or both. 

To obtain a welder's certificate of 
proficiency, a candidate requires experience 
in the trade and has to pass a written 
examination and try trade tests. For a 
first class journeyman's certificate a candi- 
date must have had at least 36 months' 
experience in the trade and for a second 
class certificate, 24 months'. To qualify for 
a journeyman's certificate, a candidate must 
obtain a mark of at least 60 per cent on 
the written examination and at least 75 per 
cent on the trade tests. A provisional 
certificate may be issued, however, to a 
candidate with experience who fails on 
examination but who obtains at least two- 
thirds of the required pass mark. The 
certificate is good for a limited period only; 
at the end of that time the holder must 
try another examination. 

An applicant who holds a valid and 
subsisting certificate of proficiency issued 
by another province or by some other 
approved licensing authority may be 
granted either a journeyman's certificate 
or a provisional certificate without exam- 
ination. 

The Department, at the discretion of the 
Minister, may also grant a certificate of 
proficiency for a limited time in other 
circumstances. 

The work a welder may do is deter- 
mined by the class of certificate he holds. 
If he has a first class certificate he may 
engage in any or all classes of welding, 
whether acetylene or electric or both, as 
shown on the certificate. (For welding on 
pressure vessels and piping, however, a 
special certificate issued under the Boilers 
and Pressure Vessels Act is required.) A 
second class certificate entitles the holder 
to engage in welding in the flat, vertical 
and horizontal positions only. The holder 
of a provisional certificate may engage only 
in welding operations shown on the certifi- 
cate for the period specified. The holder 
of a subsisting or provisional journeyman's 
certificate for electric welding may, how- 
ever, use acetylene cutting equipment when 
necessary. 

A certificate of proficiency is now to be 
accompanied by a card identifying the 
certificate. Both certificate and card must 
be produced when requested by a Depart- 
ment inspector or supervisor. 



92 



As before, certificates of proficiency have 
to be renewed yearly. Applications for 
renewal must be made to the Department 
at least 30 days and not more than 60 
days before December 31 each year. A 
journeyman's certificate is usually extended 
automatically but the Department may 
exercise its discretion when a provisional 
certificate is up for renewal. If a certifi- 
cate of proficiency has not been renewed 
for three consecutive years the holder may 
be asked to appear for re-examination. 

Certificates are still subject to cancellation 
or suspension by the Department. As 
before, a certificate obtained by fraud or 
misrepresentation may be cancelled. A 
certificate may also be cancelled or 
suspended if the holder does any welding 
not authorized by the certificate or if he 
is guilty of defective welding causing injury 
to person or property. It may now be 
suspended or cancelled if the welder lends 
his certificate or alters it in any way to 
evade the provisions of the Act or regula- 
tions. A welder may also be required to 
appear for re-examination at any time and 
if he fails to pass, his certificate of pro- 
ficiency may be cancelled. 

The rules regarding examinations by the 
Board of Examiners appointed under the 
Act are much the same except for the 
provision for appeal. An applicant who 
has failed to qualify for a certificate of 
proficiency may have the examination 
reviewed by a Board of Appeal appointed 
by the Minister if he applies within 30 
days and pays the prescribed fee. The 
Board of Appeal will review the marks 
and report to the Department. The 
Department may issue a certificate to the 
applicant, or ask him to try another exam- 
ination, or it may confirm the decision of 
the Board of Examiners. If the applicant 
wins the appeal, the fee is refunded. The 
Chairman of the Board of Examiners may 
also review any or all examinations under 
the Welding Act, and may, at his discre- 
tion, issue whatever certificate of profi- 
ciency he considers suitable. 

A candidate who fails to qualify for a 
certificate may be given an appropriate 
standing as an apprentice, and may register 
as an apprentice and complete his training 
according to the Apprenticeship Act. 

The new regulations also set out the fees. 

British Columbia Labour Relations Act 

Regulation 9A under the Labour Rela- 
tions Act, gazetted November 10, outlines 
the procedure to be followed by the Board 
when a certified trade union petitions for 
a change of name upon the certificate. 
The Act gives the Board authority to vary 



or revoke any of its orders or decisions 
upon the petition of any employer, 
employers' organization, any employee or 
trade union; and Regulation 9A sets out 
the procedure to be followed when, due to 
a merger or other circumstances, a certified 
trade union has changed its name and 
petitions the Board to amend the certificate 
accordingly. The procedure is not to be 
used, however, to change the unit to which 
the certificate relates. 

If the members of a certified trade union 
wish to change the name of the union, a 
petition on a prescribed form must be 
filled out and submitted in duplicate to 
the Labour Relations Board. The form 
requires a statement as to whether the 
change of name has been approved by the 
membership and, if so, in what manner. 

On receipt of the petition, the Board 
will make whatever inquiries and investiga- 
tions it considers necessary to determine 
whether the employees in the unit desire 
the requested change of name. It may 
examine records, conduct hearings or take 
votes. 

The Board must also advise the employer 
concerned of the petition for a change of 
name and allow him 10 days to submit 
written representations before it makes a 
final decision. The Board may also require 
the employer to post for five consecutive 
days one or more copies of the notice of 
petition in places where they are most 
likely to be seen by the employees affected. 

If, as a result of its inquiries and investi- 
gation, the Board is satisfied that the 
employees in the unit to which the certifi- 
cate relates desire the requested change in 
name, it may amend the certificate accord- 
ingly. However, if the Board is not 
satisfied that the employees concerned want 
to change the name of the trade union, it 
will refuse the petition. 

British Columbia Hours of Work Act 

A temporary order was gazetted Novem- 
ber 10 approving longer hours during 
Christmas week for persons employed in 
retail stores, who were permitted to work 
up to 10 hours on any two days during 
the week ending December 24, 1955, and 
up to 48 hours in that week. This order, 
made annually, is under authority of the 
Hours of Work Act, which allows the Board 
to approve longer hours from time to time 
so long as they are not inimical to the 
interests of the employees. 

New Brunswick Motor Carrier Act 

Regulations of the New Brunswick Motor 
Carrier Board applicable to buses and 
trucks offering service to the public were 



93 



approved by O.C. oo 738 gazetted Novem- 
ber 23 and became effective December 31, 
1955. 
Among the genera] rules applicable to a 

holder oi a motor carina licence is one 
which requires him to file with the Board 
at the end of each month an accurate 
record of the hours of labour of drivers. 
Each driver is also required to keep an 
accurate record of his hours of labour. The 
Board may. when it considers such action 
sary ioi- the safety of the public, order 
a licensee to reduce the hours of labour 
oi drivers and. if he fails to comply with 
the order, the Board may cancel the 
licen< 

Newfoundland Apprenticeship Act 

General apprenticeship regulations, and 
r« nidations governing certificates of qualifi- 
cation to tradesmen, were gazetted Novem- 
ber 15 and became effective on that date. 
These are the first general regulations issued 
under the Act, the only other regulations 
being those issued last March to set the 
rate of living allowances for apprentices 
timing the required course of technical 
instruction (L.G., May 1955, p. 567). 

The general regulations set out the 
obligations of employers and apprentices 
and deal with the period of apprenticeship, 
the hours of work and certificates of 
apprenticeship. The other regulations deal 
with the duties of examining boards and 
the rules for conducting examinations for 
certificates of qualification. 

Every employer who hires apprentices 
must provide adequate training in as many 
branches of the trade as his facilities and 
the scope of his business will permit. He 
must arrange for his apprentices to attend 
the classes in trade training and related 
subjects prescribed by the Board. Every 
employer must keep each of his appren- 
tices employed as long as there is work 
for him to do. If he has to lay an 
apprentice off because of work shortage, 
he must give him the chance to be 
re-employed before hiring another. 

The employer must notify the Director 
of Apprenticeship immediately, both when 
he employs a minor or apprentice in a 
designated trade and when he wishes 
temporarily to suspend or terminate a con- 
tract of apprenticeship. -He must also 
co-operate with the Director in the transfer 
of an apprentice. The employer must also 
submit an annual report of the progress 
and conduct of his apprentices on a form 
supplied by the Board. 

Every apprentice has certain obligations 
to his employer and to the Director. In 
addition to serving his employer faithfully, 



honestly ami diligently, and obeying all 
Lawful and reasonable demands and require- 
ments, he must take good care of the tools 
and goods of his employer so as to avoid 
damage and waste. He must also give 
his employer a satisfactory explanation for 
any absence from work. Every apprentice 
must attend regularly all the classes in 
trade training and related subjects pre- 
scribed in his contract of apprenticeship. 
He must also do all the exercises assigned 
if a correspondence course is given in lieu 
of class training. If he ceases to be 
employed with the employer to whom he 
is apprenticed, he must notify the Director 
of Apprenticeship immediately. 

The hours of work of an apprentice are 
to be the same as those of a journeyman 
in. the trade. He may also work overtime 
if it does not conflict with the prescribed 
class training program. 

The term of apprenticeship is to be set 
forth in the contract. It may vary, how- 
ever, because the Board may make allow- 
ances for previous experience in the trade 
or for trade training in a vocational school 
and sometimes the term is extended. If 
an employer fails to provide an apprentice 
with at least 32 weeks' employment in each 
year of the apprenticeship period including 
the time spent in day classes, the appren- 
tice is required to make up the time before 
he is advanced to the next year. The 
Board may also extend the period of 
apprenticeship if it feels that an apprentice 
has not made sufficient progress. 

On completion of his term of appren- 
ticeship to the satisfaction of the Board, an 
apprentice will be given a certificate of 
apprenticeship. 

As in other provinces, the certification 
regulations allow experience in the trade 
to count in lieu of an apprenticeship course 
in order to permit a tradesman other than 
an apprentice to obtain a certificate of 
qualification. Accordingly, the Provincial 
Apprenticeship Board has made regula- 
tions for the appointment of examining 
boards and for examinations for certificates 
of qualification. 

The Board will appoint local examining 
boards consisting of three members, a 
chairman representing the Department of 
Labour, and two other members represent- 
ing employers and employees respectively. 
The examining boards are to approve 
applications for examinations, examine 
documentary evidence of trade experience 
and conduct examinations prescribed by the 
Director. They are to make sure that the 
person is proficient in his trade and the 
chairman is to report to the Director within 
10 days the results of every examination. 



94 



A tradesman who wishes to obtain a 
certificate of qualification must try the 
examination which may be theoretical, 
practical or both. In order to try the 
examination, he must first apply in writing 
to the Director enclosing whatever docu- 
mentary evidence he has of his trade 
experience and pay a fee of $5. If the 
examining board finds his qualifications 
satisfactory, the Director will notify him 
of the time and place for the examination. 
The Director will also give him notice of 
the results. If he is successful he will 
receive a certificate of qualification signed 
by the Minister of Labour and the chair- 
man of the examining board. If he does 
not get a pass rating, he may attend classes 
in accordance with Section I of Appendix 
"A" of the Apprenticeship Training Agree- 
ment, 1954, which provides that improvers 
or learners employed in an apprentice- 
able trade, who in the opinion of the 
provincial apprenticeship authorities require 
such training to fit them for qualification 
as a journeyman according to provincial 
standards, may be given training under the 
agreement. The holder of a certificate of 
apprenticeship issued under the Act is 
entitled to a certificate of qualification for 
his trade without further examination. 



Nova Scotia Liquor Control Act 

Regulations under the Liquor Control 
Ad, gazetted November 14, contain the 
usual provision that no holder of a hotel 
tavern or tavern licence shall allow or 
employ a minor or a female in his tavern 
or hotel during the hours of sale. 

Ontario Workmen's Compensation Act 

By Regulation 212/55 gazetted Novem- 
ber 12, employees of the Fire Department 
of the City of Hamilton were brought 
under Part I, the collective liability sec- 
tion, of the Workmen's Compensation Act. 

In the new regulation substituted for 
Regulation 7 of Regulation 371 of Con- 
solidated Regulations of Ontario, the 
employees of the Hamilton Police Depart- 
ment are still excluded from Part I of 
the Act. Formerly employees of both the 
Fire Department and the Police Depart- 
ment of Hamilton were excluded. This 
means that employees of the Fire Depart- 
ment are now entitled to compensation if 
they suffer an accident or contract an 
industrial disease in the course of their 
duties whereas previously they or their 
representatives had to sue for damages. 



Assisted Passage Loan Plan Extended to New Categories, Families 

The provisions of the Assisted Passage 
Loan Plan have been widened to help suit- 
able would-be immigrants not previously 
eligible under the Plan to finance their 
journey to Canada, the Minister of Citizen- 
ship and Immigration announced last 
month. 

Previously only certain categories of 
persons whose services were in urgent 
demand in Canada could qualify for assist- 
ance, but now all those considered suit- 
able as immigrants are eligible. In addi- 
tion, loans may now be allowed to cover 
the cost of passage for dependents as well 
as for the head of the family. This latter 
provision applies to dependents of immi- 
grants already in Canada, as well as to 
those of prospective immigrants. 

The loans, which are interest-free, are as 
a rule repayable in monthly instalments 
extending over a period of two years. 



Experience in recovering loans in the 
past has been good, 93 cents out of every 
dollar lent having been repaid up to the 
end of October 1955. A total of 29,112 
loans has been repaid in full, and only 
87 have had to be set down as uncollectable. 

Since the loan plan was begun in 
February 1951, 31,817 immigrants have had 
their journey to Canada financed by loans, 
which have totalled $5,268,000 and have 
averaged $165 each. 

This extension of the assistance plan is 
apparently intended to stimulate the flow 
of immigration, which slowed up last year. 
Up to the beginning of September, 85,607 
newcomers had entered the country, com- 
pared with 126,853 in the corresponding 
period of 1954. The total for 1954 was 
154,227, compared with 168,868 in 1953. The 
postwar peak was in 1951, when 194,391 
persons came to settle in Canada. 



The number employed by Canadian railways dropped by 7-4 per cent in 1954 to 
196,307 from 211,951 in 1953. Average annual earnings of railway employees decreased by 
1-3 per cent to $3,371 from $3,416 in 1953. 



95 



Unemployment Insurance 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Fewer initial and renewal claims for benefit filed this October than 
a year earlier; statistics show 94,744 claims compared with 127,609* 

Initial and renewal claims for unemploy- 
ment insurance benefit in October were 
fewer than a year earlier. 



The Dominion Bureau of Statistics report 
on the operation of the Unemployment 
Insurance Act shows that 94,744 claims 
were filed in local offices across Canada 
during October, compared with 87,562 in 
September and 127,609 during October 1954. 

Claimants having an unemployment 
register in the "live file" on October 31 
numbered 163,100 (109,132 males and 53,968 
females), compared with 145,419 (96,434 
males and 48,985 females) at September 30, 
1955, and 236,365 (172,107 males and 64,258 
females) at October 29, 1954. Distribution 
of claimants by "duration" intervals for 
October is not directly comparable with that 
for previous months, when the persistency 
of unemployment was recorded only for 
those claimants who were completely sepa- 
rated from employment. 

A total of 90,778 initial and renewal 
claims was adjudicated during October, 
entitlement to benefit being granted in 
62,600 or 69 per cent of the cases. Of the 
38,347 cases not entitled to benefit (includ- 
ing 10,169 disqualifications arising from 
revised claims), 19,185 were in respect of 
initial claimants who failed the minimum 
contribution requirements and for whom a 
benefit period was not established. Chief 
reasons for disqualification were: "loss of 
work due to a labour dispute" 5,813 cases, 
of which 5,731 cases were in Ontario; 
"voluntarily left employment without just 
cause" 4,674 cases; "not capable of and not 
available for work" 2,752 cases; and "not 
unemployed" 1,285 cases. (The concept 
"not unemployed" under the revised Act 
differs in some respects from its interpreta- 
tion under the 1940 Act. Formerly, the 
unemployed status was determined on a 
daily basis; under the revised Act, it is 
determined on a weekly basis. Providing 
an insured person does not work a full 



In a comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
consideration should be given to relevant 
factors other than numbers, such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal indus- 
tries, increase in area population, influ- 
ence of weather conditions, and the 
general employment situation. 



Tables E-l to E-4 at back of book. 



working week, benefit may be claimed for 
that week; the amount of benefit payable, 
however, is subject to all the conditions 
governing entitlement, particularly that of 
"excess earnings".) 

New beneficiaries during the month 
numbered 54,981, compared with 61,203 
during September and 84,051 during October 
1954. 

Benefit payments amounted to $7,535,340 
during October; this was in respect of 
944,389 days of unemployment prior to 
October 2 and 280,834 weeks occurring after 
October 1. During September, $8,180,068 
was paid in respect of 2,705,587 days, while 
during October 1954, $11,779,296 was paid 
in compensation for 3,780,046 days. 

An estimated 111-1 thousand bene- 
ficiaries received weekly benefit payments 
during October, as against 109-2 thousand 
for September. During the week October 
23-29, 1954, the number of beneficiaries was 
estimated at 173 thousand. 

Insurance Registrations 

Reports received from local offices of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission for 
October show that insurance books or con- 
tribution cards were issued to 4,198,907 
employees who have made contributions to 
the Unemployment Insurance Fund since 
April 1, 1955. 

As at October 31, employers registered 
numbered 276,934, an increase of 2,066 
during the month. 

Enforcement Statistics 

During October, 3,495 investigations were 
conducted by district investigators across 
Canada. Of these, 2,697 were spot checks 
of postal and counter claims to verify 



96 



fulfilment of statutory conditions. The 
remaining 798 were investigations in con- 
nection with claimants suspected of making 
false statements to obtain benefit. 

Prosecutions were commenced in 89 
cases,t six against employers and 83 against 
claimants. Punitive disqualifications as a 
result of claimants making false state- 
ments or misrepresentations numbered 571. t 



tThese do not necessarily relate to the investiga- 
tions conducted during this month. 



Unemployment Insurance Fund 

Revenue received in October totalled 
$19,510,751.10, compared with $18,759,702.91 
in September and $18,069,610.17 in October 
1954. Benefit payments in October 
amounted to $7,514,532.87, compared with 
$8,162,213.77 in September and $11,764,885.06 
in October 1954. The balance in the fund 
at October 31 was $870,242,257.93. At 
September 30, there was a balance of 
$858,246,039.70 and at October 31, 1954, 
of $892,606,846.93. 



Decisions of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 



Decision CU-B 1193, December 5, 1955 

Summary of the Facts: The claimant, 
married, filed an initial application for 
benefit on April 22, 1955, registered for 
employment as a bookkeeper, and stated 

that she had worked as such for the 

Corporation, Toronto, Ont., from July 1951 
to April 15, 1955, when, because of preg- 
nancy, she was released by the employer 
and replaced by another girl. She also 
stated that she was capable of and avail- 
able for work and that she expected to be 
confined early in July 1955. 

The employer reported that he had to 
dispense with the claimant's services 
because of her condition and that he 
had found a replacement sooner than 
anticipated. 

The employment officer expressed the 
opinion that in view of the circumstances 
she was not "considered as generally 
acceptable to employers for employment 
in any occupation for which she is 
qualified". 

On the evidence before him, the insur- 
ance officer disqualified the claimant from 
receipt of benefit for an indefinite period 
as from April 22, 1955, because, in his 
opinion, she had failed to prove that she 
was available for work within the meaning 
of Section 29(1) (b) of the Act. 

The claimant appealed to a court of 
referees on May 5, 1955, and stated that 
when she filed her claim at the local office 
she informed the clerk who waited on her 
that she was fully prepared to continue 
working and, in fact, needed to do so but 



that the employer had found a person to 
replace her much sooner than expected and 
she had to leave. She also said that she 
informed the clerk that she "was fully 
prepared to accept another position if 
there was one available". 

In his submission to the court of 
referees, the insurance officer reported the 
following 

(The employer) informed the Appeals 
Officer that the claimant had not given in 
her resignation or intimated that she wanted 
to leave on any particular date. However, 
they knew she would be leaving and it was 
necessary to have a trained replacement 
which they considered would take some time. 
In fact two bookkeepers were tried out but 
proved unsatisfactory. A third bookkeeper 
was hired and she caught on to the work so 
rapidly, they found it necessary to let the 
claimant go. 

The claimant and her husband appeared 
before the court of referees at the hearing 
of her case in Toronto, Ont., on May 24, 
1955. The unanimous decision of the court 
reads in part as follows: 

We are of the opinion that there is con- 
siderable doubt regarding the question of 
availability for work in view of the fact 
that the claimant was prepared to stay on 
her job if she had been allowed to do so. 

In a recent case, that of Mrs , the 

Insurance Officer allowed the claimant to 
remain on benefit for two months after she 
had been dismissed by her employers on 
account of pregnancy. ^ The condition of 
pregnancy was similar in both cases in that 
it was a period of approximately five months 
(sic). Also the two cases quoted, CU-B 819 
and CU-B 1036, are to some extent con- 
tradictory. However this Court agrees that 
the claimant was not available for work 
following her dismissal. 



97 



The claimant's appeal is therefore 
Dismissal but this Court would like an 
opinion from the Umpire regarding avail- 
ability of a claimant who has been dismissed 
on account of pregnancy. 

The claimant applied to the chairman of 
the court of referees for leave to appeal to 
the Umpire and it was granted for the 
following reasons: 

There is a principle of importance in- 
volved, viz: the availability of a claimant 
who has been dismissed on account of ■preg- 
nancy. I understand this is a matter of 
judgment on the part of an Employment 
Officer. The Court did not see the claimant 
until one month after she had been disquali- 
fied by the Employment Officer as unavail- 
able, and. naturally, her appearance had 
changed in that time. Also, the Court was 
much concerned by the fact that in some 
a of dismissal on account of pregnancy, 
claims are allowed, whereas in others, where 
conditions appear similar, claims are not 
allowed. We feel that an Umpire's decision 
in this case will clarify this matter. 

Conclusions: The question as to whether 
or not a claimant, dismissed on account 
of pregnancy, is available for work depends 
on the weight which must be given to a 
number of variable factors. 

These factors include the stage of the 
claimant's pregnancy; the extent of her 
capability for work; her appearance as the 
result of pregnancy; the nature of the work 
for which she is qualified; her intention 
and mental attitude towards accepting 
employment; and her domestic circum- 
stances. 

Each case should be judged on its own 
merits in accordance with reason and 
certain fundamental principles established 
by the Umpire. 

In the present case, the outweighing 
factor was the claimant's advanced stage of 
pregnancy (nearly seven months). 

To quote from a previous decision 
(CU-B 1023), which deals also with the 
case of a pregnant woman: "It is very 
doubtful that any employer would have 
hired her knowing that she would have 
been available for a short period of time 
only during which it is altogether likely 
that her capability for work would have 
been affected." 

Under the circumstances, it was rightly 
held that she was not available for work 
within the meaning of the Act and the 
appeal is dismissed. 

Decision CU-B 1194, December 5, 1955 

Summary of the Facts: The claimant, 
who was married on March 19, 1954, filed 
an initial application (postal) for benefit 
on March 7, 1955, with the local office of 



the Unemployment Insurance Commission 
in Brandon, Man., and stated that she had 
worked as a stenographer for the Depart- 
ment of National Defence (Army) in 
Winnipeg, Man., from August 1953 to 
Abu rli 4, 1955, when she resigned in order 
to reside with her husband who was 
stationed at Rivers, Man. 

The insurance officer disqualified the 
claimant from receipt of benefit from 
March 7, 1955 to March 19, 1956, inclusive, 
because, in his opinion, she had failed to 
establish that she could satisfy any one 
of the conditions stipulated in Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Regulation 137 (previously 
Benefit Regulation 5A). 

In her appeal to a court of referees, she 
stated that as a female employee of the 
Civil Service Commission and because of 
its regulations, she was required to resign 
her position on March 19, 1954, due to her 
marriage on that date. She contended that, 
as she was re-engaged by the Civil Service 
Commission on March 20, 1954, as a 
married woman and had continued in her 
employment for at least 60 days since the 
date of her first separation following her 
marriage, she had satisfied one of the 
conditions of Regulation 137. 

The court of referees heard the case in 
Brandon, Man., on May 4, 1955. The 
claimant was not present at the hearing 
but was represented by her husband. The 
court upheld the decision of the insurance 
officer by a unanimous finding, which reads : 

It is the opinion of this Court that in 
view of the Umpire's Decision rendered in 
CU-B 832, this Court has no alternative but 
to consider that on March 19, 1954, when 
(the claimant) was required to resign from 
the Civil Service Commission, this did not 
constitute a separation from employment but 
was merely a rearrangement of the condi- 
tions under which she was employed. (The 
claimant's husband), on being questioned, 
stated that to his knowledge his wife, who 
was employed on a temporary basis both 
before and after her marriage, did not lose 
or gain any benefits as a result of the 
marriage. It would appear that the only 
difference in (the claimant's) status with 
her employer after her marriage was one of 
classification. 

With the permission of the chairman of 
the court, the claimant, on May 21, 1955, 
appealed to the Umpire on the following 
grounds : 

The case at hand begs the meaning of 
the term "separation from employment". 
Since the regulations and orders of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission do not 
contain a positive and constructive definition 
of the aforementioned term, the Court did 
not pass a valued judgment of the case on 
its own merits but instead resorted to the 
doctrine of precedence. 



98 



The appellant is not entirely satisfied that 
CU-B 832 is a suitable precedent in that, 
among other reasons, it appears to be more 
concerned with questions of status and social 
welfare rather than the termination of a 
contractual relationship. Moreover, CU-B 
g32 does not elucidate the point of law in 
question, that is, "What is separation from 
employment?" 

Even if CU-.B 832 is upheld as a suitable 
precedent, there is considerable doubt that 
the learned Umpire gave due consideration 
to all the implications of his decision. For 
example, a female employee having knowl- 
edge of this ruling and entertaining thoughts 
of matrimony but wishing continued employ- 
ment for an unknown period would be 
tempted to change employers thus causing 
an unnecessary turnover of staff in commerce 
and industry. Undoubtedly other examples 
of hardship and abuse could be cited. 
Surely it must seem reasonable that a 
resignation, by its very nature, terminates 
a contractual relationship and thereby con 
summates a separation from employment. 
The Insurance Officer conceded that, upon 
resignation, had the appellant negotiated a 
contract of service with another employer 
she would have qualified under Benefit 
Regulation 5A. What then does it matter 
that she negotiated with the same employer 
on the same terms? There is no real differ- 
ence in principle. 

On May 27, 1955, the regional claims 
officer wrote to the Department of National 
Defence requesting information as to 
whether it considered "the claimant as 
separated from employment on March 19 
and re-engaged on March 20, or . . . simply 
re-assigned to the same position on 
March 20". 

The employer replied on May 30, 1955, 
as follows: 

(The claimant) was, on the date of her 
marriage, March 19, 1954, re-assigned from 
the position she held as a single person to 
the same position but under her married 
name, with no break in service. 

On June 21, 1955, the claimant sub- 
mitted, through the local office, a further 
statement of observation and representa- 
tions for consideration by the Umpire, 
which reads, in part, as follows: 

The case seems to hinge on the meaning 
of the term "separation from employment". 
Since the Unemployment Insurance Commis- 
sion does not have an adequate definition 



of the term, we must utilize the concept of 
"a reasonable man". Now it seems reason- 
able that employment, among other things, 
constitutes a contractual relationship between 
an employer and an employee. It also 
seems reasonable that a resignation sub- 
mitted by the employee serves such a con- 
tractual relationship and employment ceases 
to exist. In all right reason the employee 
can be said to be separated from employ- 
ment and is free to negotiate with other 
prospective employers or to re-negotiate with 
her former employer. In the terminology of 
her former employer she was said to have 
been re-assigned following resignation. I 
submit that this re-assignment constitutes a 
new contract of service following separation 
from employment notwithstanding the fact 
that there was no break in service. 

Conclusions : The decisions of the Umpire 
form the case law of unemployment insur- 
ance and, as such, are binding on insurance 
officers and courts of referees. 

The court of referees in the present case, 
therefore, rightly "resorted to" the pre- 
cedent laid down by my predecessor in 
decision CU-B 832. This precedent was 
subsequently reaffirmed in decisions CU-Bs 
1015 and 1163. 

In determining claims for benefit, the 
statutory authorities follow strictly the 
words of the Act and the regulations there- 
under, which words must be construed 
according to their natural and ordinary 
sense. 

The words "separation from employ- 
ment" in Regulation 137(1) (a), given their 
natural and ordinary sense, mean an actual 
and physical separation from the employ- 
ment and not merely a change in the terms 
of the contract of service (including fixity 
of tenure). 

The claimant, whose actual and physical 
separation from the employment in which 
she was engaged at the time of her 
marriage took place three days before she 
filed her claim for benefit, does not meet, 
therefore, the requirement of Regulation 
137(1) (a) and the appeal is dismissed. 



At the end of 1954, average annual salaries and wages in the transportation division 
of Canadian railways were highest for road passenger engineers and motormen, at $6,813; 
road passenger conductors, at $5,926; yard engineers and motormen, at $5,675; road 
freight conductors, at $5,617; road passenger firemen and helpers, at $5,533; train despatchers 
and traffic supervisors, at $5,477; road freight engineers and motormen, at $5,282; yard 
conductors and yard foremen, at $5,040; and yardmasters and assistants, at $5,004. 

— Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



99 



Labour Conditions 

in Federal Government Contracts 



Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during November 

Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During November the Department of Labour prepared 130 wage schedules for 
inclusion in contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Govern- 
ment and its Crown corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, 
remodelling, repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 176 contracts in these 
categories was awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to trade 
unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of the 
contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under this heading 
provide that: — 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included 
in the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not 
exempted from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation 
of the work, wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by 
provincial legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect to 
alleged discrimination.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded in November for the manufacture of supplies and equipment were 
as follows: — 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Defence Construction (1951) Limited 4 $ 67,741.00 

Defence Production 207 2,783,977.00 

Post Office 9 41,832.73 

R.C.M.P 2 1,599.00 

(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and 
equipment provide that: — 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen, and if there is no current rate, then 
a fair and reasonable rate; but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those 
established by the laws of the province in which the work is being performed; 

(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district 
or, if there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those fixed by custom of the trade in the district or in excess of fair 
and reasonable hours; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect to 
alleged discrimination.) 






The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour wage schedules are thereupon included 

legislation of the federal Government has with other relevant labour conditions as 

the purpose of insuring that all Govern- terms of such contracts to be observed 

ment contracts for works of construction by the contractors. 

and for the manufacture of supplies and Wage schedules are not included in 

equipment contain provisions to secure contracts for the manufacture of supplies 

the payment of wages generally accepted and equipment because it is not possible 

as fair and reasonable in each trade or to determine in advance the classifica- 

classification employed in the district tions to be employed in the execution 

where the work is being performed. of a contract. A statement of the labour 

The practice of Government depart- conditions which must be observed in 

ments and those Crown corporations to every such contract is, however, included 

which the legislation applies, before therein and is of the same nature and 

entering into contracts for any work of effect as those which apply in works of 

construction, remodelling, repair or demo- construction. 

lition, is to obtain wage schedules from Copies of the federal Government's 

the Department of Labour, showing the Fair Wages and Hours of Labour legis- 

applicable wage rate for each classifica- lation may be had upon request to the 

tion of workmen deemed to be required Industrial Relations Branch of the 

in the execution of the work. These Department of Labour, Ottawa. 



100 



Wage Claims Received and Payments made during November 

During November the sum of $3,868.72 was collected from nine employers who had 
failed to pay the wages required by the labour conditions attached to their contracts. 
This amount has been or will be distributed to the 75 'workers concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during November 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 

Department of Agriculture 

Lennoxville Que : J A Verret Ltee, completion of interior of piggery, installation of equip- 
ment, etc. Near Pipestone Man: Pearen Construction Co, construction of dykes along 
Pipestone Creek, Pipestone-Oak Lake Project. Near Portage la Prairie Man: George 
McLean Jr, construction of cutoffs on Assiniboine River. Between Portage la Prairie & 
Winnipeg Man: John Lysenko, construction of dykes along Assiniboine River. Near 
The Pas Man: J S Quinn Construction Co Ltd, construction of ditch in Pasquia area, 
Saskatchewan River Reclamation Project. Buffalo Pound Lake Sask: Piggott Construc- 
tion Co Ltd, construction of canal & appurtenant works. Near Lethbridge Alta: Shannon 
Construction (Alberta) Ltd, construction of earthfill dam, channel, dyking, road diversion 
& timber bridge, St Mary Project. 

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Montreal Que: J R Grondin Ltee, *storm sewer work, Benny Farm. Valcartier Que: 
Massicotte & Fils Ltd, construction of sewer & water systems & roads. Ajax Ont: K J 
Beamish Construction Co Ltd, construction of roads & sidewalks. Barriefield Ont: EPA 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of housing units & walks. Trenton Ont: Borgstrom 
Bros Ltd, site improvement & planting. 

Defence Construction (1951) Limited 

Terminal Con- stores bldg, roads & outside services. 
St. Hubert Que: Gerard Sicotte Construc- 
tion Co Ltd, construction of C E bldg & 
outside services, RCAF Station. St Johns 
Que: Terminal Construction Co Ltd, con- 
struction & landscaping of sports fields & 
surrounding areas, CMR; A Janin & Co 
Ltd, construction of physical & recreational 
training bldg, CMR. Valcartier Que: 
Freres Jobin Inc, construction of junior 
ranks club; Beaudet & Fils Enr, construc- 
tion of concrete firing bay blast walls, 
CARDE. Val d'Or Que: Raymond Bour- 
beau, grading, seeding & sodding, RCAF 
Station. Ville La Salle Que: Allied Build- 
ing Services Ltd, cleaning & repointing of 
exterior masonry. Barriefield Ont: McKay- 
Cocker Ltd, construction of mess; M 
Sullivan & Son Ltd, construction of 
officers' quarters; H J McFarland Con- 
struction Co Ltd, construction of roads, 
installation of water & sewer services, 
grading. Camp Borden Ont: Shalamar 
Gardens Ltd, grading, seeding & sodding; 
Barclay Construction Ltd, construction of 
barrack block & outside services; Hughes 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of garage 
& outside services. Long Branch Ont: 
Matthew L Carroll (Ontario) Ltd, con- 
struction of return stores bldg & outside 
services. London Ont: Ellis-Don Ltd, con- 
struction of junior ranks club, Wolseley 



Goose Bay Labrador 
struction Co Ltd, construction of various 
bldgs, roads, etc. Bedford Basin N S: 
Fundy Construction Co Ltd, construction 
of magazines, RCNAD. Halifax N S: 
Modern Construction Ltd, construction of 
seaward defence bldg; Terminal Construc- 
tion Co Ltd, construction of sports field, 
Windsor Park; Fundy Construction Co 
Ltd, construction of QM & technical stores 
bldg & outside services, Windsor Park; 
Cameron Contracting Ltd, construction of 
steam distribution system (Stage 1), 
Willow Park; Foundation Maritime Ltd, 
construction of foundation piling for out- 
side fitters & machine shop. Camp Gage- 
town N B: Dominion Structural Steel Ltd, 
supply, fabrication & erection of structural 
steel for detention barracks; R E Stewart 
Construction Corp, construction of junior 
ranks clubs; Dominion Structural Steel Ltd, 
supply, fabrication & erection of structural 
steel & steel joists for P T bldg; Atlas 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of detail 
issue supply depot; Atlas Construction Co 
Ltd, construction of theatre; Diamond 
Construction (1955) Ltd, construction of 
forestry headquarters bldgs. Bagotville 
Que: Provincial Engineering Ltd, rehabili- 
tation of underground steam distribution 
system, RCAF Station. Longue Pointe 
Que: Walter G Hunt Co Ltd, construc- 
tion of return stores bldg, inflammable 



101 



Barracks; McKay-Cocker Construction Ltd, 
construction oi officers' messes, conversion 
oi existing boiler rooms & installation of 
underground steam lines. Uplands Ont: 
Canadian Comstock Co Ltd, construction 
of -ewers, drains A: watermains. Camp 
Shilo Man: Claydon Co Ltd, construc- 
tion of sgt>' mess & quarters; Maple Leaf 
Construction Ltd. asphalt surfacing & seal 
coating of roads. Calgary AHa: Burns & 
Dutton Concrete & Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of barrack blocks & mess, 
Sarcee Camp. Cold Lake Alia: Poole 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
armament bldg, stage 1 & 2; Poole Con- 
struction Co Ltd, revisions to trainer bldg; 
Foster Wheeler Ltd, conversion of central 

Building and 

Goose Bay Labrador: Terminal Con- 
struction Co Ltd, replacement of windows 
& other work in Control Tower, RCAF 
Station. Aldershot N S: Cameron Con- 
tracting Ltd, revisions to water supply 
system & pumphouse. Amherst N S: 
Rayworth Electrical Service, rewiring & 
relighting, armoury. Greenwood N S: 
Municipal Spraying & Contracting Ltd, 
patching & resurfacing of PMQ roads. 
Halifax N S: Standard Paving Maritime 
Ltd. construction of parking area, Willow 
Park. Sydney N S: Municipal Ready 
Mix Ltd, paving of perimeter road, 
Victoria Park. Montreal Que: Colt Con- 
tracting Co Ltd, cleaning, repointing, 
repairs & waterproofing of exterior masonry 
& brickwork, 4185 Cote des Neiges Road. 
Valcartier Que: Artistic Painting & Deco- 
rating Contractors, interior & exterior 
painting of PMQs; Brant Construction Co 
Ltd, clearing & grubbing of various areas. 



heating plant from gas to oil burning fuel. 
Edmonton Alta: Bennett & White (Alberta) 
Ltd. construction of WO's & sgts' messes, 
Griesbach Barracks; Burns & Dutton Con- 
crete & Construction Co Ltd, construction 
of officers' messes, Griesbach Barracks; 
Cluistensen & Macdonald Ltd, construc- 
tion of QM & technical stores bldgs & 
outside services, Griesbach Barracks. Pen- 
hold Alta: International Water Supply 
Ltd, *exploratory well drilling, RCAF 
Station. Chilliwack B C: Smith Bros & 
Wilson Ltd, construction of RCE office, 
stores & workshop & outside services. 
Comox B C: A & B Construction Co Ltd, 
installation of concrete aeration tank, etc, 
sewage disposal plant, RCAF Station. 

Maintenance 

Valley field Que: Frank's Contracting Co 
Ltd, installation of insulation & siding, 
drill hall. Brantjord Ont: Tarry Construc- 
tion Co, renovations to armoury. Downs- 
view Ont: Wm Little, supply & erection 
of chain link security fence, RCAF Station. 
Hagersville Ont: Black Top Paving Co, 
construction of hardstanding area No 1, 
Stock Vehicle Park. Picton Ont: Geo A 
Crowe, landscaping, Military Camp. Mac- 
Donald Man: Norman H Woods & Assoc 
Ltd, treatment of mounds & flat areas, 
explosive storage bldg, RCAF Station. 
Rivers Man: Norman H Woods & Assoc 
Ltd, treatment of mounds & flat areas, 
explosive storage bldg, RCAF Station. 
Prince Albert Sask: Home Construction, 
installation of tile flooring in drill hall, 
Armoury. Cold Lake Alta: Young Elec- 
tric Ltd, provision of power to GCA hard- 
stands. Vancouver B C: James T Doyle 
Ltd, cleaning, repointing & repairs, Beatty 
Street Armoury. 



Department of Defence Production 

(October Report) 



Dartmouth N S: Northern Roofing & 
Metal Workers Ltd, replacement of tar 
& gravel roofing on bldgs, RCNAD; 
Cosgrove Bros Ltd, exterior & interior 
painting of hangers, RCN Air Station. 
Halifax N S: Parker Bros Ltd, exterior 
painting of PMQs, RCAF Station, Beaver 
Bank. Sydney N S: Municipal Ready Mix 
Ltd, paving of parade square, Victoria 
Park. Montreal Que: A Faustin Co Ltd, 
installation of aluminum sash windows, 
Canadian Grenadier Guards Armoury. 
Quebec Que: Allied Building Services Ltd, 
cleaning & repointing of bldg, A C & W U 
CAux) Sqdn. St Jean Que: Lord & 
Burnham Co Ltd, construction of green- 
house range, CMR; J R Theberge Enrg, 
removal of snow, CMR. Three Rivers 



Que: La Pepiniere des Laurentides,, prop- 
erty improvements. Valcartier Que: C 
Jobin Ltd, erection of extension to loading 
platform at bldgs 6 & 7. Camp Borden 
Ont: Willard & Bluj, exterior painting of 
PMQs, RCAF Station; Nap Beauchamp 
Construction Co, construction of workshop, 
RCAF Station. Kingston Ont: Colt Con- 
tracting Co Ltd, cleaning, repairing & 
repointing of masonry, Roselawn House. 
London Ont: Towland Construction Co 
Ltd, repairs to concrete aprons, RCAF 
Station. Toronto Ont: Chas Marchant, 
repairing, replastering & painting, Fort 
York Armoury. Trenton Ont: H J 
McFarland Construction Co Ltd, con- 
struction of addition to photographic bldg, 
RCAF Station; Canada Barrels & Kegs 



102 



Ltd, installation of storage tank, #f> Repair 
Depot, RCAF Station. Shilo Man: Maple 
Leaf Construction Ltd, construction of 
asphalt roads & seal coating of roads; 
Veterans' Construction Ltd, crushing, 
handling & hauling of gravel, #21 Works 
Coy, RCE. Winnipeg Man: Dominion 
Steel & Coal Corp Ltd, installation of 
el 1,1 in link fence, Fort Osborne Barracks. 
Dundurn Sask: Myers Construction Co 
Ltd, installation of water lines. Calgary 
Alta: F Neilson & Son, repairing of 



roofs, #11 Supply Depot. Clarcholm Alta: 
Les Cookshaw, painting of hangers 
RCAF Station. Penhold Alta: Canadian 
Pacific Railway Co, relocation & grading 
of railroad spur, RCAF Station. Wain- 
wright Alta: J M King Construction 
Co Ltd, loading, hauling & spreading 
of clay; McCready Johannson Ltd, re- 
roofing of bldgs. Kamloops B C: J T 
Devlin & Co Ltd, sealing & water- 
proofing exterior surfaces of bldgs, 
RCNAD. 



National Harbours Board 



Halifax Harbour N S: McDonald Con- 
struction Co Ltd, construction of office & 
hot room bldg, shed 27. Montreal Harbour 
Que: The Foundation Co of Canada Ltd, 
construction of wharf extension, Sections 
58-61; Anglin-Norcross (Quebec) Ltd, con- 
struction of extension to transit shed 40; 
The Foundation Co of Canada Ltd, con- 



struction of approach walls & ramps, Pie 
IX Subway. Prescott Ont: Dcnnisteel 
Corporation Ltd, installation of exits & fire 
escapes at Elevator. Vancouver Harbour 
B C: J T Devlin & Co Ltd, repairs to 
bin walls, Elevator No 1 Annex & Elevator 
No 3; Commonwealth Construction Co 
Ltd, rehabilitation of Elevator No 2. 



Department of Public Works 



Bonavista Nfld: Cabot Construction & 
Supplies Ltd, general improvements to 
grounds, federal bldg; Colonial Con- 
struction Co Ltd, installation of catch 
basins & fencing. Harbour Grace Nfld: 
Saunders, Howell & Co Ltd, construction 
of RCMP detachment quarters. Port 
Union Nfld: Fishermen's Union Trading 
Co, construction of post office bldg. 
Arisaig N S: Chisholm Construction Co 
Ltd, wharf repairs. L'Archeveque N S: 
MacDonald, MacDonald, MacDonald & 
MacDonald, construction of groyne. Nyanza 
N S: Campbell & Mclsaac, wharf repairs 
& extension. Sydney N S: Kenney Con- 
struction Co Ltd, construction of public 
bldg. North Sydney N S: North Sydney 
Marine Railway Co Ltd, *repairs & 
renewals to scow "PWD No 166". 
Tatamagouche N S: R T Morrison Co, 
construction of public bldg. Chatham N B: 
Modern Construction Ltd, construction of 
federal bldg. Emily's Point (Little 
Shemogue) N B: J W McMulkin & Son 
Ltd, construction of wharf. Fredericton 
X B: M F Schurman Co Ltd, construc- 
tion of garage, Science Service Laboratory. 
St Stephen N B: Modern Construction Ltd, 
construction of Customs & Immigration 
bldgs. Woodward's Cove N B: Diamond 
Construction (1955) Ltd, repairs to break- 
water extension. Bonaventure Que: Dimock 
<fc McLellan Reg'd, *dredging. Grosse lie 
Que: J P A Normand Inc, wharf recon- 
struction. Riviere Caplan Que: Bert 
Dimock, *dredging. Quebec Que: Royal- 
mount Construction Ltd, reconstruction & 
extension, Queen's wharf. Ste Angele de 
Laval Que: Regional Asphalt Ltd, wharf 



improvements (bituminous concrete pave- 
ment) . Sainte - Marie - de - Beauce Que : 
Giguere & L P Lacroix, addition & alter- 
ations to public bldg. Sept lies Que: Les 
Constructions du St Laurent Ltee, rectifica- 
tion work. Sorel Que: Lucien Lachapelle, 
reconstruction of icebreakers. Atikokan 
Ont: F W Sawatzky Ltd, construction of 
post office bldg. Bowmanville Ont: 
Bradford-Hoshal Assoc Ltd, construction of 
federal bldg. Colchester Ont: Dean Con- 
struction Co Ltd, extension to breakwater. 
Lively Ont: Carrington Construction Co 
Ltd, construction of public bldg. Ottawa 
Ont: George Cashman Ltd, addition & 
alterations to Animal Husbandry Bldg, 
Central Experimental Farm; Leopold 
Beaudoin Construction Ltd, construction of 
bldgs for Geodetic Observatory & Magnetic 
Testing Laboratory, Central Experimental 
Farm; C Howard Simpkin Ltd, construc- 
tion of electrical substation & installation 
of underground cable, Parliament Bldgs; 
Steel Equipment Co Ltd, installation of 
shelves & cleaning tables, Archives storage 
bldg, Tunney's Pasture. Owen Sound Ont: 
Thomas Construction Co Ltd, construction 
of federal bldg. Pigeon River Ont: Alex 
Zoldy, construction of pumphouse & in- 
stallation of water pipe. Port Colborne 
Ont: Intrusion-Prepakt Ltd, repairs to west 
breakwater & headblock. Sombra Ont: 
Russell Construction Ltd, wharf repairs- & 
improvements. Tilbury Ont: Dean Con- 
struction Co Ltd, addition & alterations to 
public bldg. Toronto Ont: The Cementa- 
tion Co (Canada) Ltd, harbour repairs & 
improvements. Lynn Lake Man: W C 
Wells Construction Co Ltd, construction 



103 



of federal bldg. Unity Sask: Shoquist Con- 
struction Ltd, construction of public bldg. 
Edmonton Alta: Poole Construction Co 
Ltd, relocation of & alterations to Units 
6. 7 & S, Charles Camsell Hospital. Alert 
Bay B C: L K Creelman Co Ltd, float 
renewal. Castlegar B C : Columbia Builders 
Ltd, construction of public bldg. Hope 
Bay B C: Pacific Pile Driving Co Ltd, 



approach & float renewal. New West- 
minster B C: Fraser River Pile Driving 
Co, repairs to Fisheries Station. New 
Westminster (Annacis Slough) B C: 
Pacific Pile Driving Co Ltd, construction 
of wharf. Nootka B C: West Coast 
Ventures Ltd, wharf repairs. Robson East 
B C: Donish & Wadds Contractors, wharf 
reconstruction. 



St. Lawrence Seaway Authority 

Lachine Section Que: Northern Construction Co & J W Stewart Ltd, excavation of 
channel, Station 752 + 00 to 900 + 00 & construction of dyke, Station 710 -f 00 to 
900 + 00. 

Department ot Transport 



Goose Bay Labrador: Terminal Con- 
struction Co Ltd, construction of dwellings. 
Gander Nfld: Concrete Products (Nfld) 
Ltd, construction of access road; Kenney 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
Terminal bldg. Charlottetown P EI: 
Dickies Radio & Electrical Co Ltd, in- 
stallation of runway lights. Dartmouth 
N S: Trynor Construction Co Ltd, addi- 
tional airport development. Halifax N S: 
Diamond Construction (1955) Ltd, addi- 
tional airport development. Sydney N S: 
M R Chappell, construction of radio 
beacon bldg & related work. Sydney South 
Bar N S: Maritime Builders Ltd, construc- 
tion of concrete pier & fog alarm bldg. 
Ancienne Lorette Que: Emile Frenette 
Ltee, construction of Terminal bldg. 
Cartierville Que: Lewis Bros Asphalt 



Paving Ltd, construction of connecting 
taxiway at airport. Lachine Que: Steel 
Structure & Services Ltd, widening of road- 
way & installation of sidewalk over bridges, 
Lachine Canal. Quebec Que: Davie Ship- 
building Co Ltd, Construction of ice- 
breaker, lighthouse supply & buoy vessel. 
Seven Islands Que: H J O'Connell Ltd, 
rehabilitation of water supply system. 
Malton Ont: McKay-Cocker Construction 
Ltd, alterations & extension to apron bldg. 
Winnipeg Man: Bird Construction Co Ltd, 
reconstruction of hangar aprons. Yorkton 
Sask: General Gravel Surfacing Co Ltd, 
additional airport development. Grande 
Prairie Alta: P W Graham & Sons Ltd, 
construction of dwellings & related work. 
Smithers B C: Bovill & Hann, construc- 
tion of dwelling. 



Housing Built in October 
Sets New Record: 17,365 

Canadian builders completed a record 
month's total of 17,365 new dwelling units 
last October — 33 per cent more than a year 
earlier — to boost total completions in the 
first ten months of 1955 to 101,242 units. 
This was a gain of 28 per cent over the 
79,327 completed to the end of October 
in 1954. 

October starts were also up a sharp 41 
per cent to 18,491 from 13,097 in 1954, 
raising the total of units started in the ten- 
month period by 25 per cent, to 121,118 
from 97,424 the previous year. 

At the end of October 1955 there were 
89.219 units under construction, 13,763 or 
18 per cent more than on the same date 
in 1954. 



U.S. Housing Starts 
Decline in October 

Non-farm housing starts in the United 
States declined to 107,000 units in October, 
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics has 
announced. The 5-per-cent decrease between 
September and October was about as 
expected for the time of year. 

Starts in October were within 4 per cent 
of the record for the month set in 1954 
and bring the total for the first ten months 
of 1955 to more than 1,161,000 units. This 
is second only to the ten-month record of 
1,215,000 starts in 1950. 

The 106,600 privately-owned units started 
in October represent a seasonally adjusted 
annual rate of 1,242,000 units, about the 
same as the 1,230,000 adjusted rate in 
September. 



104 



Wages, Hours and 
Working Conditions 



Working Conditions in Motor Vehicles 
and Parts Industries, April 1955 

Five-day, 40-hour week predominates: nine-tenths of workers in these 
industries are in establishments on this schedule. Almost half the 
establishments (but only 10% of the workers) work more than 40 hours 



The five-day, 40-hour week is the pre- 
dominant arrangement of working hours in 
the motor vehicles and motor vehicle parts 
and accessories industries, according to the 
latest annual survey of working condi- 
tions. Nine-tenths of the workers in these 
industries are in establishments which have 
a normal work week of 40 hours. How- 
ever, almost half of the establishments in 
the two industries work more than 40 hours, 
although these are smaller establishments 
and employ only 10 per cent of the workers. 

The survey, made in April 1955 by the 
Economics and Research Branch, covered 
83 establishments employing 49,053 plant 
workers. Seventeen of the reporting estab- 
lishments with 32,529 of the employees are 
in the motor vehicles industry, and the 
remainder, 66 plants with 16,524 employees, 
are in the motor vehicle parts and acces- 
sories industry. Most of the establishments 
(65) and employees (48,233) are in Ontario. 

The survey dealt with such subjects as 
the standard work week, vacations with pay, 
paid statutory holidays, sickness absence 
provisions, pay practice and pension and 
insurance plans. A summary of the results 
is given in the accompanying table. 

The survey reveals considerable uni- 
formity of working conditions in the larger 
establishments in the industry, but greater 
variety in the practices followed in the 
smaller establishments. 

Standard Work Week— At April 1955, 
90 per cent of the plant workers covered 
in the survey were in establishments that 
reported 40 hours as the standard work 
week; the proportion was 93 per cent in 
the motor vehicles industry, and 84 per 
cent in motor vehicle parts and accessories. 
However, in terms of establishments, only 
55 per cent of those covered in the survey 
worked a 40-hour week; most of the 
remainder reported standard hours of 44 or 
45 per week. 



The five-day week was reported by all 
but 13 establishments. These 13 plants, 
however, employed less than 1 per cent 
of the total workers. 

Vacations With Pay — Ninety -five per 
cent of the surveyed workers were employed 
in establishments (68) that reported two 
weeks with pay after five years of service 
or less. The most common service require- 
ment for two weeks with pay is five years. 
More than one-half of the surveyed workers 
are in plants that reported this practice; 
more than one-third are in plants that call 
for only three years' service. 

By industry, practically all of the 
employees in the motor vehicles industry 
are in establishments that require either 
three or five years' service, with the greater 
number (more than one-half) in estab- 
lishments requiring the latter. In the 
motor vehicle parts and accessories industry 
about three-quarters of the employees are 
in establishments that require either of 
these two service requirements for two 
weeks' vacation. More than one-half are 
in plants calling for five years of service. 
Almost 10 per cent of the employees in 
this latter industry are in plants which 
reported only a one-year service require- 
ment for two weeks with pay. 

Thirty - seven of the establishments, 
reporting for more than 90 per cent of the 
employees in the survey, had provisions 
for three weeks' vacation with pay. Fifteen 
years is by far the most common service 
requirement. Almost 90 per cent of the 
employees in the motor vehicle industry 
are in plants reporting three weeks' vaca- 
tion after 15 years of service and, in the 
motor vehicle parts and accessories indus- 
try, 70 per cent are in plants reporting this 
same practice. 

Four weeks with pay was reported by 
only three establishments, all in the motor 
vehicle parts and accessories industry, after 
service requirements of 15, 20 and 25 years 
respectively. 



105 



WORKING CONDITIONS OF NON-OFFICE EMPLOYEES IN THE MOTOR VEHICLE 
AND MOTOR VEHICLE PARTS AND ACCESSORIES INDUSTRIES, APRIL 1, 1955 





Estab- 
lishments 


Employees 


Percentage 

of 
Employees 




83 

46 
12 
11 
9 
5 

70 

76 
2 

9 

6 

23 

30 

9 

28 
5 
2 
2 

3 

5 

4 
9 

10 

49 

3 

3 

6 
57 

4 
14 

2 

59 

18 

4 

1 

1 

59 
23 

1 

28 
68 
73 
71 
64 
51 
60 


49,053 

44,236 
1,438 

659 
2,613 

107 

48,660 

48,550 
194 

1,594 

194 

17,947 

26,757 

2,329 

40,773 

2,176 

515 

856 

1,101 

113 

178 

16,565 

12,886 

19,123 

66 

122 

985 

38,554 

8,677 

796 

41 

30,194 
18,607 

96 
136 

20 

45,314 

3,725 

14 

32,614 

46,710 
48,788 
48,374 
46,544 
44,789 
41,035 


100-0 


Standard Weekly Hours 
40 


90-2 


Over 40 and Under 44 ... . 


2-9 


44 


1-4 


45 


5-3 


Over 45 


•2 




99-2 


Vacation with Pay 
One Week with Pay 


99-0 




•4 


Two Weeks with Pay 


3-2 




•4 


3 Years 


36-6 




54-5 




4-7 


Three Weeks with Pay 


83-1 


20 Years 


4-4 




1-0 




1-7 




2-2 


Paid Statutory Holidays 


•2 




•4 


6 


33-8 


7 


26-3 


8 


39-0 


9. .. 


• 1 




•2 


Sickness Absence Provisions 


2-0 


Insurance plan or equivalent providing cash compensation 


78-6 
17-7 




1-6 




•1 


Pay Practice 
Frequency of Pay-Day 


61-6 


Every 2 weeks 


37-9 




•2 


Other (i) 


•3 




•0 


Method of Payment 


92-4 


Cash 


7-6 




•0 


Pension and Insurance Plans 
Pension plan 


66-5 




95-2 




99-5 




98-6 


Physicians' services in hospital 


94-9 




91-3 


Insurance plans providing cash compensation 


83-7 







C 1 ) Practice not uniform for all employees. 



106 



Paid Statutory Holidays — Ninety-nine 
per cent of the workers in the survey are 
in 68 establishments stating that they gave 
six, seven or eight paid statutory holidays. 
Eight holidays were given by the largest 
number of establishments, but the workers 
in the survey were fairly evenly divided 
between six, seven and eight days. 

Sickness Absence Provisions — By far 

the most important sickness absence pro- 
vision is an insurance plan or equivalent. 
More than two-thirds of the establishments, 
employing more than three-quarters of the 
workers in the survey, provide for this type 
of cash compensation. By industry, it is 
found that almost three-quarters of the 
employees in the motor vehicle industry 
and about nine-tenths of the employees in 
the motor vehicle parts and accessories 
industry are employed in plants which have 
this type of protection. Almost 25 per 
cent of the workers in motor vehicles and 
five per cent of the workers in parts and 
accessories are in plants which have a 
combination insurance plan and continua- 
tion of wages and salaries. 



Pay Practice — The weekly pay day was 
the most commonly reported practice. Pay 
by cheque was the most common method 
of payment reported. More than 92 per- 
cent of the workers in the survey are 
employed by establishments reporting this 
method of payment. 

Insurance and Health Plans — Group life 
insurance and medical benefit plans are 
found in all the larger establishments but 
are absent in a few of the smaller ones. 
Establishments reporting hospitalization 
and surgical benefit plans cover almost all 
of the employees in the survey, while those 
reporting the other types of medical benefit 
plan cover more than 90 per cent of the 
workers. In plans applying to plants 
employing about half the workers the 
employer pays the whole cost of the plan. 

Pension Plans — Pension plans occur less 
frequently, being found in establishments 
employing two-thirds of the workers in the 
survey. Only one-third of the establish- 
ments reported such plans. About 24,000 
workers are in plants where the employer 
pays the full cost of the pension premiums. 



Strikes and Lockouts 



Canada, November 1955* 

There was little change in the number 
of man-days lost in work stoppages arising 
out of industrial disputes during the month 
compared with the previous month. In 
both periods, and in November 1954, the 
idleness was substantial. 

Three disputes were responsible for 90 
per cent of the time lost during the month. 
These involved: motor vehicles and parts, 
diesel locomotive, stove, refrigerator and 
air conditioning factory workers at London, 
Oshawa, St. Catharines, Toronto and 
Windsor, Ont.; aircraft factory workers at 
Downsview, Ont.; and wire and cable 
factory workers at Toronto, Ont. 

The issue of increased wages and related 
questions was a factor in 15 of the 24 
disputes in existence during November. Of 
the other stoppages, five arose over dis- 
missals, suspensions and layoffs, three over 
causes affecting conditions of work and 
one was a sympathy stoppage. 

Preliminary figures for November 1955 
show a total of 24 strikes and lockouts in 
existence, involving 21,296 workers, with a 
time loss of 379,200 man-days, compared 

*See Tables G-l and G-2 at back of book. 



with 21 strikes and lockouts in October 
1955, with 23,368 workers involved and a 
loss of 378,760 days. In November 1954, 
there were 24 strikes and lockouts, 20,645 
workers involved and a loss of 326,843 days. 

For the first 11 months of 1955, prelim- 
inary figures show a total of 144 strikes 
and lockouts, involving 56,223 workers, with 
a time loss of 1,525,208 man-days. In the 
same period in 1954 there were 168 strikes 
and lockouts, 61,949 workers involved and 
a loss of 1,234,339 days. 

Based on the number of non-agricultural 
wage and salary workers in Canada, the 
time lost in October and November 1955 
was 0-45 per cent of the estimated working 
time; November 1954, 0-39 per cent; the 
first 11 months of 1955, 0-17 per cent; and 
the first 11 months of 1954, 0-13 per cent. 

Of the 24 stoppages in existence during 
November, one was settled in favour of the 
workers, three in favour "of the employers, 
three were compromise settlements and five 
were indefinite in result, work being 
resumed pending final settlement. At the 
end of the month 12 disputes were still in 
existence. 



107 



(.The record does not include minor strikes 
such as are defined in a footnote to Table 
G-l nor does it include strikes and lockouts 
about which information has been received 
indicating that employment conditions are 
no longer affected but which the unions 
concerned have not declared terminated. 
Strikes and lockouts of this nature still in 
progress are: compositors, etc., at Winnipeg, 
Man., which began on November 8, 1945, 
and at Ottawa and Hamilton, Ont., and 
Edmonton, Alta., on May 30, 1946; women's 
clothing factory workers at Montreal, Que., 
on February 23, 1954: radio parts factory 
workers at Toronto, Ont., on November 1, 
1954; and lumber mill workers at Saint 
John, N.B., on May 26, 1955.) 



Other Countries 



(The latest information as to strikes and 
lockouts in various countries is given here 
from month to month. Statistics given in 
the annual review and in this article are 
taken from the government publications of 
the countries concerned or from the Inter- 
national Labour Office Year Book of Labour 
Statistics.) 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland 

According to the British Ministry of 
Labour Gazette, the number of work 
stoppages in Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland beginning in September 1955 was 
251 and 28 were still in progress from the 
previous month, making a total of 279 



during the month. In all stoppages of work 
in progress, 67,500 workers were involved 
and a time loss of 227,000 days caused. 

Of the 251 disputes leading to stoppages 
of work that began in September, 32, 
directly involving 7,500 workers, arose over 
demands for advances in wages, and 100, 
directly involving 13,800 workers, over other 
wage questions; six, directly involving 900 
workers, over questions as to working 
hours; 33, directly involving 17,900 
workers, over questions respecting the 
employment of particular classes or persons ; 
73, directly involving 6,600 workers, over 
other questions respecting working arrange- 
ments; three, directly involving 3,000 
workers, over questions of trade union 
principles ; and four, directly involving 4,700- 
workers, were in support of workers in- 
volved in other disputes. 

United States 

Preliminary figures for October 1955 show 
400 work stoppages resulting from labour- 
management disputes beginning in the 
month, involving 225,000 workers. The 
time loss for all work stoppages in progress 
during the month was 2,600,000 man-days. 
Corresponding figures for September 1955 
were 400 stoppages involving 240,000 
workers and a loss of 2,800,000 days. 



Prices and the Cost of Living 



Consumer Price Index, December 1, 1955 

The consumer price index (1949 = 100) 
remained unchanged during the last quarter 
of 1955, standing at 116-9 for October, 
November and December. 

Between November 1 and December 1 
a decrease in foods was sufficient to offset 
increases in three of the four other group 
indexes. 

The food index declined 0-5 per cent 
from 113-0 to 112-4 as lower prices were 
recorded for eggs and all cuts of beef and 
pork, particularly pork loins. Substantially 
higher prices were reported for oranges, 
and slight increases for practically all fresh 
vegetables. 

An increase in the shelter index from 
130-6 to 131-0 was due to slight upward 
movements in rents, residential property 
taxes and repairs. An advance in the 
clothing index of 0-6 per cent to 108-5 



•See Tables F-l and F-2 at back of book. 



resulted almost entirely from higher prices 
for women's fur coats. Household opera- 
tion moved from 116-5 to 116-6 as higher 
prices for coal, laundry, dry cleaning and 
shoe repairs more than offset lower prices 
for some household supplies and floor 
coverings. The other commodities and 
services component was unchanged at 118-3. 
The index one year earlier (December 1, 
1954) was 116-6. Group indexes on that 
date were: food 112-6, shelter 128-2, cloth- 
ing 108-1, household operation 117-1 and 
other commodities and services 118-2. 

City Consumer Price Indexes, November 1955 

Consumer price indexes (1949 = 100) for 
ten regional cities registered only slight 
changes between October 1 and November 
1, 1955; four moved lower, four were 
higher, and two remained unchanged. The 
maximum change recorded in any city was 
0-3 per cent, the Toronto index recording 
a decrease of that amount and the Winni- 
peg index a corresponding increase. 



108 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX FROM JANUARY 1951 




Changes at group index levels were 
mixed, foods being the only group to show 
a relatively consistent movement from city 
to city. Food indexes decreased in eight 
of the ten cities, declines ranging from 
0-1 per cent in Vancouver to 1-5 per cent 
in Toronto. Beef prices were fractionally 
lower in all cities except Edmonton and 
lower prices for pork were reported from 
all centres. Coffee prices were up in all 
ten cities. 

Shelter indexes advanced slightly in five 
cities and were unchanged in the other 
five. Clothing indexes were practically 
unchanged, moving no more than 0-1 per 
cent in any city, with four indexes up, two 
down, and four remaining the same. 
Household operation increased in Montreal 
and Toronto, largely as a result of higher 
coal prices, and in Vancouver following 
increases in homefurnishings. The decline 
in the Winnipeg index of other commodi- 
ties and services followed a decrease in the 
price of gasoline, while the higher indexes 
recorded for Ottawa, Toronto and 
Saskatoon-Regina were largely due to 
higher theatre admissions in these cities, 
except Regina, and sharply higher prices 
for men's haircuts in Saskatoon. 

Regional consumer price index point 
changes between October 1 and November 
1 were as follows: Toronto —0-4 to 119-0; 
St. John's —0-2 to 104-6 ;t Saint John 
—0-2 to 117-6; Edmonton-Calgary —0-1 
to 115-1; Winnipeg +0-3 to 116-9; Mont- 

tOn base June 1951=100. 



real -f0-l to 117-1; Saskatoon-Regina 
+0-1 to 115-6; Vancouver +0-1 to 118-6. 
Halifax and Ottawa remained unchanged 
at 114-9 and 117-7 respectively. 

Wholesale Prices, November 1955 

The general wholesale price index (1935- 
39=100) rose to 220-7 for November, 0-3 
per cent above the October level of 220-0 
and 2-7 per cent above the November 1954 
level of 214-9. Six of the eight major 
groups advanced, one receded and one 
remained unchanged. 

Vegetable products moved up 0-5 per 
cent from 190-7 to 191-6, animal products 
down 1 per cent from 223-6 to 221-3. 
Fibres, textiles and textile products 
remained stationary at 226-1 while wood, 
wood products and paper climbed 1-5 per 
cent from 298-5 to 303-1. 

Iron and its products rose 0-2 per cent 
from 227-1 to 227-6, non-ferrous metals 
0-5 per cent from 199.5 to 200-5. Non- 
metallic minerals edged up 0-1 per cent 
from 176-3 to 176-4. 

Chemicals and allied products were 
slightly higher, rising 0-1 per cent from 
177-7 to 177-9. 

Canadian farm product prices at 

terminal markets remained practically 
unchanged between October and November, 
moving from 196-8 to 196-9. Field products 
rose 1 per cent from 151-7 to 153-2, the 
animal products index dropped 0-6 per cent 
from 241-9 to 240-5. 



109 



Residential building material prices 
wore fractionally lower in November, at 
286*7 compared with 286-8 in October. 
There were price declines for fir dimension 
and western cedar siding but these were 
almost entirely offset by scattered minor 
increases in plumbing, heating, electrical 
equipment and insulation materials. 

Non-residential building materials 

HMO = 100) changed from 125-9 to 126-0. 
Higher prices, chiefly for copper items and 
insulation materials, overbalanced decreases 
in fir lumber. 

U.S. Consumer Price Index, November 1955 

The United States consumer price index 
(1947-49 = 100) edged upward one-tenth of 
1 per cent from mid-October to mid- 
Xovember, the Bureau of Labor Statistics 



reported, rising from 114-$ to 115-0, the 
highest point reached in 1955 and the same 
as in August 1954. In November 1954 the 
index was 114-6. 

The November 1955 index was only 0-3 
per cent below the peak established in 
October 1953. 

U.K. Index of Retail Prices, September 1955 

The United Kingdom index of retail 
prices, compiled by the Ministry of Labour, 
jumped 0-7 per cent, from 112-5 to 113-2 
(Jan. 1952 = 100), between mid- August and 
mid-September 1955. The rise brought the 
index back to one-tenth of a point below 
the July reading. 

In mid-September 1954 the index was 
108-2. 



Publications Recently Received 

in Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not 
for sale by the Department of Labour. 
Persons wishing to purchase them should 
communicate with the publishers. Publica- 
tions listed may be borrowed by making 
application to the Librarian, Department 
of Labour, Ottawa. Students must apply 
through the library of their institution. 
Applications for loans should give the 
number (numeral) of the publication 
desired and the month in which it was 
listed in the Labour Gazette. 

List No. 89. 

Economic Conditions 

1. Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States of America. Committee 
on Economic Policy. Can We Depression- 
Proof Our Economy? Report. Washing- 
ton, 1955. Pp. 28. 

This report "suggests appropriate private 
and business policies designed to fortify us 
against serious contractions of the economy". 

2. United Nations, Economic and 
Social Council. Report covering the 
Period from 7 August 1954 to 5 August 
1055. New York, 1955. Pp. 118. 

Education 

3. Blauch, Lloyd Eblouk, ed. Educa- 
tion for the Professions. Washington, 
U.S. Office of Education, 1955. Pp. 317. 



"Most of the chapters were originally 
published as articles in the Office of 
Education periodical Higher Education" 
Cf. Preface. 

4. Hartmann, Heinz. Education for 
Business Leadership: The Role of the 
German " H ochschulen" (universities) . 
European Productivity Agency project 
No. 346. Paris, Organization for European 
Economic Co-operation, 1955. Pp. 116. 

A discussion of what West German 
universities can contribute to the education 
of young men to alleviate the shortage of 
trained executives in industry. A study 
prepared for the Industrial Relations Center, 
University of Chicago. 

Employment Management 

5. Hunt, Arch W. A Realistic Appraisal 
of Employee Evaluation. Waco, Texas, 
School of Business, Baylor University, 1955. 
Pp. 22. 

The author discusses the rating of 
employees. 

6. Mills, Geoffrey J. Incentives for the 
Clerical Worker. London, Incorporated 
Accountants' Research Committee, 1954. 
Pp. 8. 

A Paper presented at the Management 
Accounting Course at Balliol College, 
Oxford, in September 1954. 



110 



7. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Pension Plans and Their Admin- 
istration by F. Beatrice Brower. New York, 
1955. Pp. 53. 

8. Paterson, Donald Gildersleeve. What 
Have We Learned in Twenty Years and 
Placement? Minneapolis, University of 
Minnesota, 1954. Pp. 16. 

This report was prepared for the Twelfth 
annual Industrial Relations Conference at 
the University of Minnesota, April 7, 1954. 
Abbreviated bibliographic history of per- 
sonnel testing and selection procedures. 
Pp. 4. A review of some of the literature 
on employee selection and ability tests. 

9. Personnel Administration, Limited. 
Training Operatives. The PA. Analytical 
Method of Training. [London? 1955?] 
Pp. 10. 

Describes a method for training workers. 

10. U.S. Civil Service Commission. 
Evaluating Your Personnel Management. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1954, i.e. 1955. Pp. 88. 

11. U.S. Department of the Army. 
Promoting the Will to Work; Guide to 
Sound Management-Employee Relations. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1955. Pp. 78. 

This pamphlet points out that "sound 
management-employee relations are con- 
sidered essential to economical and efficient 
operations simply because it is possible to 
get a better day's work from supervisors 
and employees alike when mutually satis- 
factory relationships exist among them." 

Industrial Mobilization 

12. U.S. Congress. Joint Committee on 
Defense Production. Defense Production 
Act. Progress report No. 30. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1955. Pp. 66. 

Hearing before the Joint Committee on 
Defense Production, Congress of the United 
States, Eighty-Fourth Congress, First 
Session to hear Dr. Arthur S. Flemming, 
Director, Office of Defense Mobilization, on 
Progress of Defense Mobilization Program. 
April 15, 1955. 

13. U.S. Congress. Joint Committee on 
Defense Production. Defense Production 
Act. Progress report No. 31. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1955. Pp. 79. 

Hearing before the Joint Committee on 
Defense Production, Congress of the United 
States, Eighty-Fourth Congress, First 
Session, to hear Witnesses on the Activities 
of the Interior Department under the 
Defense Production Act. June 9, 1955. 

Industrial Relations 

14. Paterson, Donald Gildersleeve. 
Professionalism in the Field of Industrial 
Relations. Minneapolis, University of 
Minnesota, 1948. Pp. 3. 



Speech delivered at Sixth annual Indus- 
trial Relations Conference, March 18, 19, 
1948, University of Minnesota. 

15. Swedish Employers' Confederation. 
Perspective of Labour Conditions in 
Sweden by Miriam G. Paleologue. Stock- 
holm, 1954. Pp. 52. 

A survey of labour conditions and indus- 
trial relations in Sweden. 

16. Zachariah, K. A. Industrial Rela- 
tions and Personnel Problems, a Study with 
Particular Reference to Bombay. Bombay, 
Asia Publishing House, 1954. Pp. 207. 

Originally a thesis submitted to the 
University of Bombay for the degree of 
Ph.D. 

Interviewing 

17. Group, Vernard F. Employment 
Interviewer. Peapack, N. J., Personnel 
Services, Inc., cl955. Pp. 6. 

18. Michigan. University. Survey 
Research Center. Manual for Inter- 
viewers [of the Survey Research Center] 
Ann Arbor, University of Michigan, 1954. 
Pp. 130. 

Describes how to interview for various 
surveys sponsored by the Survey Research 
Center. 

Labour Organization 

19. International Confederation of 
Free Trade Unions. Another Hoax; an 
Exposure of the WFTU Charter of Trade 
Union Rights. Brussels, 1955. Pp. 40. 

The General Council of the World 
Federation of Trade Unions adopted the 
Charter of Trade Union Rights at a meet- 
ing in Warsaw in December 1954. This 
pamphlet contrasts the demands of the 
Charter with actual conditions in Communist 
countries which support the WFTU. 

20. Mercey, Arch A. The Loborers' 
Story, 1903-1953; the First Fifty Years of 
the International Hod Carriers', Building 
and Common Laborers' Union of America 
(AFL). Washington, Ransdell, 1954. Pp. 
315. 

21. Musson, Alfred Edward. The Con- 
gress of 1868; the Origins and Establish- 
ment of the Trades Union Congress. 
London, Trades Union Congress, 1955. 
Pp. 48. 

Labour Supply 

22. Blumen, Isadore. The Industrial 
Mobility of Labor as a Probability Process 
by Isadore Blumen, Marvin Kogan and 
Philip J. McCarthy. Ithaca, Cornell 
University, 1955. Pp. 163. 



Ill 



"The purpose of this study was to find, 
through research, some means of providing 
a probability model for describing the move- 
ment of workers among various industrial 
groups." 

23. Canada. National Employment 
Service. A Bulletin on the Supply and 
Demand Situation in Regard to University 
Graduates, September 1955. Ottawa, 1955. 
Pp. 27. 

Labour Classes 

24. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Work- 
ing and Living Conditions in Agriculture. 
Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1955. Pp. 13. 

25. South Africa, Department of 
Labour. Report for the Year ended 31st 
December, 1958, with ivhich are included 
the Reports of the Wage Board and the 
Workmen's Compensation Commissioner. 
Pretoria, Government Printer, 1955. Pp. 71. 

26. Szumski, Romuald. Labor and the 
Soviet System. New York, National 
Committee for a Free Europe [1951?] 
Pp. 30. 

This pamphlet describes labour conditions 
in Poland under the Communist regime. 

Productivity of Labour 

27. British Productivity Council. 
Standardization: an Aid to Productivity. 
London, 1955. Pp. 10. 

28. European Productivity Agency. 
Productivity Measurement. Volume 1, 
Concepts. Project No. 235. Paris, Organi- 
zation for European Economic Co-opera- 
tion, 1955. Pp. 143. 

29. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Case Study Data on Productivity and 
Factory Performance, Metal Containers. 
Prepared for the Foreign Operations Admin- 
istration, Industrial Technical Assistance 
Division. Washington G.P.O., 1954. Pp. 95. 

Race Problems 

30. Dowd, Herbert Walter. Non-White 
Land and Labor Policies in South West 
Africa from 1918 to 1948. Medford, Mass., 
Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 
Tufts College, 1954. Pp. 3-7. Abstract of 
thesis (Ph.D.) — Fletcher School of Law and 
Diplomacy, June 1954. 

31. Holloway, John Edward. The 
Problems of Race Relations in South 
Africa. New York, Union of South Africa 
Government Information Office [1955?] 
Pp. 47. 



Railroads 

32. Conference on Employment of 
Negroes in Operating Crafts of Prin- 
cipal Railroads in the State of New 
York., 1953. Report of the Conference . . . 
held at the Office of the State Commission 
against Discrimination . . . New York City, 
September 9, 1953. Reported by Jacob 
Wittner and Milton Rosenberg. [New 
York, 1953?] Pp. 7. 

33. Great Britain. British Transport 
Commission. Railways Reorganization 
Scheme. London, H.M.S.O., 1954. Pp. 21. 

The scheme suggests that railways should 
be reorganized into areas, each with its own 
board of management appointed by the 
Commission. 

Social Security 

34. Great Britain. Ministry of Pen- 
sions and National Insurance. Report 
for the Year 1954. London, H.M.S.O., 1955. 
Pp. 110. 

35. U.S. Social Security Administration. 
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance; Twenty 
Years of Social Security. Washington, 
G.P.O, 1955. Pp. 13. 

Unemployment 

36. Community Chest and Council of 
Greater Vancouver. Report on Registra- 
tion of Unemployed. Vancouver, 1955. 
Pp. 20. 

37. International Labour Office. Un- 
employment Insurance Schemes. Geneva, 
1955. Pp. 254. 

Wages and Hours 

38. British Columbia. Bureau of 
Economics and Statistics. Salary and 
Wage Rate Survey, 1955, Metropolitan 
Vancouver ; a Study of Salary and Wage 
Rates in Selected Occupations, in Business 
and Industrial Establishments in the 
Metropolitan Vancouver Area as of the 
Last Pay Period in April, 1955. Victoria, 
1955. Pp. 9. 

39. British Columbia. Bureau of 
Economics and Statistics. Salary and 
Wage Rate Survey, 1955, Metropolitan 
Victoria; a Study of Salary and Wage 
Rates in Selected Occupations, in Business 
and Industrial Establishments in the 
Metropolitan Victoria area as of Last Pay 
Period in April, 1955. Victoria, 1955. 
Pp. 9. 

40. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Wage 
Rates and Hours of Labour in Canada. 
Annual Report No. 37, October 1954- 
Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1955. Pp. 240. 



112 



41. Greve, Florence Roeiim. A Survey 
of 1954-55 Teacher Salary Schedules in 893 
IMS. Cities with Populations of 10,000 or 
Over. Compiled from figures furnished by 
the respective superintendents of schools in 
these cities. Chicago, American Federation 
of Teachers, 1955. Pp. 16. 

42. Harris, Evelyn Marjorie. Equal 
Pay, the Civil Service Scheme — Some First 
Thoughts on its Implications for Industry 
mi< I Commerce. London, Institute of Per- 
sonnel Management, 1955. Pp. 27. 

43. U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics. 
Wage Structure, Synthetic Textiles, 'Novem- 
ber 1954. Washington, G.P.O., 1955. Pp.41. 

44. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee 
on Labor and Public Welfare. Staff 
Report to the Subcommittee on Labor of 
the Committee on Labor and Public 
Welfare, United States Senate on Amend- 
ment of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 
1938 as amended by Fred H. Blum, Wash- 
ington, G.P.O., 1955. Pp. 124. 

Women 

45. Denmark. Ministry of Labour and 
Social Affairs. International Relations 
Division. Social Status of Women in 
Denmark. Copenhagen, 1955. Pp. 26. 

46. International Bureau of Education, 
Geneva. Access of Women to Education. 
Paris, UNESCO, 1952. Pp. 207. At head 
of title: 15th International Conference on 
Public Education convened by UNESCO 
and the I.B.E., Geneva, 1952. 

47. National Conference of Labour 
Women. 32nd, Harrogate, Eng., 1955. 
Report of the 32nd National Conference 
. . . held at Harrogate on April 19, 20 and 
21, 1955. London, Labour Party, 1955. 
Pp. 47. 

Workmen's Compensation 

48. Great Britain. Ministry of Pen- 
sions and National Insurance. Com- 
mittee Appointed to Review the Diseases 
Provisions of the National Insurance 
(Industrial Injuries,) Act. Report. 
London, H.M.S.O., 1955. Pp. 35. 

49. Toronto. University. Department 
of Public Health Administration. Work- 
men's Compensation in Ontario — A Study 
in Medical Administration. Toronto, 1955. 
Pp. 94. 

Miscellaneous 

50. Beaulieu, Marie Louis. Les Con- 
flits de Droit dans les Rapports Collectifs 
du Travail. Quebec, Les Presses Universi- 
t aires Laval, 1955. Pp. 540. 

Mr. Beaulieu is professor of Labour Law 
and Social Security at Laval University. 
This is a study of labour legislation in 
Quebec. 



51. Canada. National Film Board. 
Films and Filmstrips for Canadian Indus- 
try. Ottawa. Prepared for the Informa- 
tion Braneh of the Canadian Department 
of Labour by the National Film Board of 
Canada, 1955. Pp. 81. 

52. Great Britain. Factory Depart- 
ment. Fencing and Safety Precautions for 
Col Ion Spinning and Weaving Machinery. 
London, H.M.S.O., 1955. 2 Volumes. Con- 
tents: Pt. 1. Opening, Blowing and Card 
Room Processes, including Waste Machin- 
ery; Pt. 2. Spinning, Doubling and Wind- 
ing Machinery. 

53. Institute of Public Administration 
of Canada. Proceedings of the Sixth 
Annual Conference . . . Ottawa, September 
8-11, 1954. Edited by Philip T. Clark, 
[Toronto? Distributed for The Institute of 
Public Administration of Canada by . the 
University of Toronto Press, 1955?] Pp. 370. 

54. Michigan. University. Institute 
of Public Administration. Three Aspects 
of Records Management, a Transcript of 
Remarks made at the Seventh Annual 
Management Institute, combined with the 
Annual Midwinter Meeting, Michigan 
Chapter, International City Managers' 
Association, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan. Sponsored by the Insti- 
tute of Public Administration, University 
of Michigan in Cooperation with the 
Michigan Municipal League and the 
Michigan Chapter, International City 
Managers' Association. February, 1955. 
Edited by Theodore H. Drews. Ann Arbor, 
1955. Pp. 37. 

This pamphlet suggests means of prevent- 
ing business records getting out of hand. 
One speaker recommends microfilming as a 
solution. 

55. Plunkett, Thomas J. Municipal 
Organization in Canada; A Study of the 
Structure and Forms of Municipal Gov- 
ernment Organization in Canada. Mont- 
real, Canadian Federation of Mayors and 
Municipalities, 1955. Pp. 157. 

56. Society for Advancement of Man- 
agement. A Survey of Time Study Policy 
and Practice in the United States and 
Canada, 297 Plants, 180 Companies, 17 
Industry Classifications; a Report by the 
S.A.M. National Research Committee on 
the Project, Aptitude and Proficiency Tests 
for Time Study Personnel. New York,. 
1955. Pp. 19. 

57. U.S. Bureau of Apprenticeship. 
Apprenticeship Past and Present; a Story 
of Apprenticeship Training in the Skilled 
Trades since Colonial Days. 3rd ed. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1955. Pp. 34. 



66180—8 



113 



Labour Statistics 



Page 

Tables A-l to A-4— Labour Force 114 

Table B-l — Labour Income. 115 

Tables C-l to C-6 — Employment, Hours and Earnings 116 

Tables D-l to D-5— Employment Service Statistics 122 

Tables E-l to E-4 — Unemployment Insurance 128 

Tables F-l and F-2— Prices 131 

Tables G-l and G-2— Strikes and Lockouts 132 

Tables H-l and H-2— Industrial Accidents 136 



A — Labour Force 

TABLE A-l.— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION, WEEK ENDED OCTOBER 22, 1955 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Soukce: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 







P.E.I. 






Man. 


Canada 


Nfld. 


N.S. 
N.B. 


Que. 


Ont, 


Sask. 
Alta. 


5,619 


114 


425 


1,602 


2,034 


987 


780 


* 


51 


160 


210 


329 


4,839 


110 


374 


1,442 


1,824 


658 


4,339 


95 


335 


1,242 


1,516 


800 


751 


* 


46 


158 


200 


319 


3,588 


91 


289 


1,084 


1,316 


481 


1,280 


19 


90 


360 


518 


187 


29 


* 


* 


* 


10 


10 


1,251 


19 


85 


358 


508 


177 


5,619 


114 


425 


1,602 


2,034 


987 


535 


15 


41 


195 


168 


87 


721 


17 


54 


237 


239 


127 


2,610 


53 


190 


736 


' 956 


454 


1,535 


26 


118 


387 


587 


276 


218 




22 


47 


84 


43 


5,477 


111 


408 


1,550 


1,989 


972 


4,222 


92 


320 


1,199 


1,480 


788 


1,255 


19 


88 


351 


509 


184 


774 


* 


50 


159 


208 


328 


4,703 


107 


358 


1,391 


1,781 


644 


4,279 


93 


319 


1,261 


1,641 


587 


3,136 


76 


242 


936 


1,170 


427 


1,143 


17 


77 


325 


471 


160 


142 


• 


17 


52 


45 


15 


4,971 


141 


445 


1,391 


1,628 


909 


934 


37 


91 


233 


295 


173 


4,037 


104 


354 


1,158 


1,333 


736 



B.C. 



The Labour Force 

Both Sexes 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

Males 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

Females 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

All Ages 

14 — 19 years 

20—24 years 

25 — 44 years 

45 — 64 years 

65 years and over 

Persons with Jobs 

All status groups 

Males 

Females 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

Paid Workers 

Males , 

Females 

Persons Without Jobs and Seeking Work 

Both Sexes 

Persons not in the Labour Force 

Both Sexes 

Males 

Females 



457 

26 

431 

351 
24 

327 

106 

104 

457 

29 

47 

221 

141 

19 



447 
343 
104 



422 



378 
285 



457 
105 
352 



Less than 10,000. 



114 



TABLE A-2.— PERSONS LOOKING FOR WORK IN CANADA 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 





Week Ended 
Oct. 22, 1955 


Week Ended 
Sept. 17, 1955 


Week Ended 
Oct. 23, 1954 




Total 


Seeking 
Full-Time 
Work(i) 


Total 


Seeking 
Full-Time 
Work(i) 


Total 


Seeking 
Full-Time 
WorkO) 




154 

142 
61 
50 
14 
10 

* 

* 

12 
* 

10 


143 

132 

11 


150 

138 
66 
40 
14 
10 

12 

* 


135 
125 

10 

* 
* 


196 

180 
66 
60 

28 
17 

* 

16 

11 


187 




173 


















13—18 months. . . 









Worked 


14 




* 


15 — 34 hours 


* 







0) To obtain number seeking part-time work, subtract figures in this column from those in the "Total" column. 
* Less than 10,000. 



B — Labour Income 

TABLE B-l.— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

($ Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



— 


Agricul- 
ture, 
Forestry, 

Fishing, 
Trapping, 

Mining 


Manu- 
facturing 


Construc- 
tion 


Utilities, 
Transport- 
ation, 
Communi- 
cation, 
Storage, 
Trade 


Finance, 
Services, 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 


Supple- 
mentary 
Labour 
Income 


Total 




49 
55 
72 

76 
72 
72 

82 
84 
81 

78 

71 
68 
59 
59 
69 
77 
80 
81 
81 


214 
231 
272 
303 
329 
323 

325 
323 
321 
325 

318 
327 
330 
336 
340 
346 
346 
353 
355 


47 
47 
52 
63 
70 
68 

79 
83 

77 
71 

60 
57 
56 
63 
72 
86 
86 
92 
92 


169 
180 
208 
233 
252 
261 

267 
269 
269 
269 

257 
257 
259 
266 
273 
279 
283 
282 
285 


147 
156 
178 
199 
218 
239 

249 
249 
253 
253 

250 
252 
257 
253 
258 
265 
260 
261 
273 


21 
24 
28 
32 
35 
36 

36 
36 
36 
36 

35 
35 
36 
36 
37 
38 
38 
39 
39 


647 


1950 — Average 


693 




810 




906 


1953 — A verage 


976 


1954 — Average 


999 


1954— September 


1,038 


October 


1,044 


November 


1,037 


December 


1,032 


1955 — January 


991 




996 




997 




1,013 


Mav 


1,049 


June 


1,091 


July 


1,093 


August 


1,108 


September 


1,125 









115 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees— At October 1, employers 
In the principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employment of 2,676,436. 

TABLE C-l.— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 =100). (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls, (D.B.S.) 



Year and Month 



Industrial Composite 1 



Index Numbers 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 


Average 
Wages and 


Payrolls 


Salaries 


95-7 


80-7 


84-2 


99-7 


93-2 


93-2 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


101-5 


106-0 


104-4 


108-8 


125-6 


115-5 


111-6 


140-3 


126-0 


113-4 


151-5 


133-4 


109-9 


151-3 


137-1 


109-4 


128-0 


117-4 


107-4 


132-7 


123-8 


107-6 


134-7 


125-6 


107-5 


135-5 


126-4 


107-2 


135-2 


126-5 


110-3 


138-4 


125-9 


112-1 


140-4 


125-6 


114-1 


142-7 


125-4 


115-2 


145-8 


127-0 


116-4 


148-9 


128-3 


116-2 


150-1 


129-5 


116-1 


151-3 


130-6 


113-0 


141-6 


125-3 


110-3 


145-6 


132-0 


110-0 


147-0 


133-6 


1100 


146-7 


133-4 


110-9 


148-2 


133-9 


112-4 


151-5 


134-4 


114-9 


154-5 


134-0 


115-6 


155-3 


133-9 


116-6 


157-0 


134-1 


116-9 


158-7 


135-3 


115-9 


157-4 


135-3 


114-1 


154-9 


135-3 


109-9 


145-3 


131-7 


107-0 


146-2 


136-1 


106-6 


147-6 


137-8 


105-6 


145-7 


137-5 


106-2 


146-8 


137-7 


109-0 


148-9 


136-0 


111-7 


153-9 


137-3 


112-3 


155-4 


137-7 


112-9 


155-5 


137-2 


113-4 


157-1 


137-9 


112-5 


157-2 


139-2 


1121 


156-2 


138-7 


109-1 


149-2 


136-1 


105-8 


J 48 


140-0 


105-6 


150-3 


141-7 


105-7 


150-0 


141-2 


107-4 


153-1 


141-9 


111-7 


158-8 


141-4 


115-3 


164-1 


141-7 


116-1 


166-0 


142-3 


118-3 


169-0 


142-2 


118-3 


170-0 


143-1 



Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Manufacturing 



Index Numbers 



Employ- 
ment 



Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 



Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 



1947— Average.. 
1948— Average.. 
1949— Average.. 
1950 — Average.. 
1951— Average.. 
1952— Average.. 
1953— Average.. 
1954— Average.. 

1952— Jan. 1 

Feb. 1 

Mar. 1 

Apr. 1 

May 1 

June 1 

July 1 

Aug. 1 

Sept. 1 

Oct. 1 

Nov. 1 

Dec. 1 

1953— Jan. 1 

Feb. 1 

Mar. 1 

Apr. 1 

May 1 

June 1 

July 1 

Aug. 1 

Sept. 1 

Oct. 1 

Nov. 1 

Dec. 1 

1954— Jan. 1 

Feb. 1 

Mar. 1 

Apr. 1 

May 1 

June 1 

July 1 

Aug. 1 

Sept. 1 

Oct. 1 

Nov. 1 

Dec. 1 



1955— Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
May 
June 
July 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Oct. 



36.19 
40.06 
42.96 
44.84 
49.61 
54.13 
57.30 
58.88 

50.42 
53.19 
53.95 
54.32 
54.34 
54.08 
53.96 
53.89 
54.55 
55.12 
55.65 
56.12 

53.81 
56.72 
57.40 
57.33 
57.52 
57.72 
57.57 
57.52 
57.61 
58.11 
58.14 
58.13 

56.56 
58.47 
59.22 
59.06 
59.15 
58.42 
58.98 
59.17 
58.93 
59.25 
59.78 
59.59 

58.49 
60.15 



60.96 
60.76 
60.87 
61.13 
61.11 
61.46 



97-2 
100-1 
100-0 
100-9 
108-0 
109-3 
113-3 
107-7 

104-4 
105-3 
106-5 
107-0 
107-3 
108-5 
108-8 
110-3 
112-8 
114-2 
113-6 
113-5 

111-4 
111-9 
112-7 
112-9 
113-1 
113-4 
114-7 
114-4 
115-6 
115-2 
1131 
110-9 

108-0 
108-3 
108-3 
107-9 
107-3 
107-7 
108-8 
108-0 
108-3 
108-1 
106-3 
105-4 

103-2 
103-6 
105-7 
106-5 
107-3 
109-3 
111-6 
111-4 
114-0 
113-2 



100-0 
106-2 
126-1 
139-7 
152-4 
150-0 

123* -2 
132-6 
135-0 
137-7 
138-1 
138-6 
138-6 
139-9 
144-7 
148-3 
149-1 
151-0 

139-1 
149-7 
151-9 
152-6 
152-9 
154-0 
155-0 
153-9 
155-4 
157-1 
155-0 
152-8 



143 

150 

151 

150 

150 

149 

151 

150-9 

150-8 

151-8 

150-5 

149-7 

143-5 
148-2 
152-5 
154-2 
156-6 
158-9 
161-5 
161-0 
164-9 
165-7 



92-5 
100-0 
105-1 
116-6 
127-6 
134-2 
138-6 

117-9 
125-9 
126-7 
128-6 
128-6 
127-6 
127-2 
126-7 
128-2 
129-8 
131-1 
133-0 

124-9 
133-8 
134-8 
135-2 
135-2 
135-2 
134-5 
134-0 
133-8 
135-8 
136-4 
137-1 

132-5 
137-8 
139-0 
139-2 
139-4 
137-7 
138-7 
138-9 
138-4 
139-6 
140-8 
141-2 

138-3 
142-2 
143-5 
143-9 
145-1 
144-5 
143-9 
143-7 
143-8 
145-5 



36.34 
40.67 
43.97 
46.21 
51.25 
56.11 
59.01 
60.94 

51.82 
55.35 
55.72 
56.55 
56.55 
56 09 
55.95 
55.70 
56.35 
57.09 
57.65 
58.46 

54.92 
58.82 
59.25 
59.43 
59.43 
59.43 
59.16 
58.93 
58.83 
59.69 
59.98 



58.24 
60.60 
61.13 
61.19 
61.30 
60.54 
60.99 
61.07 
60.87 
61.39 
61.89 
62.07 



62.53 
63.11 
63.28 
63.81 
63.54 
63.28 
63.18 
63.24 
63.99 



1 Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing, 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation. (7) Trade, (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning planta. business and reore- 
ational service.) 



116 



TABLE C-2. 



AREA SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES 
AND SALARIES 



(1949 = 100) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls (D.B.S.) 



Area 


Employment 
Index Numbers 


Average Weekly Wages and 
Salaries, in Dollars 


Oot. t 
1955 


Sept. 1 
1955 


Oct. 1 
1954 


Oct. 1 
1955 


Sept. 1 
1955 


Oct. 1 

1954 


(a) Provinces 
Newfoundland 


147-3 
122-6 
103-1 
110-9 
118-6 
116-8 
109-5 
1240 
142-6 
120-2 

118-3 

129-6 
89-9 
115-1 
98-8 
112-6 
104-0 
110-4 
77-1 
1170 
117-5 
93-4 
85-2 
143-5 
106-3 
124 
111-7 
87-0 
101-3 
109-2 
132-9 
113-5 
126-8 
105-0 
120-3 
112-7 
107-4 
118-7 
123-8 
165-3 
146-7 
111-9 
119-9 


144 1 

123-6 
101-6 
111 4 
117-G 
117-0 
109-6 
126-3 
143-8 
121-8 

118-3 

131-7 

89-7 
113-0 

96-5 
112-5 
104-6 
111-2 

76-7 
115-8 
117-1 

96-6 
160-2 
146-0 
119-7 
122-3 
110-3 

84-4 
101-0 
109-4 
133-5 
114-6 
126-1 

92-5 
122-0 
114-5 
107-2 
119-1 
124-3 
165-5 
148-8 
113-6 
120-0 


143-5 
120-6 
101-5 
102-0 
113-8 
111-8 
109-2 
123-6 
135-5 
112-6 

113-4 

121-8 

92-5 

114-0 

95-8 

115-5 

100-6 

108-6 

70-9 

111-9 

112-0 

94-3 

99-7 

149-2 

111-2 

120-5 

104-3 

83-7 

97-0 

102-9 

135-9 

111-2 

114-2 

83-0 

98-6 

109-9 

107-0 

119-6 

125-5 

155-6 

138-3 

104-8 

117-2 


54.43 
44.59 
49.94 
51.57 
59.22 
64.17 
58.62 
58.77 
62.30 
66.31 

61.46 

45.12 

60 93 
48.69 
47.74 
52.47 
52.50 
58.82 
53.67 
60.42 
57.22 
64.26 
64.35 
64.40 
72.39 
65.41 
66.73 
60.22 
56.55 
60.80 
77.26 
58.76 
75.51 
72.81 
72.72 
62.87 
56.26 
56.07 
54.03 
59.79 
59.71 
64.90 
60.03 


55.88 
44.41 
50.32 
51.49 
68.90 
63.47 
58.60 
58 81 
62.66 
65.94 

61.11 

45.77 
62.46 
49.76 
49.57 
52.00 
50.14 
59.02 
53.08 
60.38 
57.10 
63.50 
67.41 
64.35 
70.15 
64.91 
66.30 
59.23 
55.56 
59.70 
76.69 
58.86 
74.14 
72.26 
73.85 
62.74 
56.03 
56.47 
54.86 
60.78 
59.70 
63.61 
59.56 


55.15 
44.04 




49 66 




50.85 




56.75 




61.61 




56.96 




56.51 


Alberta (including Northwest Territories) 


60.70 




64.45 




59.25 


(b) Metropolitan Areas 

St. John's 

Sydney. 

Halifax 


45.02 
60.92 
47.95 
47.70 


Quebec 


49.18 
50.15 




56.21 




51.72 




57.79 


Ottawa— Hull 


54.76 




62.90 




61,38 




64.53 




67 39 




63.24 




63.72 




58.35 


Gait 


55.02 




57.36 




73.33 




57.52 




73.17 




68.16 


Sault Ste. Marie 


67.05 


Ft. William— Pt. Arthur 


61.14 
54.30 




54.22 


Saskatoon 

Edmonton 


52.98 
59.69 

58.75 


Vancouver 


61.99 
58.30 







117 



TABLE C-3.- 



INDLSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY 
WAGES AND SALARIES 



(1949 = 100) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls, (D.B.S.) 



Industry 



Minim! 



Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas. 
Non-metal 



Manufacturing 

Food and beverages 

Ileal products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables . 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Biscuits and crackers 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery mfg 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Non metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glaaa and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

MMicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. . 

Acids alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 



Construction 



Building and structures 

Building 

Engineering work 

Highways, bridges and streets . 



Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants. 

Industrial composite 



Employment Index Numbers 



Oct. 1 Sept. 1 Oct. 1 
1955 1955 1954 



116 6 

119-7 
81-2 

155-6 
103-4 
67-8 
220-8 
143-3 

113 2 

119-0 

121-3 

177-6 

107-3 

109-0 

99-0 

107-5 

79-6 

115-2 

88-5 

90-8 

87-4 

88-5 

74-2 

87-2 

95-1 

99-5 

95-3 

84-0 

113-6 

119-6 

108-2 

96-5 

123-1 

126-4 

115-3 

112-6 

106-4 

61-9 

130-1 

105-5 

103-8 

100-3 

111-3 

114-9 

113-9 

122-6 

317-3 

104-3 

92-9 

84-3 

136-6 

129-5 

132-4 

108-8 

154-6 

143-4 

131-5 

115-7 

126-7 

129-7 

124-0 

112-2 

128-7 

106-3 

137-5 

138-0 
141-1 
124-8 
136-7 

119 5 

115-9 
106-5 

118 3 



117 4 

121-0 
81-5 
157-8 
102-5 
66-5 
221-5 
147-9 

114 

124-6 

123-3 

213-9 

106-7 

110-0 

100-6 

108-4 

78-7 

113-4 

87-7 

90-5 

85-7 

87-3 

72-8 

86-7 

93-1 

97-9 

92-9 

82-0 

115-4 

122-2 

108-1 

97-7 

124-4 

128-8 

113-5 

111-7 

105-3 

63-2 

129-9 

103-9 

96-3 

98-7 

109-5 

115-4 

114-8 

128-6 

315-1 

113-2 

119-7 

84-6 

134-0 

128-8 

132-3 

107-3 

154-6 

140-3 

133-1 

115-5 

135-5 

130-4 

124-7 

112-3 

127-7 

103-6 

138-9 



138< 

141 
126 
139 



121 6 

118-9 
107-1 

118-3 



112-6 

115-4 
83-1 
145-5 
100-1 
74-4 
185-2 
138-8 

108 1 

118-4 

115-9 

196-2 

107-0 

101-7 

101-1 

106-2 

78-2 

104-1 

86-5 

89-2 

80-0 

79-4 

68-2 

80-2 

93-1 

96-5 

96-7 

80-2 

106-6 

110-9 

104-0 

91-8 

118-0 

121-8 

108-8 

111-1 

97-6 

45-2 

130-3 

98-3 

101-1 

89-2 

108-4 

95-1 

110-0 

121-1 

339-0 

78-5 

92-8 

86-2 

152-6 

120-2 

121-8 

101-7 

140-5 

132-1 

116-3 

109-4 

105-3 

122-8 

122-1 

108-2 

118-1 

106-5 

127-7 

129-2 
125-5 
152-1 
125-3 

1161 

114-4 
103-5 

113-4 



Average Weekly Wages and 
Salaries, in Dollars 



Oct. 1 Sept. 1 Oct. 1 
1955 1955 1954 



73.83 

76.91 
68.79 
80.86 
71.04 
60.01 
82.21 
68.36 

63.99 

54.40 
65.56 
41.82 
62.62 
53.90 
48.63 
71.02 
63.98 
66.01 
44.78 
42.61 
52.91 
51.24 
50.66 
57.90 
42.00 
40.76 
41.74 
43.85 
57.18 
58.48 
55.93 
52.47 
75.61 
80.88 
61.51 
68.16 
72.63 
68.26 
75.49 
67.21 
63.41 
73.47 
70.76 
79.51 
70.51 
72.26 
77.01 
81.61 
71.25 
63.93 
65.69 
73.73 
68.36 
70.51 
79.60 
68.90 
67.12 
63.47 
64.16 
90.20 
70.66 
65.38 
78.03 
55.03 

63.21 

68.58 
68.06 
71.13 
54.50 

40.87 

35.15 
38.21 

61.46 



73.34 

76.20 
67.99 
80.16 
71.54 
59.36 
83.59 
66.54 

63.24 

54.62 
65.33 
43.96 
62.18 
53.74 
47.72 
71.45 
62.16 
63.66 
44.63 
42.81 
51.73 
49.97 
49.72 
56.66 
42.04 
40.79 
42.83 
43.08 
56.59 
57.90 
55.31 
51.79 
75.84 
81.16 
61.13 
67.40 
71.75 
66.07 
74.72 
66.93 
62.60 
71.87 
69.06 
78.81 
72.47 
69.03 
75.54 
72.61 
67.10 
61.17 
67.19 
73.05 
67.40 
69.47 
79.09 
68.68 
66.66 
62.60 
63.29 
88.73 
70.14 
64.67 
78.43 
54.81 

63.44 

68.78 
67.74 
73.91 
54.91 

40.21 

34.59 
37.61 

61.11 



118 



Tables C-l and C-8 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms (ban Tables C-l to <-:{. 
They relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables C-l to 
C-S relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage-earners of the co-operative firms. 

TABLE C-i. -HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES 

(Hourly- Rated Wage-Earners) Source: Man- Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 





Average 


Hours 


Worked 


Average Hourly Earnings 
(in cents) 




Oct. 1, 
1955 


Sept. 1, 
1955 


Oct. 1, 
1954 


Oct. 1, 
1955 


Sept. 1, 
1956 


Oct. 1, 
1954 


Newfoundland 


40-1 
40-7 
42-1 
42-9 
41-4 
40-4 
39-5 
39-0 
38-3 


41-4 
40-9 
41-8 
42-7 
40-9 
40-2 
39-9 
40-3 
38-2 


42-3 
41 -5 

42-2 
42-3 
41-0 
40-5 
39-6 
40-3 
38-5 


135-4 
127-6 

129-4 
130-8 
151-7 
138-5 
1530 
150-6 
174-5 


130-6 
126-3 
129-1 
130-4 
150-6 
137-4 
1520 
148-6 
"172-5 


134-1 
120-6 




122-5 




127-1 




1 46 • 1 




135-1 




146-5 


Alberta(') 


146-8 


British Columbia ( 2 ) 


167-7 







(!) Includes Northwest Territories. 

( 2 ) Includes Yukon Territory. 

Note: Information on hours and earnings by cities is obtainable from Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings (D.B.S.) 



119 



TABLE C-5. -HOURS AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Uatod Wage Earners) 

Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 

(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 



Oct. 1 Sept.l Oct. 1 
1955 1955 1954 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

•Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

"Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery manufacturing 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

•Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

•Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

•Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery and equipment . 
•Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

•Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Construction 

Buildings and structures 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 



Average Hours 



43 
40 

39 

43 

44 

41 

40 

40-0 

40-0 

42-7 

43- 

39-7 

41-8 

42-0 

40 

40-4 

43-3 

42-4 

43 

45-1 

38-7 

38 

36 

41 

42 

41 

44 

43-5 

42 

42-4 

42-8 

40-3 

42-4 

38-6 

41-4 

42-4 

43-0 

44-1 

43-0 

41-5 

42-6 

40-8 

41-7 

41-7 

41-0 

39-2 

40-5 

41-4 

41-7 

42-5 

41-0 

41-4 

41-1 

44-0 

44 

42-4 

41-1 

41-4 

41-7 

41-6 

41-7 

41-9 

41-1 

41-4 

40-9 

42-5 

45-1 

40-5 

40 

40-7 



no. 

43-2 

44-1 

45-4 

43-5 

40-7 

39-2 

44-3 

43-5 

41-2 

42-0 

39-8 

45-1 

43-4 

43-6 

39-9 

40-1 

40-8 

40-7 

40-4 

42-5 

41-4 

43-3 

44-0 

38-7 

38-3 

37-1 

40-6 

42-4 

41-7 

44-1 

43-5 

42-7 

42 

42-5 

39 

42-0 

40-0 

40-7 

42-2 

42-1 

43 

42-1 

41 

43 

38 

41 

36-4 

37-5 

37-4 

41-9 

41-2 

41-4 

42-1 

41-0 

41-2 

40-5 

43-9 

44-0 

42-0 

40-7 

41-2 

40-9 

41-7 

41-1 

41-2 

41-2 

41-8 

41-2 

43-1 

44-7 

40-6 

41-1 

40-2 



Oct. 1 Sept.l Oct. 1 
1955 1955 1954 



no. 

43-3 

44-4 

46-1 

43-4 

40-7 

40-4 

41-3 

44-0 

41-3 

42-0 

40-0 

44-7 

42-1 

43-5 

39-8 

40-3 

41 

38-7 

37-6 

42-7 

40 

44-0 

45 

37 

37-0 

35-3 

40 

42-3 

41 

43 

42-7 

42 

42 

42-0 

40 

41 

39 

40 

42 

42-7 

42 

42-2 

40-1 

41 

40 

41-7 

39-6 

38-6 

39-7 

42-8 

41-5 

41-8 

41-7 

41-3 

40-9 

40-4 

43-8 

44 

42 

41 

41 

41 

41 

41 

41 

41-0 

41-8 

41-6 

42-1 

45-4 

40-8 

41-1 

40-8 



Average Hourly 
Earnings 



cts. 

161-8 
166-6 
139-7 
181-1 
156-1 
148-1 
173-4 
151-8 
144-8 
121-6 
154-2 
95-1 
140-1 
110-3 
163-1 
146-0 
150-3 
102-2 
98-3 
112-1 
113-0 
105-7 
116-6 
97-8 
96-9 
102-9 
96-9 
129-8 
137-1 
118-4 
113-8 
168-3 
180-7 
131 
172 
166-0 
166-2 
167-7 
149 
142 
163-2 
158 
186-2 
157-8 
167 
174-1 
183 
162-5 
159-8 
159-7 
168-8 
146-6 
157-3 
183-5 
150-6 
164-3 
146-3 
136-6 
144-9 
199-6 
153-2 
125-4 
174-6 
1180 
156-7 
132-5 
150-7 
163-2 
125-1 
146-7 
86-0 
85-6 
82-4 



cts. 

160-5 
164-9 
139-0 
178-7 
155-9 
147-5 
173-1 
150-4 
143-8 
118-7 
152-9 
91-2 
140-0 
110-1 
164-1 
145-5 
147 
101-7 
97-8 
111-8 
113-7 
104 
116-4 
97-9 
96-5 
103-7 
96-9 
128 
135-3 
118 
112-2 
168 
180-7 
132- 
171- 
164- 
155-0 
166-4 
148-9 
141 
162 
157-2 
184 
162 
166 
173-0 
178-4 
166-9 
160-0 
159-3 
3 
3 
3 



Oct. 1 Sept.l Oct. 1 
1955 1955 1954 



145 
155 
183-1 
151-1 
164-1 
146-0 
136-3 
145-0 
195-6 
152-8 
126-1 
174-5 
118-2 
155-9 
131-6 
1500 
162-8 
124-5 
146-2 
84-2 
83-1 
81-8 



cts. 

157-0 

161-3 

137-6 

175-2 

153-5 

148-7 

168.-3 

146-0 

139-7 

114 

148-7 

89' 
136 
104 
155' 
141-2 
145-2 

99-6 

96-2 
109 
111-5 
104 
114 

98 

97-8 
103-5 

98-8 
126-2 
133-8 
114-8 
108 
161 
172 
127 
166 
158-0 
154-3 
165-3 
146-6 
141-9 
156-4 
152-8 



Average Weekly 
Wages 



150-1 



166 

142 

132 

141 

191 

146 

121 

167 

116 

151 

128-1 

144-7 

156-1 

121-2 

141-7 

84-7 

84- 

80- 



70.38 

73.97 

64.26 

79.14 

63.69 

58.65 

75.60 

67.70 

60.09 

49.25 

61.68 

38.04 

59.82 

48.31 

64.75 

61.03 

63.13 

41.80 

39.71 

48.54 

47. 

46.30 

52 

37.85 

36.92 

37.35 

40.21 

55.17 

57.03 

52.81 

49.50 

71.53 

76.62 

56.45 

69.68 

70.38 

64.15 

69.43 

63.52 

61.40 

71.97 

68.28 

77.27 

67.22 

68.34 

72.60 

76.56 

66.63 

62.64 



61.13 
66.85 
75.24 
62.35 
67.53 
64.37 
61.20 
61.44 
82.04 
63.42 
52.29 
72.63 
49.21 
65.66 
54.46 
62.39 
66.75 
53.17 
66.16 
34.83 
34.92 
33.54 



69.34 

72.72 

63.11 

77.73 

63.45 

57.82 

76.68 

65.42 

59.25 

49.85 

60.85 

41.13 

60.76 

48.00 

65.48 

58.35 

60.30 

41.39 

39.51 

47.52 

47.07 

45.38 

51.22 

37.89 

36.96 

38.47 

39.34 

54.53 

56.42 

52.30 

48.81 

72.12 

77.34 

56.27 

68.39 

69. 

62.00 

67.72 

62.84 

59.53 

70.54 

66.18 

76.32 

70.76 

64.51 

71.10 

64.94 

62.59 

59.84 

66.75 

69.34 

60.15 

65.38 

75.07 

62.25 

66.46 

64.09 

59.97 

60.90 

79 

62.95 

51.57 

72.77 

48.58 

64.23 

54.22 

62.70 

67.07 

53. 

65.35 

34.19 

34.15 

32.88 



Durable manufactured goods industries. 



120 



TABLE C-6. 



EARNINGS, HOURS AND REAL EARNINGS FOR WAGE EARNERS IN 
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN CANADA 



Source: Man Hours and Hourly Earnings: Prices and Price Indexes, I). M.S. 



Period 



Monthly Average 1949. 
Monthly Average 1950. 
Monthly Average 1951 . 
Monthly Average 1952. 
Monthly Average 1953. 
Monthly Average 1954. 



Week Preceding 
September 
October 
November 
December 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 



1954. 
1954. 
1954. 

1954. 



1955.. 

1955... 

1955... 

1955... 

1955... 

1955... 

1955... 

1955... 

19550) 



Average 

Hours 
Worked 

per Week 



42-3 
42-3 
41-8 
41-5 
41-3 
40-0 



40-9 
41-3 
41-3 

41-2 

41- 1" 

41-0 
41-2 
411 
41-2 
410 
40-9 
40-8 
41-2 



Average 

Hourly 

Earnings 



98-6 
L03-8 
116-8 

129-2 
135-8 
140-8 



139-5 
139-7 
140-5 
141-2 

142-8 
142-7 
143-5 
144-3 
145-4 
145-5 
145-0 
145-1 
144-0 



Average 

Weekb 

Earnings 



41 71 
43.82 
48.82 
53.62 
56.09 
57.16 



57.06 
57.70 
58.03 
58.17 

58.69 1 
58.51 
59.12 
59.31 
59.90 
59.66 
59.31 
59.20 
59.33 



Index Numbers (Av. 1949«»100) 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



1001) 
105- 1 
1170 
128-6 
134-5 
137-0 



136-8 
138-3 
139 1 
139-5 

140-7 
140-3 
141-7 
142-2 
143-6 
143-0 
142-2 
141-9 
142-2 



( lonsumer 
Price 
[nde 



100-0 
102-9 
113-7 
116-5 
115-5 
116-2 



116-8 
116-8 
116-8 
116-6 

116-4 
116-3 
1160 
116-1 
116-4 
115-9 
116-0 
116-4 
116-8 



Average 

Heal 

Weeklj 
Earnings 



100- 1. 
102-1 

102'. 

no-; 
116-5 

117-<i 



1171 
118-4 
1191 
119-6 

120-9 
120-6 
122-2 
122-5 
123-4 
123-4 
122-6 
121-9 
121-7 



Note: Average Real Weekly Earnings were computed by dividing the Consumer Price Index into the average 
weekly earnings index. (Average 1949 = 100) by the Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 
* Figures adjusted for holidays. The actual figures for January 1, 1955 are 39*3 and $56.12. 
( J ) Latest figures subject to revision. 



66180—9 



121 



D — National Employment Service Statistics 

Tables D-l to D-5 are based on regular statistical reports from local offices of the 
National Employment Service. These statistics are compiled from two different reporting 
forms, UIC 751: statistical report on employment operations by industry, and UIC 757: 
inventory of registrations and vacancies by occupation. The data on applicants and 
vacancies in these two reporting forms are not identical. 

TABLE D-l.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 



Month 



Date Nearest: 

December 1 

December 1 

December 1 

December 1 

December 1 

December 1 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 1 

October 1 

November 1 

December 1 



1949... 
1950... 
1951... 
1952... 
1953.. 

1954.. 

1955.. 
1955... 
1955... 
1955.. 
1955... 
1955... 
1955... 
1955... 
1955... 
1955... 
19550) 
19550) 



Unfilled Vacancies* 



Male 



10,400 
32,081 
29,933 
19,544 
15,446 

16,104 

8,420 
8,276 
9,154 
10,611 
15,508 
21,675 
18,741 
18,363 
26,320 
28,794 
24,268 
26,895 



Female 



12,085 
11,039 
9,094 
15,738 
11,868 

10,504 

7,776 
8,604 
9,509 
11,506 
14,655 
18,451 
17,392 
16,665 
19,536 
18,225 
14,665 
14,969 



Total 



22,485 
43,120 
39,027 
35,282 
27,314 

26,608 

16,196 
16,880 
18,663 
22,117 
30,163 
40,126 
36,133 
35,028 
45,856 
47,019 
38,933 
41,864 



Live Applications for Employment 



Male 



164,345 
124,850 
138,946 
142,788 
241,094 

255,811 

371,959 
483,380 
510,551 
505,472 
394,621 
205,630 
152,711 
132,710 
121,945 
117,723 
136,620 
194,478 



Female 



56,439 
61,456 
69,071 
51,725 
74,513 

85,229 

93,805 
117,651 
118,035 
114,572 
98,601 
76,273 
77,865 
72,674 
63,738 
63,545 
69,715 
73,852 



Total 



220,784 
186,306 
208,017 
194,513 
315,607 

341,040 

465,764 
601,031 
628,586 
620,044 
493,222 
281,903 
230,576 
205,384 
185,683 
181,268 
206,335 
268,330 



'Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 
(')Latest figures subject to revision. 



122 



TABLE D-2.— UNFILLED VACANCIES BY INDUSTRY AND BY SEX AS AT OCTOBER 

31, 1955 ( l ) 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 



Industry 



Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping 

Forestry 

Mining, Quarrying and Oil Wells 

Metal Mining 

Fuels 

Non-Metal Mining 

Quarrying, Clay and Sand Pits 

Prospecting 

Manufacturing 

Foods and Beverages 

Tobacco and Tobacco Products 

Rubber Products 

Leather Products 

Textile Products (except clothing) 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Wood Products 

Paper Products 

Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries. . . 

Iron and Steel Products 

Transportation Equipment 

Non-Ferrous Metal Products 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 

Non-Metallic Mineral Products 

Products of Petroleum and Coal 

Chemical Products 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 

Construction 

General Contractors 

Special Trade Contractors 

Transportation, Storage and Communication 

Transportation 

Storage 

Communication 

Public Utility Operation 

Trade 

Wholesale 

Retail 

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 

Service 

Community or Public Service 

Government Service 

Recreation Service 

Business Service 

Personal Service 

GRAND TOTAL 



Male 



771 
9,168 

561 

256 

218 

30 

9 

48 

1,266 

296 
3 

45 
81 
121 
198 
434 
126 
176 
783 
895 
258 
455 
109 
22 
148 
116 

3,285 

2,292 
993 

926 

744 
28 
154 

76 

2,967 

866 
2,101 

591 

2,481 

228 
964 
104 
607 

578 



25,092 



Female 



138 



■IS 



23 

3,076 

252 
10 

24 
196 

177 

1,325 

82 

63 

105 

153 
76 
58 

224 
35 
40 
87 

169 

83 
50 
33 

289 

124 

12 

153 

33 

2,444 

513 
1,931 

669 

7,654 

929 
355 
121 
306 
5,943 



14,439 



Total 



909 
9,173 

609 

262 

233 

34 

9 

71 

7,342 

548 

13 

69 

277 

298 

1,523 

516 

189 

281 

936 

971 

316 

679 

144 

62 

235 

285 



2,342 
1,026 

1,215 

868 

40 

307 

109 

5,411 

1,379 
4,032 

1,260 

10,135 

1,157 

1,319 

225 

913 

6,521 



39,531 



Change from 



September October 
30, 1955 30, 1954 



,386 
391 



209 

101 



-2,156 

- 252 

- 12 

- 37 

- 25 

- 101 

- 586 

- 222 

- 71 

- 28 

- 171 

- 110 

- 266 

- 86 

- 50 
+ 9 

- 69 

- 79 

-1,266 

- 913 

- 353 

- 363 

- 270 

- 58 

- 35 

- 59 

- 538 

- 260 

- 278 



-2,093 

- 162 

- 281 

- 63 

- 263 
-1,324 



7,967 



+ 355 
+ 5,057 



229 

184 
1 

23 
1 

22 



+ 2,555 

+ 165 



35 

138 

53 

675 

263 

38 

100 

554 

393 

199 

385 

47 

33 

84 

193 



+ 1,724 

+ 1,210 
+ 514 



747 

541 

17 

189 

21 



+ 2,331 

+ 556 
+ 1,775 

+ 344 

+ 2,436 

+ 331 
- 380 
+ 73 
+ 422 
+ 1,990 



+15,799 



(') Preliminary — Subject to revision. 

Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



66180— 9} 



123 



TABLE l)-3. -I XFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 
BY OCCUPATION AND BY SEX AS AT NOVEMBER 3, 1955 0) 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 



Occupational Group 



- iaal and managerial workers 

Clerical worker* 

Sale.- workers 

Personal and domestic service workers . 

Seamen 

Agriculture and fishing 

Skilled and semiskilled workers 

Food and kindred products (inc 

tobacco) 

Textiles, clothing, etc 

Lumber and wood products 

Pulp, paper (inc. printing) 

Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay and glass products 

Metal working 

Electrical 

Transportation equipment 

Mining 

Construction 

Transportation (except seamen) 

Communications and public utility 

Trade and service 

Other skilled and semiskilled 

Foremen 

Apprentices 

Unskilled workers 

Food and tobacco 

Lumber and lumber products 

Metalworking 

Construction 

Other unskilled workers 

GRAND TOTAL 



L"n filled Vacancies ( 2 ) 



Male 



2.005 

1,355 

1,328 

745 

15 

729 

15,614 

73 

121 

9.291 

58 

54 

13 

1,099 

229 

7 

227 

1,612 

898 

43 

237 

1,464 

49 

139 

2,477 

54 

203 

87 

1,100 

1,033 



24,268 



Female 



521 
3,424 
1,523 
6,327 



15 



:vi 



889 

163 

3 

35 



14,665 



Total 



2,526 

4,779 

2,851 

7,072 

15 

744 

17,580 

101 

1,419 

9,296 

79 

185 

17 

1,134 

334 

8 

227 

1,612 

930 

43 

434 

1,566 

56 

139 

3,366 

217 

206 

122 

1,100 

1,721 



38,933 



Live Applications for Employment 
Male Female Total 



3,462 
7,864 
3,689 

20,154 

902 

1,497 

54,146 



2,424 

4,626 

673 

840 

177 

7,246 



699 
11,013 
9,222 

331 
2,173 
9,106 
1,234 
1,710 

44,906 

1,871 

4,152 

2,591 

18,024 

18,268 



136,620 



1,234 

21,040 

8,770 

13,602 

6 

117 

13,051 

399 
7,903 
111 
358 
991 

23 
648 
477 

46 



4 

81 

4 

1,078 

684 

230 

14 

11.895 

2,412 

228 

397 

55 

8,803 



69,715 



4,696 

28,904 

12,459 

33,756 

908 

1,614 

67.197 

1,218 
10,327 
4.737 
1,031 
1,831 

200 
7,894 
1,472 

904 

699 
11,017 
9,303 

335 
3,251 
9,790 
1,464 
1,724 

56,801 
4,283 
4,380 
2,988 
18.079 
27,071 



206,335 



0) Preliminary — subject to revision. 

( 2 ) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



124 



TABLE D-L— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS AT 
NOVEMBER 3, 1955 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 



Office 



Newfoundland . 

Corner Brook, 
i I] and Falls. . 
St. John's. . . . 



Prince Edward Island 

Charlottetown 

Summerside 



Xova Scotia 

Amherst 

Bridgewater.. 

Halifax 

Inverness 

Kentville 

Liverpool 

Now Glasgow 

Springhill 

Sydney 

Truro 

Yarmouth 



New Brunswick. 

Bathurst 

Campbellton . 
Edmundston . 
Fredericton . . . 

Minto 

Moncton 

Newcastle 

Saint John 

St. Stephen... 

Sussex 

Woodstock . . . 



Quebec 

Asbestos 

Beauharnois 

Buckingham 

Causapscal 

Chandler.. 

Chicoutimi 

Dolbeau 

Drummondville 

Farnham 

Forestville 

Gaspe 

Granby 

Hull 

Joliette 

Jonquiere 

Lachute 

La Malbaie 

La Tuque 

Levis 

Louise ville 

*Magog 

Maniwaki 

Matane 

Megantic . 

Mont-Laurier 

Montmagny 

Montreal 

New Richmond 

Port-Alfred 

Quebec. 

Rimouski 

Riviere du Loup 

Roberval 

Rouyn 

Ste-Agathe 

Ste-Anne de Bellevue . 

Ste-Therfese 

St-Georges Est 

St-Hyacinthe 

St-Jean 

St-Jerome 

St-Joseph d'Alma 

Sept lies 

Shawinigan Falls 

Sherbrooke 

Sorel 

Thetford Mines 

Trois-Rivieres 



Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 



(') 



Nov. 3, 
1955 



171 

22 

3 

146 

306 

79 
227 

,331 

14 
29 

893 



16, 



97 
121 
91 
3 
17 
55 
11 

936 

6 
28 
25 

364 
21 

305 
12 

138 

12 

20 

5 

536 

41 

34 

9 

429 

5 

215 

146 

44 

81 

700 

2 

14 

52 

197 

56 

28 

1 

,523 

60 

46 

20 

68 

294 



41 

,176 

96 

525 

798 

,691 

27 

115 

367 

20 

99 

36 

282 

75 

92 

40 

133 

232 

88 

187 

41 

30 

833 



Previous 
Month 

Sept. 29, 
1955 



427 



345 

428 
138 
290 

,426 

12 
25 

841 



143 

290 

17 



1,298 

17 
46 
76 

415 
15 

391 
18 

246 

9 

25 

40 

18,285 

53 

29 

8 

235 

8 

279 

119 

57 

344 

616 



15 
59 

176 

84 

22 

33 

2,767 

81 

45 

24 

26 

497 

7 

26 

24 

6,567 

3 

557 

894 

1,561 

73 

33 

249 

34 

84 

107 

169 

181 

109 

31 

155 

155 

83 

147 

43 

34 

911 



Previous 

^ eai 
Oct. 28, 

1954 



587 
62 
100 
425 

100 

72 
28 

1,414 

11 

36 

1,127 



16 
38 
45 

282 
8 

203 
20 

152 
17 
41 



8,717 

13 

1 

26 

78 

4 

156 

65 

20 

9 

75 

3 

21 

62 

109 

121 

10 

45 

2,110 

86 

* 13 
7 

63 
18 
4 
16 
2,538 
32 

169 

532 
18 
23 
39 

119 

7 

22 

50 

396 
34 
41 
16 

716 
19 
31 

135 
33 

140 

125 



Live Applications 



C) 



Nov. 3, 
1955 



3,851 

920 
369 

2,562 

1,062 

053 

409 

11,008 

397 
339 

3,359 
197 
575 
128 

1,601 
408 

2,480 
700 
821 

8,852 
524 
481 
374 
503 
293 

2,312 
614 

2,675 
582 
214 
280 

60,490 

198 
356 
248 
678 
209 
599 
223 
936 
560 
144 
167 
1,049 
1,207 
1,215 
797 
248 
226 
247 
1,289 
266 
225 
104 
235 
342 
188 
478 
24,259 
321 
173 
6,827 
405 
510 
173 
775 
305 
352 
643 
685 
821 
926 
625 
761 
225 
1,589 
2,046 
654 
647 
2,085 



Previous 

.Month 

Sept. 29, 

1955 



3,168 
994 

182 
1,902 

860 
536 
824 

9,721 

318 
285 

3,144 
179 
469 
156 

1 ,208 
225 

2,773 
479 
485 

7,068 

337 
366 
155 
486 
172 

1,681 
539 

2,624 
368 
144 
196 

51,962 

201 
279 
192 
262 
115 
358 
177 
831 
546 
206 
113 
872 
977 
924 
570 
229 
176 
213 
957 
239 
180 
65 
191 
230 
290 
458 
22,253 
198 
180 

5,956 
349 
416 
173 
760 
202 
285 
491 
436 
703 
823 
495 
957 
133 

1,153 

1,520 
652 
465 

1,640 



Previous 

STeai 
Oct. 28, 

1954 



3,494 
S96 
230 

2,368 

996 

618 

378 

11,920 

390 

492 

3,578 

189 

625 

261 

2,311 

420 

2,238 

585 

831 

10,183 

554 

611 

284 

819 

456 

2,351 

927 

2,615 

1,016 

208 

342 

75,531 

371 

487 

434 

413 

200 

575 

221 

1,442 

650 

178 

165 

1,194 

1,459 

1,491 



188 

387 

1,221 

378 

* 

118 
288 
362 
330 
439 
35,124 
234 
203 
5,922 
481 



646 

230 

1,066 

366 

490 

850 

635 

1,205 

1,075 

729 

438 

155 

1,634 

2,809 

1,407 

564 

2,453 

125 



TABLE D-L— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS AT 
NOVEMBER 3, 1955 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 





Unfilled Vacancies( 2 ) 


Live Applications 


Office 


0) 

Nov. 3, 
1955 


Previous 

Month 

Sept. 29, 

1955 


Previous 
Year 

Oct. 28, 
1954 


0) 

Nov. 3, 
1955 


Previous 

Month 

Sept. 29, 

1955 

624 
725 
522 

69,041 

83 
710 
721 
238 
264 

1,344 
159 
95 
590 
333 
496 

1,352 
302 
103 
598 
285 
90 
236 
735 

4,514 
243 
217 
201 
190 
751 
337 

1,092 
289 
554 
108 

2,213 
275 
183 

1,092 
558 
492 
116 
362 

7,665 

2,248 
541 
110 
633 
132 

1,338 
98 
783 
297 
295 
268 

1,721 
453 
861 
669 
297 
99 
247 
289 
613 

1,045 
756 
16,895 
360 
243 
162 
559 
898 

5,765 
180 

8,966 

493 
257 
151 
350 
46 
7,669 


Previous 
Year 

Oct. 28, 
1954 


Quebec— Con. 

Vald'Or 


328 
53 
42 

11,677 

28 

116 
13 
42 
53 
72 
28 
1 
96 
10 
8 

164 
19 
9 

391 
88 
13 
26 

158 

747 
41 
28 
29 
39 

146 
96 

130 
25 
43 
12 

533 
13 
6 

130 
55 
68 

195 
57 
61 
1,503 
49 
4 

183 

37 

65 

6 

126 

8 

83 

14 

123 
80 
77 

146 

25 

8 

11 

45 

9 

122 
74 
4,287 
32 
40 
20 
32 

256 

391 
32 

1,915 

144 

10 

49 

25 

6 

1,681 


328 

58 
85 

13,161 

21 
131 

19 
61 
61 

180 

29 

7 

267 
30 
16 

162 
14 
4 

241 

206 
10 
19 

141 

907 
17 
43 
52 
72 

198 

155 

155 
31 
65 
17 

694 
14 
5 

301 

100 
75 

185 
60 
98 
1,175 
41 
5 

273 

28 

41 

7 

275 
7 

123 
9 

118 
82 
82 

192 
23 
20 
18 
24 
2 

174 
66 
4,602 
96 
38 
18 
85 

197 

443 
34 

2,298 

224 

13 

51 

33 

3 

1,974 


280 
35 

32 

7,349 

14 
84 
24 
20 
19 
52 
12 

2 

169 

11 

8 
50 

3 

7 
92 
55 

3 
16 
64 
494 
18 
14 
21 

9 

154 

18 

71 

3 

33 

21 

294 

10 

5 
83 
31 
24 
28 
15 
95 
709 
24 

1 
76 
13 
19 

4 
104 

8 
17 
12 
51 
855 
36 
71 
36 

8 
10 
24 


595 

765 
889 

71,383 

123 
792 
833 
393 
311 

1,493 
215 
109 

1,195 
436 
495 

1,183 
434 
157 
704 
430 
136 
267 
800 

4,534 
286 
257 
255 
241 
883 
408 

1,017 
306 
537 
145 

2,654 
309 
253 

1,355 

1,075 
628 
169 
472 

6,146 

2,464 
622 
109 
823 
195 

1,454 
209 

1,101 
282 
282 
275 

1,993 
490 
824 
629 
375 
104 
238 
288 
689 

1,128 
938 
16,698 
508 
227 
161 
653 
865 

4,117 
206 

11,120 

773 
339 
174 
437 
66 
1 9,331 


731 
1,088 




888 




104,698 




119 




709 


Belleville 


726 




503 




355 




2,279 




257 




128 




1,331 




363 




601 




1,549 


Fort Erie 


467 




170 


Fort William 


1,283 


Gait 


987 




151 




302 


Guelph 


1,031 




9,088 




300 




489 




411 




268 




783 




615 




1,790 




763 




616 




179 




3,308 




535 




248 




1,642 




1,678 




988 




619 


Orillia 


644 




4,353 




2,574 




736 




257 




844 


Perth 


249 




1,821 




17C 




1,500 




476 




349 




298 




2,199 


St. Thomas 


1,515 




1,557 




2,677 




492 




127 


Smiths Falls . . 


229 




575 




62S 




77 
43 
2,667 
38 
23 
13 
11 
150 
91 
12 

1,416 

154 
28 
30 
30 
5 
1,169 


1,802 




1,142 




24.13C 




546 




437 




286 


Welland 


1,548 




841 




11,738 




326 


Manitoba 


11,578 




641 




318 




196 




404 


The Pas 


55 


Winnipeg 


9,964 



126 



TABLE D-L— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS AT 

NOVEMBER 3, 1955 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 





Unfilled Vacancies( 2 ) 


Live Applications 


Office 


0) 

Nov. 3, 
1955 


Previous 

Month 

Sept. 29, 

1955 


Previous 
Year 

Oct. 28, 
1954 


0) 

Nov. 3, 
1955 


Previous 

Month 

Sept. 29, 

1955 


Previous 
Year 

Oct. 28, 
1954 


Saskatchewan 


807 

38 
126 
28 
60 
231 
171 
62 
33 
58 

2,749 

51 

868 

19 

1,361 

64 

230 
89 
67 


1,144 

40 
168 
48 
90 
302 
303 

• 93 

* 42 

58 

4,213 

19 

1,177 

29 

2,311 

94 

343 

141 

99 


691 

24 
124 
39 
27 
164 
124 
93 
36 
60 

1,880 
19 

501 

55 

1,020 

24 

147 
41 
57 

16 

1,241 

28 
23 
14 
5 
30 
70 
11 


5,789 
111 

619 
358 
616 
1,691 
1,384 
221 
132 
657 

9,307 

232 
3,487 
145 
3,634 
139 
908 
479 
283 


4,307 

73 

450 

249 

554 

1,075 

1,170 

153 

77 

506 

7,347 

174 
2,745 
139 
2,992 
109 
512 
422 
254 


5,245 




83 




609 


North Battleford 


356 




746 




1,142 




1,463 


Swift Current 


150 




106 




590 


Alberta 


10,432 




307 




3,534 




125 




4,485 


Edson 


193 




651 




726 




381 








30 


British Columbia 


with Ed 

2,505 

42 
15 
38 
27 
50 
84 
32 

144 
19 
42 
32 

126 
32 
24 
78 
40 
5 
39 
1,318 
56 

234 
28 

38,933 

24,268 
14,665 


monton 

4,339 

60 
47 
33 
19 
82 
153 
203 


with Ed 

23,473 

639 
301 
170 
184 
333 
321 
185 
114 
377 
588 
242 
3,066 
176 
314 
787 
572 
80 
297 
12,086 
286 
2,068 
287 

206,335 

136,620 
69,715 


monton 

18,828 
666 
276 
158 
122 
335 
284 
160 


30,049 

546 






440 




235 


Dawson Creek 


212 




273 




282 




234 








44 

60 

23 

156 

25 

53 

236 

461 

21 

39 

2,055 

167 

350 

52 

47,019 

28,794 
18,225 


14 

19 

15 

104 

5 

4 

51 

38 

1 

11 

591 

15 

157 

35 

21,225 

13,724 
10,501 


295 
900 
189 

2,266 
122 
309 
440 
353 
55 
215 

9,662 
151 

1,679 
191 

181,268 

117,723 
63,545 


462 




682 




396 




4,022 




203 


Port Alberni 


308 




1,209 




709 


Princeton 


86 


Trail 


410 




16,432 




330 




2,375 


Whitehorse 


203 


Canada 


264,126 




187,123 


Females 


77,003 







1 Preliminary subject to revision. 

2 Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 

* Magog commenced reporting August 1955. Previously included with Sherbrooke. 
t Kitimat commenced reporting October 15, 1955. 



TABLE D-5.— PLACEMENTS EFFECTED BY EMPLOYMENT OFFICES 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 
1950—1955 



Year 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Atlantic 
Region 


Quebec 
Region 


Ontario 
Region 


Prairie 
Region 


Pacific 
Region 


1950 


790,802 
918,238 
980,507 
993,406 
861,588 
738,380 
808,030 


559,882 
655,933 
677,777 
661,167 
545,452 
465,370 
542,740 


230,920 
262,305 
302,730 
332,239 
316,136 
273,010 
265,290 


56,732 
68,895 
84,640 
76,913 
67,893 
56,976 
56,508 


151,438 
223,979 
251,744 
259,874 
209,394 
180,376 
188,796 


321,354 
332,499 
320,684 
342,678 
277,417 
233,857 
287,721 


179,732 
196,754 
207,569 
201,670 
175,199 
149,667 
151,034 


81 546 


1951 


96,111 


1952 


115 870 


1953 


112,271 


1954 


131,685 


1954 (10 months) 


117,504 


1955 (10 months) 


123,971 







127 



E — Unemployment Insurance 

TABLE E-l.— PERSONS RECEIVING BENEFIT, NUMBER OF DAYS AND WEEKS 
BENEFIT PAID, AND AMOUNT PAID 

Sovrce: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province 



Estimated 
Average 

Per Week 

Receiving 

Benefit* 

(in 

Thousands) 



Number 

Com- 
mencing 
Benefit 



Month of October 1955 



DaysJ Paid, Weekst Paid, 

Unemployment Unemployment 

Prior to After 

October 2 October 1 

(Disability Days in Brackets) 



Amount of 

Benefit 

Paid 

$ 






Newfoundland 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Total. Canada, Oct./55. . 
Total, Canada, Sept./55 
Total, Canada, Oct. 54 



21 
0-5 
6-6 
4-5 
34-5 
41-6 
5-3 
2-4 
4-0 



754 

174 
• .835 
2.029 
16,801 
21,450 
2,299 
1.241 
1,934 
5,464 



27,380 

4.155 

60,372 

39,203 

306,310 

349,018 

35.906 

17,798 

27,559 



(289) 
(37) 

(1,212) 
(738) 

(9,136) 

(7,398) 
(896) 
(410) 
(532) 

(2,183) 



2,615 

1,116 

14,192 

10,117 

84,082 

111,535 

15,502 

6.948 

10,255 

24.472 



(139) 

(25) 

(903) 

(957) 

(13,156) 

(11,201) 

(1,725) 

(699) 

(824) 

(2,667) 



111-1 

109-2 

173-Ot 



54.981 
61,203 
84,0511 



944,389 
2,705,587 
3,780.046 



(22,831) 
(66,932) 
(70,511) 



280,834 



(32, 



138,879 
29,011 
433,689 
291,590 
2,263,826 
2,963,173 
349,954 
161,293 
251,000 
652,925 



7,535,340 
8,180,068 
11,779,296 



* Based on the number of payment documents for the month. 

t Week containing last day of the month. 

♦Under the old Act, payment was made on the basis of "days", whereas under the new scheme the basis is "weekly". 



128 



TABLE E-'J. ORDINARY CLAIMANTS ON THE LIVE UNEMPLOYMENT REGISTER 
AT OCTORER 31, 1955, RY DURATION, SEX AND PROVINCE, INCLUDING DISABILITY 

CASES* 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province and Sex 



CANADA 

Male 

Female 

Newfoundland 

Malt' 

Female 

Prince Edward Island 

Male 

Female 

Nova Scotia 

Male 

Female 

New Brunswick 

Male 

Female 

Quebec 

Male 

Female 

Ontario 

Male 

Female 

Manitoba 

Male 

Female 

Saskatchewan 

Male 

Female 

Alberta 

Male 

Female 

British Columbia 

Male 

Female 



Duration on the Register (weeks) 



Total 



163, 100t 
109,132 
53,968 



3,343 

3,021 

322 

618 
445 
173 

9,877 
8,238 
1,639 

7,591 
5,743 
1,848 

51,287 
32,812 
18,475 

56,362 
36,905 
19,457 

7,818 
4,666 
3,152 

3,813 
2,510 
1,303 

6,237 
4,146 
2,091 

16,154 
10,646 
5,508 



49,864 
35,875 
13,989 



1,091 
1,019 

72 

160 
135 
25 

2,761 

2.365 

396 

2,426 

1,788 

638 

15,737 
11,237 
4,500 

16,347 
11,292 
5,055 

2,626 

1,677 

949 

1,013 
781 
232 

2,015 
1,428 

587 

5,688 
4,153 
1.535 



15,153 
10,411 

4,742 



372 

347 

25 

44 
34 
10 

955 
829 
126 

923 
709 
214 

5.326 

3,488 
1,838 

4,225 
2,743 
1,482 

605 
372 
233 

602 
442 
160 

538 
368 
170 

1,563 

1,079 

484 



3-4 



21,641 
14,420 
7,221 



401 
354 

47 

70 
49 
21 

1,585 

1,318 

267 

963 
782 
181 

6,894 
4,483 
2,411 

6,948 
4,543 
2,405 

1,111 
620 
491 

537 
357 
180 

830 
525 
305 

2,302 

1,389 

913 



5-8 



27,465 
18,800 
8,665 



-is:; 
136 
47 

1 23 

so 

,416 

111 
272 



1,091 
833 

258 

7,964 
5,079 

2,885 

11,570 
8,451 
3,119 

1,150 
663 

487 

537 
281 
256 

873 
482 
391 

2,256 

1,351 

905 



9-11 



13,154 

7,674 
5,480 



336 

296 

40 

52 
36 



882 
704 
178 

659 
509 
150 

4,225 

2.330 
1,895 

4,318 
2,300 
2,018 

631 
330 
301 

307 
158 
.149 

536 
325 
211 

1,208 
686 
522 



13-16 17-20 



9,119 
5.443 
3,676 



201 

182 

19 

59 
39 
20 

731 
629 
102 

576 
458 
118 

2,834 
1.539 
1,295 

3,102 
1,699 
1,403 

379 
196 

183 

186 
87 
99 

333 
213 
120 

718 
401 
317 



6,323 
3,601 

2,722 



383 

302 

81 

275 

184 



2,161 
1,090 
1,071 

2,245 
1,239 
1,006 

250 
154 

96 

115 
69 
46 

233 
140 
93 

509 
291 
218 



328 

271 
57 

87 
56 
31 

164 
947 
217 



198 

6,146 
3,566 
2,580 

7,607 
4,638 
2,969 

1,066 
654 
412 

516 
335 

181 

879 
665 
214 



1,296 
614 



Oct. 29, 
1954 
Total 



236,365 
172,107 
64,258 



3,129 

2,867 
262 

681 
503 

178 

11,480 
9,992 
1,488 

8,805 
6,799 
2,006 

73,811 
50,365 
23,446 

92,700 
69,064 
23,636 



6,218 
3,480 

3,828 
2,656 
1,172 

8,683 
6,171 
2,512 

23.550 

17,472 
6,078 



*Disability cases included in totals: October 31, 1955; 2,264 (1,460 males and 804 females) 

October 31, 1954: 2,701 (1,855 males and 846 females) 
tThis total is comparable to former totals of ordinary, short-time and temporary lay-off claimants. 



129 



TABLE E-3.— INITIAL AND RENEWAL CLAIMS FOR BENEFIT BY PROVINCES, 

OCTOBER 1955 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Claims filed at Local Offices 


Disposal of Claims (including claims 
pending at end of month) 


Province 


Total 


Initial 


Renewal 


Total 
Disposal 

of 


Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Not 
Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Pending 




1,876 

351 

4,998 

4,375 

29,862 

31,402 

4,463 

2,507 

3,739 

11,171 


1,320 

228 

2,959 

2,790 

17,812 

18,557 

2,795 

1,703 

2,408 

6,735 


556 

123 

2,039 

1,585 

12,050 

12,845 

1,668 

804 

1,331 

4,436 


1,559 

339 

5,031 

4,027 

28,807 

30,465 

4,335 

2,299 

3,623 

10,293 


944 

207 

3,307 

2,501 

20,483 

21,439 

2,862 

1,526 

2,486 

6,845 


615 
132 
1,724 
1,526 
8,324 
9,026 
1,473 
773 
1,137 
3,448 


808 


Prince Edward Island 


89 


Nova Scotia 


1,205 




1,078 




7,753 




7,728 


Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 


775 

730 

1,025 




2,891 






Total Canada, October 1955 


94.744* 
87,562 
127,609 


57,307 
52,465 
71,861 


37,437 
35,097 

55,748 


90,778t 
87,158 
121,742 


62,600 
68,556 
100,353 


28,178 
18,602 
21,389 


24,082 


Total Canada, September 1955 

Total Canada, October 1954 


20,116 
31,413 







•In addition, revised claims received numbered 18,369. fin addition, 18,418 revised claims were disposed of. Of 
these, 1,101 were special requests not granted, and 750 were appeals by claimants. There were 1,757 revised claims 
pending at the end of the month. 



TABLE E-4.— ESTIMATES OF THE INSURED POPULATION UNDER THE 
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Beginning of Month of: 


Total 


Employed 


Claimants* 




3,250,000 
3,257,000 
3,249,000 
3,310,000 

3,393,000 
3,409,000 
3,435,000 
3,427,000 
3,224,000 
3,222,000 
3,268,000 
3,281,000 
3,322,000 


3,058,700 
3,069,300 
3,039,900 
3,035,500 

2,961,200 
2,865,600 
2,856,400 
2,863,700 
2,905,500 
3,012,300 
3,110,900 
3,141,000 
3,192,200 


191,300 




187,700 




209,100 




274,500 




431,800f 




543,4001 




578, 600 t 




563,300f 




318,500 




209,700 


July 


157,100 




140,000 




129,800 







•Ordinary claimants on the live unemployment register on last working day of preceding month, 
tlncludes supplementary benefit claimants. 



130 



F — Prices 

TABLE F-l.— TOTAL AND MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

Q949 =100) 
Calculated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



Total 



Food 



Shelter 



Clothing 



Household 
Operation 



Other 
Commod- 
ities and 
Services 



1949— Year 

1950— Year 

1951— Year 

1952— Year 

1953— Year 

1954— August 

September 
October . . . 
November 
December. 

1955— January. . . 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August .... 
September 
October . . . 
November 
December. 



100-0 

102-9 

113-7 

116-5 

115-5 

117-0 
116-8 
116-8 
116-8 
116-6 

116-4 
116-3 
116-0 
116-1 
116-4 
115-9 
116-0 
116-4 
116-8 
116-9 
116-9 
116-9 



100-0 

102-6 

117-0 

116-8 

112-6 

114-4 
113-8 
113-8 
113-4 
112-6 

112-1 



100-0 

106-2 

114-4 

102-2 

123-6 

127-0 
127-2 
127-4 
127-9 
128-2 

128-4 
128-5 
128-6 
128-7 
128-8 
129-2 
129-6 
129-8 
130-0 
130-2 
130-6 
131-0 



100-0 

99-7 

109-8 

111-8 

110-1 

109-6 
109-5 
108-4 
108-2 
108-1 

108-1 
108-1 
108-0 
107-9 
107-9 
107-8 
107-8 
107-8 
107-8 
107-8 
107-9 
108-5 



100-0 

102-4 

113-1 

116-2 

117-0 

117-2 
117-2 
117-3 
117-2 
117-1 

117-1 
117-1 
117-0 
116-9 
116-4 
116-1 
115-8 
115-8 
115-9 
116-1 
116-5 
116-6 



100-0 

103-1 

111-5 

116-0 

115-8 

117-7 
117-6 

118-2 
118-2 

118-2 
118-3 
118-3 
118-2 
118-3 
117-8 
117-7 
118-0 
117-9 
118-1 
118-3 
118-3 



TABLE F-2.— CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES FOR REGIONAL CITIES OF CANADA AT 
THE BEGINNING OF NOVEMBER, 1955 

(1949 = 100) 

Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 





Total 


Food 


Shelter 


Clothing 


House- 
hold 
Operation 


Other 
Com- 
modities 

and 
Services 




Nov. 1st, 
1954 


Oct. 1st, 
1955 


Nov. 1st, 
1955 


St. John's, Nfld 0).... 


102-8 
114-5 
117-5 
117-1 
117-2 
118-9 
115-7 
114-8 
115-3 
118-6 


104-8 
114-9 
117-8 
117-0 
117-7 
119-4 
116-6 
115-5 
115-2 
118-5 


104-6 
114-9 
117-6 
117-1 
117-7 
119-0 
116-9 
115-6 
115-1 
118-6 


100-7 
106-3 
110-8 
115-3 
110-9 
111-1 
113-7 
113-9 
111-9 
114-7 


109-7 
124-9 
127-2 
136-1 
135-7 
147-7 
126-9 
118-1 
121-1 
127-8 


100-3 
114-5 
116-1 
107-1 
111-2 
110-1 
112-3 
114-4 
112-5 
112-6 


103-3 
119-6 
117-0 
114-9 
116-0 
115-1 
114-1 
116-9 
115-8 
124-2 


110-9 


Halifax 


119-1 


Saint John 


124-1 


Montreal 


116-6 


Ottawa 


120-8 


Toronto 


118-8 


Winnipeg 


119-0 


Saskatoon — Regina 


115-2 


Edmonton — Calgary. . 


117-6 


Vancouver 


119-6 







N.B. — Indexes above measure percentage changes in prices over time in each city, and should not be used to com- 
pare actual levels of prices as between cities. 

0) St. John's Index on the base— June 1951 = 100. 



131 



G — Strikes and Lockouts 

TABLE G-l.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, JANUARY-NOVEMBER 1954, 

1955 f 





Number of Strikes 
and Lockouts 


Number of Workers 
Involved 


Time Loss 


Date 


Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 


In 
Existence 


Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 


In 
Existence 


In 
Man- 
working 
Days 


Per Cent 
of 
Esti- 
mated 
Working 
Time 


1955* 
January 


le: 

4 

7 
16 

9 
21 
19 
14 
16 
11 
11 


16 
11 
11 
22 
17 
29 
32 
25 
32 
21 
24 


11,106} 

90 
1,778 
1,821 
2,237 
4,510 
7,869 
2,494 
17,957 
4,737 
1,624 


11,106 

2,587 

1,956 

2,683 

3,200 

5,664 

10,913 

6,442 

22,547 

23,368 

21,296 


218,145 

20,055 

13,971 

25,912 

40,550 

47,355 

96,335 

92,525 

212,400 

378,760 

379,200 


0-26 


February 


002 


March 


0-02 


April 


0-03 


May 


0-05 


June 


006 


Julv 


0-12 


August 


011 


September 


0-25 


October 

November 


0-45 
0-45 






Cumulative totals 


144 


56,223 


1,525,208 


0-17 






1954 
Januarv 


26} 

8 
12 
24 

8 

20 
16 

8 
14 
21 
11 


26 
20 
18 
34 
22 
32 
30 
20 
21 
30 
24 


10,644J 
779 
1,184 
1,651 
2,062 
9,502 
4,461 
1,207 
8,597 

17,965 
3,897 


10,644 
4,686 
1,799 
2,297 
3,400 

10,192 
6,658 
3,959 
9,815 

26,279 

20,645 


157,074 

52,250 

14,625 

25,081 

31,810 

86,715 

54,146 

48,210 

127,582 

310,003 

326,843 


0-19 


Februarv 


0-06 


March 


0-02 


April 


0-03 


May 


0-04 


June 


0-10 


Julv 


0-06 


August 


0-06 


September 


0-15 


October 


0-37 


November 


0-39 






Cumulative totals 


168 


61,949 


1,234,339 


013 










* Preliminary figures. 

% Strikes unconcluded at the end of the previous year are included in these totals. 

t The record of the Department includes lockouts as well as strikes but a lockout, or an industrial 
condition which is undoubtedly a lockout, is not often encountered. In the statistical table, therefore, 
strikes and lockouts are recorded together. A strike or lockout included as such in the records of the 
Department is a cessation of work involving six or more employees and lasting at least one working 
day. Strikes of less than one day's duration and strikes involving less than six employees are not 
included in the published record unless ten days or more time loss is caused but a separate record of 
such strikes is maintained in the Department and these figures are given in the annual review. The 
records include all strikes and lockouts which come to the knowledge of the Department and the 
methods taken to obtain information preclude the probability of omissions of strikes of importance. 
Information as to a strike involving a small number of employees or for a short period of time is fre- 
quently not received until some time after its commencement. 



132 



TABLE G-'i. -STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, CANADA, NOVEMBER 19550) 



Industry, 
Occupal ion, 

Locality 



Number Involved 



Lvstal)- 

lish- 

ments 



Workers 



Time 
Loss in 

Man- 
Working 
I )ays 



> Date 
Began 



Pari iculars( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts in Progress Prior to November 1955 



Manufacturing— 
Printing and Publishing- 
Newspaper printing 
plant workers, 
Montreal, Que. 



Miscellaneous Wood 
Products — 
Furniture factory 
workers, 
Meaford, Ont. 



Veneer and hardwood 
flooring factory 
workers, 
Woodstock, Ont. 



Metal Products — 
Aircraft factory 
workers, 
Downsview 
(Toronto), Ont. 



Structural steel 
fabricators, 

Sault Ste. Marie, 
Ont. 



Motor vehicle and parts 
diesel locomotive, 
stove, refrigerator 
and air conditioning 
factory workers, 
London, Oshawa 
St. Catharines, 
Toronto and 
Windsor, Ont. 

Wire and cable factory 
workers, 
Toronto, Ont. 



Motor truck factory 
office workers, 
Chatham, Ont. 



37 



71 



154 



1,940 



0) 



130 



13,800 



1,349 



0) 



173 



500 



G35 



600 



17,400 



2,800 



300,000 



29,600 



3,800 



Apr. 20 



Sep. 21 



Oct. 26 



July 11 



Aug. 19 



Sep. 19 



Sep. 30 



Oct. 20 



For a greater increase in wages 
than recommended by arbi- 
tration board; dispute still 
in existence but employment 
conditions no longer affected 
by the end of November; 
indefinite. 



For a new agreement providing 
for increased wages and 
starting rates, extension of 
vacation plan and pay for 
additional statutory holiday 
following reference to con- 
ciliation board; concluded 
November 11; negotiations 
and civic conciliation; 
compromise. 

Grievance against foreman in 
veneer department; con- 
cluded November 4; retur 
of workers pending settle- 
ment; indefinite. 



For a new agreement providing 
for increased wages and 
union shop, following refer- 
ence to conciliation board; 
concluded November 11; 
conciliation; compromise. 

For a new agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages 
and job evaluation plan, fol- 
lowing reference to concilia- 
tion board; unconcluded. 

For a new agreement providing 
for increased wages, term of 
agreement, form of guaran- 
teed annual wage and fringe 
benefits, including extension 
of insurance and pension 
plans, following reference to 
conciliation board; uncon- 
cluded. 

For a new agreement providing 
for increased wages, follow- 
ing reference to conciliation 
board; unconcluded. 



For a new agreement providing 
for increased wages and 
time-and-one-half for over- 
time, following reference to 
conciliation board; uncon- 
cluded. 



133 



TABLE G->.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, CANADA, NOVEMBER 1955(0 



Industry, 
( Occupation, 

Locality 



Number Involved 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments 



Workers 



Time 
Loss in 

Man- 
Working 

Days 



Date 
Began 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts in Progress Prior to November 1955 



Structural steel fabrica- 
tors and erectors, and 
mining machinery, 
factory workers, 
London, Port 
Robinson and 
Welland, Ont. 



Washing machine and 
boiler factory 
workers, 

Toronto, Ont. 



X on-Metallic Minerals, 
Chemicals, etc. — 
Fibrous glass factory 
workers, 
Sarnia, Ont. 



Chemical factory 
workers, 
Palo, Sask. 



Transportation and 
Public Utilities- 
Water— 
Seamen, 
Saint John, N.B. 



442 



1,160 



336 



27 



53 



9,700 



1,160 



500 



640 



1,160 



Oct. 26 



Oct. 31 



Oct. 



Oct. 22 



Oct. 1 



For a new agreement providing 
for increased wages, reduced 
hours from 42f to 40 per 
week with same take-home 
pay, pension and welfare 
plans, Rand formula for 
union dues and fringe bene- 
fits, pending reports of con- 
ciliation boards; uncon- 
cluded. 

Protesting dismissal of a shop 
steward for being absent 
without leave; concluded 
November 1; return of 
workers pending settlement; 
indefinite. 



For a new one-year agreement 
» providing for increased wages 
seniority, fringe benefits and 
extension of pension and 
welfare plans, following re- 
ference to conciliation board; 
unconcluded. 

For a new agreement providing 
for increased wages, shift 
differential and reduced 
hours from 44 to 40 per week 
with same take-home pay; 
unconcluded. 



For a new agreement providing 
for increased wages and 
overtime rates, following 
reference to conciliation 
board; unconcluded. 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During November 1955 



Mining — 

Gypsum quarry work- 
ers,- Hantspoit and 
Went worth, N.S. 

Manufacturing — 
Vegetable Foods, etc. — 
Biscuit factory 
workers, 
Pictou, N.S. 



Textiles, Clothing, etc.— 
Men's clothing factory 
workers, 
Sherbrooke, Que. 



400 



105 



27 



400 



60 



50 



Nov. 30 



Nov.. 7 



Nov, 



Protesting suspension of a 
worker for cause; uncon- 
cluded. 



Protesting dismissal of a 
worker; concluded Novem- 
ber 7; return of workers 
pending negotiations; in- 
definite. 



Re payment for certain work 
not covered by decree; 
concluded November 9; 
negotiations; in favour of 
employer 



134 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, CANADA, NOVEMBER 19550) 



Industry, 

Occupation, 

Locality 



Number Involved 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments 



Workers 



Time 
Loss in 

Man- 
Working 

Days 



Date 
Began 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During November 1955 



Miscellaneous Wood 
Products — 
Saw, shingle and ply- 
wood mill firemen, 
helpers and 
engineers, 
British Columbia. 



Metal Products — 
Motor vehicle parts 
factory workers, 
Windsor, Ont. 



Motor vehicle factory 
workers, 
Windsor, Ont. 



Metal stamping factory 
workers, 
La Salle, Ont. 
Miscellaneous — 
Chrome furniture 
factory workers, 
Toronto, Ont. 



Construction — 
Buildings and Structures- 
Carpenters, 
Dryden, Ont. 



w 



OS 



700 



( 6 ) 



27 



110 



Transportation and 

Public Utilities— 
OtherLocal and Highway — 
Truck drivers, 
warehousemen and 
helpers, 
Windsor, Ont. 



Trade — 

Dairy workers and 
route salesmen, 
Chatham and 
Wallaceburg, Ont. 



800 



1,050 



10 



Nov. 6 



38 



12 



37 



440 



1,050 



700 



20 



35 



Nov. 21 



Nov. 22 



Nov. 26 



For a greater increase in 
wages than recommended 
by conciliation board in new 
agreement under negotia- 
tions; concluded by Novem- 
ber 25; conciliation; in 
favour of employer. 



Protesting dismissal of a work- 
er for being absent without 
leave; concluded November 
22; negotiations; in favour of 
workers. 

Sympathy with strike of 
motor vehicle parts factory 
workers; concluded Novem- 
ber 22; return of workers; in 
favour of employer. 

Alleged discrimination in lay- 
off of workers; unconcluded. 



Nov. 10 For a union agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages, 
following reference to con- 
ciliation board; unconcluded. 



Nov. 8 For a union agreement pro- 
viding for increased wages, 
reduced hours from 49^ to 44 
per week with same take- 
home pay, union shop, four 
per cent vacation pay and pay 
for board and room; uncon- 
cluded. 



Nov. 25 



Nov. 9 



Dispute over city deliveries 
by out-of-town drivers; con- 
cluded November 26; return 
of workers pending negoti- 
ations; indefinite. 



Protesting arbitration decision 
re grievance of one worker; 
concluded November 9; 
negotiations; compromise. 



0) Preliminary data based where possible on reports from parties concerned, in some cases in- 
: complete; subject to revision for the annual review. ^ 

( 2 ) In this table the date of commencement is that on which time loss first occurred and the date 
of conclusion is the last day on which time was lost to an appreciable extent. 

0) 45 indirectly affected; 0) 535 indirectly affected; ( 5 ) 2,400 indirectly affected; ( 6 ) 3,500 indirectly 
affected. 



135 



H — Industrial Accidents 

TABLE H-L— FATAL INDUSTRIAL A( ( 1DENTS IN CANADA DURING THE THIRD 
QUARTER OF 1955 BY GROUPS OF INDUSTRIES AND CAUSES 

Note: The method of preparing these figures is described elsewhere in this issue in an article entitled "Fatal In- 
dustrial Accidents in Canada'". 



> 

Cause 


e 

= 

< 


- 
9 


= 
- 
1 

~ 
=. 
r. 

- 

r. 


= 

>. 
■— 

3 

r 
C 
— 

a 

a 

" = 


- 

r. 


r 
■ 

6 


u 

£ * 

— =. 

k 

-- =. 

- i 

r % 
§■§ 


1 

Sj 

X - 

cj 

c 

z - 

:- 


- 
— 

- 


! 

- 
- 


s 

> 

t 

X 


— 

EC 

a 

"o 

B 
— 


ll 






























Struck bv 


3 


31 
2 


\ 


20 
5 
2 

13 
4 
5 


16 
2 
4 

10 
3 

17 
5 
1 
4 

5 
3 
2 
5 


33 

: 

12 
14 
5 

10 
16 




11 


2 




1 




118 




17 




1 
2 
4 

15 
4 
1 
3 

4 


"2 


6 
5 

4 
21 
12 


1 




... ! 




27 




29 
2 

4 
2 


5 


74 


Caught In. On or Between Machinery. Vehicles, etc. . 


•>9 




4 
4 


.... 


9 
6 




90 




63 




2 




2 

4 


5 


• 

2 
9 

"i 


16 

3 

1 
13 
5 




12 

1 


4 
2 


1 


6 




61 


Conflagrations, Temperature Extremes and Explo- 


00 










13 




4 


3 
2 


2 


8 


2 
2 






2 
3 


— 


34 




1 




27 






1 
























Total, ThiH Qoarter— 1955 


36 


48 


14 


51 


56 86 


sa 


14 


1 


21 390 








Total, Third Quarter— 1954 


39 


40 


9 


54 


51 


n 


7 


■ 


10 




20 


.- 


367 



TABLE H-?.— FATAL INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS BY PROVINCE AND GROUPS OF 
INDUSTRIES DURING THE THIRD QUARTER OF 1955 



Indu?try 


z 




X 

z 


pq 

z 




s 




7. 

X 


< 


6 


Z 


^ 


Agriculture 








l 
2 


4 

7 


12 
9 

1 
14 

26 
3 

16 
11 

1 

: 


8 
3 
3 


4 


4 


3 

25 

9 

7 

14 
9 
3 
6 




36 




1 




9 
3 










14 




1 




"s 

3 

1 
2 


12 
9 

29 
1 

18 




8 
3 
6 

5 

1 


51 




2 
6 


4 
4 


56 




1 


1 


- 




10 




1 




1 
1 


3 
1 


53 


Trade. . 


14 


















1 


Service 








1 


3 


3 


1 


1 


5 




21 






































Total 


4 


1 17 


13 


83 


118 


27 


17 


29 


81 




390 











136 



CURRENT 



FEBRUARY 15, 1956 



relations 



REVIEW 



Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour, Canada 



Current Manpower Situation 

EMPLOYMENT showed the usual sharp seasonal decline during 
January but the underlying condition of the labour market remained 
strong. Resource development and construction activity generally were 
at high levels considering winter weather conditions. The employment 
trend in manufacturing was still rising, although in some producer goods 
industries it remained relatively low. 



January was marked by sea- 
sonal slackness in most labour 
market areas. The usual lull in 
retail trade and the gradual com- 
pletion of pulp-cutting quotas 
resulted in the release of large 
numbers of workers and winter 
weather caused a further decline 
in agriculture and construction. 
In addition, strikes and shortages 
of steel caused some layoffs in 
the central provinces. 

Total employment was esti- 
mated to be 5,231,000 in the week 
of January 21, a drop of 157,000 
in the preceding six weeks. During 
this period, the labour force de- 
clined by some 71,000, and the 
number of persons without jobs and 
seeking work rose by 86,000. This 
represented an increase of 43 per 
cent, compared with one of 46 per 
cent during the same period last 
winter. 



,^_ ,™ — ^ , 

LABOUR FORCE TRENDS 
1954-55 1955-56 




n 



J FMAMJ JAS0NDJFMA 

_ , , ,,,,;w..,, — — ^-_^ , 1 



A Monthly Labour Gazette Feature 



137 



Hours per Woek 



MANUFACTURING EMPLOYMENT 
1949-100 



120 



110 




M J J A S U D J 




A S N D J 



Employment remained well above and unemployment well below last 
year's. The number seeking work plus those laid off for a full week was 
estimated to be 312,000, or some 74,000 lower than a year earlier, while 
the number with jobs was 228,000 higher. As in past months, total em- 
ployment in non-farm industries remained firm, apart from seasonal 
movements. 

The seasonal slackness and the resulting rise in unemployment 
was somewhat greater than usual in the eastern regions of the country 
and less than usual in some of the western provinces. In the last half of 
the month, the number of persons registered at National Employment 
Service offices was still rising but at a sharply reduced rate. In British 
Columbia the peak was apparently reached in the last week of January, 
a little earlier than usual. In Ontario the high level of activity in manu- 
facturing and construction continued. 

There is evidence that the upturn in construction will probably 
be strong in all regions this spring. The 35,000 housing units begun 
in the fourth quarter of 1955 exceeded the number begun in the fourth 
quarter of 1954 by more than 5,000 and the number under construc- 
tion at the end of the year was 16 per cent higher. Statistical series 
indicating the progress of other types of construction also show substan- 
tial gains over the year. Estimates for December show that the number 
with jobs in the industry was more than 40,000 higher in 1955, than in the 
same month of the three previous years. Increased requirements for con- 
struction workers has been reflected in the job application and job va- 
cancy figures of the National Employment Service. At the end of January, 
there were 17,000 fewer applications from skilled and unskilled con- 
struction workers than a year earlier and the number of vacancies was 
considerably higher. 

The Producer Goods Industries 

It has become clear that the employment pattern emerging from the 
rise in general economic activity during 1955, particularly in manufac- 
turing industries, is considerably different from that prevailing during 
the period of defence build-up in 1951 and 1952. Those two years were 
marked by a rapid growth of employment in producer goods industries — 
a direct result of heavy defence expenditures. Consumer goods industries 
also expanded in this period but to a lesser extent. Since that time, 
Canada has experienced a mild recession and a marked recovery. It is 



138 



notable, however, that the producer goods industries have lost their 
position as the main support to employment growth in manufacturing. 

Manufacturing employment reached a peak early in 1953. At that 
time, it was clear that the expansionary effects of resource development 
and the defence program had been largely concentrated in firms manu- 
facturing producer goods, for employment in this group was more than 
one-third higher than the 1949 average, while the increase for manu- 
facturing as a whole was only 15 per cent.* The producer goods group 
currently accounts for one-fifth of manufacturing employment and in- 
cludes firms engaged in the production of aircraft, railway rolling stock, 
ships, agricultural implements, industrial machinery, boilers and other 
finished iron and steel products. 

By the end of 1954, manufacturing employment had fallen by 8 per 
cent. Although the decline was fairly widespread, the largest drops 
occurred in the producer goods industries. The employment index for 
the group as a whole fell from 134 in April 1953 to 115 in January 1955, 
a drop of almost 15 per cent. The decline in industries producing con- 
sumer finished goods and basic materials was only about 4 per cent. 

The pattern of recovery is noteworthy because, somewhat contrary 
to what might have been expected, the producer goods industries did not 
play the same dominant role as in the downturn. By the end of 1955, the 



x Many Canadian industries have fairly regular fluctuations in employment because of 
weather or other conditions that are directly related to the season of the year. In this 
analysis, these fluctuations have been eliminated from the reported employment indexes. 
This is done by dividing the actual employment index by an index of the average seasonal 
fluctuations during the past few years. The result is a seas on ally- ad justed employment 
index that indicates the basic changes in employment. 



r 






— — 



MANUFACTURING EMPLOYMENT, AND SELECTED COMPONENTS, 1952 TO DATE 
(seasonally adjusted) 



130 



120 



110 



100 



90 







*"S 


Producer Finished 


- 


\ 


Goods 


ndustries 




/ 


N 


/ 


1 


X 


All 




v 






Manufacturing 




V 


y 


- 


^^ 






^Z* 


-- 


y^ «>.«. 

.-»-""" ."!• 


r- 


^^■" 




..••" \ 








\ 

Consumer Finished 

Goods Industries 

i . . 1 . i 


Materials 

■ 1 i 


, . 


1 



1952 



1953 



1954 



1955 



1956 







130 



120 



no 



100 



90 







Source: Employment and Payrolls Branch, I). US. 

Adjusted (or seasonal variations and strikes hy the Economics and Res 



:h Branch, Departr, 



139 



seasonally-adjusted index of manufacturing employment had risen to 
within 2 per cent of the 1953 peak. (It was almost level with the 1953 
peak if workers on strike at General Motors plants are included.) How- 
ever, only a little more than 10 per cent of the gain in manufacturing 
employment during 1955 took place in producer goods industries. In the 
preceding contraction, this group accounted for 50 per cent of the total 
employment decline in manufacturing. 

The current situation varies considerably from industry to industry. 
In shipbuilding, for example, employment continued to decline through- 
out 1955 and at the end of the year was more than 20 per cent lower 
than at the beginning of 1953. Employment in the aircraft industry showed 
some increase in the last half of the year but was still well below the 
1953 peak. The present pattern of defence expenditures suggests that 
employment levels in these industries will not change much, at least 
during the first half of this year. 

A quite different situation exists among manufacturers of industrial 
machinery. Employment losses incurred during 1954 were regained in 
1955 and the outlook suggests additional hirings in 1956. Production 
increases may be limited in some cases by the increasingly widespread 
shortages of engineers, draughtsmen, tool designers and skilled metal 
working tradesmen. 

Employment in the railway rolling stock industry rose slightly 
during 1955 but was still well below the level of early 1953. Towards 
the end of the year, however, the railway companies placed substantial 
orders for railway rolling stock, so that the outlook has brightened 
considerably. The rate at which workers will be rehired in these in- 
dustries, however, depends largely on the availability of materials. 
Reports received during January show that three firms laid off more 
than 2,000 employees because of steel shortages. 

Employment in the agricultural implement industry also remained 
relatively low through most of 1955. In recent months, however, the 
market situation has strengthened, mainly because of the gradual reduc- 
tion of surplus inventories in the hands of dealers and manufacturers. 
The improved situation has been reflected in factory shipments, which 
were considerably higher in the last quarter of 1955 than in the corre- 
sponding months of the two previous years, but there has been little 
evidence of anything more than a seasonal increase in the rate of hirings 
in this industry. 

Activity in other iron and steel fabricating establishments was 
at relatively low levels through most of the year, although there were 
some employment gains in the last quarter. In the last two months 
production in some firms was held back because of temporary cutbacks 
in the motor vehicle industry. In others, particularly those serving the 
construction industry, there is a large and increasing backlog of work. 
The general prospect, therefore, is that in coming months this group of 
industries may show some improvement apart from the seasonal move- 
ments. 



140 



Labour-Management Relations 

SETTLEMENT of the dispute between General Motors of Canada 
Limited and the United Automobile Workers of America was an- 
nounced February 14. The new agreement, still to be ratified by the 
employees, brings to an end the strike of approximately 14,000 employ- 
ees of General Motors that began on September 11, 1955, and that affect- 
ed plants of the company at Oshawa, Windsor, St. Catharines, London 
and Toronto. 

The board of conciliation appointed to try to resolve differences 
between the railway companies and the unions of non-operating em- 
ployees began functioning January 30. At the middle of February the 
board was continuing its conciliation efforts over demands of the unions 
for a wage-rate increase and other matters (L.G., Jan., p. 5). Two 
unions of operating employees are reported to have proposed revisions 
to their contracts which expire at the end of March. 

During the past month, collective bargaining has been in progress 
and a number of settlements have been reached in several other in- 
dustries. These, however, applied to small bargaining units of employ- 
ees compared with those in the railway and automobile industries. 

Automobiles — Full details of the new agreement between General 
Motors of Canada and the UAW were not available at the time of writing 
but reports indicated that the 2%-year contract provides annual improve- 
ment-factor wage increases of 6 cents an hour, or 18 cents during the 
life of the agreement. Increases to adjust wage inequities will also be 
provided through a fund estimated to average 4 cents an hour. Also 
reported to be included are provisions for a modified guaranteed annual 
wage, increased benefits under group health and pension plans, eight 
statutory holidays rather than six, increased premium pay for work on 
weekends and holidays, higher shift differentials, a slightly improved 
vacation plan and a full union shop. 

The guaranteed wage or supplemental unemployment benefit plan is 
similar to arrangements negotiated during 1955 between the UAW and 
automobile manufacturers in the United States. The company will con- 
tributes cents an hour per employee to a fund from which weekly benefits 
will be paid to laid-off employees for a maximum of 26 weeks. If the 
benefits can be integrated with unemployment insurance payments, an 
employee could receive 65 per cent of his wages for four weeks and 
60 per cent for 22 weeks. No payments will be made from the fund, 
however, until March 1, 1957. 

The union was not successful in its effort to have the company pay 
the full cost of the group health and welfare insurance plan. A greater 
proportion of the cost will be assumed by the company, however, and 
benefits under the plan will be improved. 

Collective agreements affecting the other two large automobile 
manufacturers, Ford Motor Company of Canada and Chrysler Corporation 
of Canada, do not expire until June and August respectively. The union 
is reported to be drawing up proposals for submission to the Ford Motor 
Company in April. 

141 






Railways - Little information was available on the progress of 
conciliation in the dispute between the railways and the non-operating 
employees. Among the operating unions, the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Firemen and Enginemen is reported to be seeking a wage increase of 
25 per cent and other benefits, including paid statutory holidays for 
yard service employees and premium pay for work on such days. The 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen has made a similar request regarding 
statutory holidays and has proposed a general wage increase of 30 
per cent. The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers had not, at the time 
of writing, finally established the proposals to be submitted to the 
companies regarding revisions in its contracts. 

Water Transport - On February 1, a board of conciliation was 
established to deal with differences between the Association of Lake 
Carriers, representing operators on the Great Lakes waterways system, 
and the Seafarers' International Union, representing unlicensed person- 
nel. This action followed unsuccessful efforts by a conciliation officer 
to obtain agreement between the parties. A proposed increase in wages 
and a change in the basis of pay from daily or monthly rates to hourly 
rates appear to be the main matters in dispute. 

Negotiations between the same association and two other unions, 
the Canadian Merchant Service Guild, representing licensed officers, 
and the National Association of Marine Engineers, have failed to pro- 
duce agreement. Conciliation officers have been appointed under the 
Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act to mediate in the 
disputes. Wage matters are also at issue in these negotiations. 

Civic Workers - Negotiations are in progress between a number of 
civic administrations across Canada and various organizations of their 
employees. Cities in which bargaining is presently going on or will 
shortly begin include Montreal, Toronto, Hamilton, Winnipeg, Saskatoon 
and Vancouver. In all of these cities the unions are seeking substantial 
wage increases together with other contract changes. 

Agreements were reached late in January covering firemen and 
policemen in Montreal and operating engineers in Hamilton. Wage in- 
creases were provided in each case and hours of work for the Montreal 
firemen and policemen are to be reduced. 

Coal Mining - A board of conciliation will try to resolve differ- 
ences between the Dominion Coal Company and District 26 of the United 
Mine Workers of America. Appointment of the board followed negotiations 
over proposed changes in working conditions for the Nova Scotia miners. 
Reports indicate that a general increase in wage rates was not requested 
by the union* Depressed conditions in the industry, resulting in sub- 
stantial layoffs of workers during the past several years, have provided 
poor grounds for wage increases. 

Clothing - The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and the 
Quebec Associated Clothing Manufacturers have failed to reach agree- 
ment in the re-negotiation of their agreement. The union had asked for a 
wage increase of 10 per cent and increased fringe benefits. A board of 
conciliation was unable to arrive at a basis for settling the dispute. 



142 



Syndicates affiliated with the Canadian and Catholic Confederation 
of Labour are also negotiating with manufacturers grouped in the Quebec 
Garment Manufacturers' Association. 

In Toronto, representatives of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
and the Associated Clothing Manufacturers have been negotiating for an 
extended period over revisions to their contract. 

Rubber Products — Late in January a conciliation officer reported 
that he had been unable to settle differences between the Firestone 
Tire and Rubber Company of Canada, Hamilton, and the United Rubber, 
Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of America. A recommendation for 
the establishment of a board of conciliation was made. More than 1,000 
employees are represented by the union, which had orginially requested, 
among other things, an increase of 20 cents an hour and a guaranteed 
annual wage. 

Other Bargaining — A dispute between Canadian Pacific Air Lines 
and the Canadian Airline Flight Attendants' Association, representing 
stewardesses, which seemed on the verge of strike action a month ago, 
had not been resolved at the time of writing. It was reported, however, 
that the employees were voting on the acceptance of an offer of settle- 
ment. 

About 1,500 workers are affected by agreements signed in January 
by the United Packinghouse Workers of America and companies with 
food-canning plants in various parts of British Columbia. Wage increases 
of approximately 7 cents an hour were negotiated and some reductions 
in working hours were agreed upon. 

A new agreement to be effective until July 1958 was recently signed 
by representatives of the Montreal Transportation Commission and the 
Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees and other Transport Work- 
ers. Wage increases totalling 14 cents an hour are payable at intervals 
during the life of the contract. 

Settlements at a number of small manufacturers of metal products 
in Ontario were signed during the past month. Wage increases ranging 
for the most part from 5 to 10 cents an hour were provided. 

Work Stoppages — Work stoppages in existence in January 1956 
numbered 13. These involved 17,335 workers and resulted in a time 
loss of 338,340 man-days according to preliminary figures. In December 
1955, the corresponding figures were 15 stoppages, 17,720 workers and 
340,410 days. For January 1955, the figures were 16 strikes and lock- 
outs, 11,106 workers and 218,145 man-days. 

On January 16 the strike of more than 1,000 workers at Canada 
Wire and Cable Company, Toronto, which began September 30, 1955, 
was terminated. A new agreement was signed by the company and the 
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America. 

The main work stoppages in existence at February 15 involved 
structural steel workers at Sault Ste. Marie, and machinery factory 
workers at Lachine. 



143 



Manpower Situation in Local Areas 



DISTRIBUTION OF PAID WORKERS 
IN THE FOUR LABOUR MARKET CATEGORIES 







— > 



Substantial 
Surplus 



Moderate 
Surplus 



Shortage 



Feb. 1 
1956 



THE usual mid-winter employ- 
ment declines occurred in 
virtually all local areas during 
January. This seasonal drop in 
business activity resulted in the 
reclassification of 37 of the 109 
local areas: 25 from the moderate 
to the substantial labour surplus 
group, one from the substantial to 
the moderate surplus group and 
11 from balance to the moderate 
surplus group. At February 1, 
classification of the 109 local 
labour market areas and the per- 
centage of paid workers in each 
category was as follows (last 
year's figures in brackets): in 
balance, 5 (1) representing 2 per 
cent (0.5 per cent); in moderate 
surplus, 55 (44) representing 67 
per cent (56.5 per cent); in sub- 
stantial surplus, 49 (64) represent- 
ing 31 per cent (43 per cent). 

Unemployment in nearly all 
local areas was lower than last 
year. The year-to-year improve- 
ments in classification, however, were concentrated in the Ontario, 
Prairie, and Pacific regions; in the Atlantic and Quebec regions, all 
areas were in the same categories as in 1955. The changes that occurred 
during the month were distributed through all the regions; but in the 
Atlantic, employment cuts were more severe than usual because heavy 
rains and an early thaw held up woods operations. 



Feb. 1 
1955 




Labour Market 
Areas 


Labour Surplus* 


Approximate 
Balance* 


Labour 
Shortage* 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Feb. 1 
1956 


Feb. 1 
1955 


Feb. 1 
1956 


Feb. 1 
1955 


F fW 


Feb. 1 
1955 


F r&' 


Feb. 1 
1955 


Metropolitan 
Major Industrial 
Major Agricultural 
Minor 


4 
11 

4 
30 


6 
15 

7 
36 


7 

16 
10 
22 


5 
12 

7 
20 


5 


1 


- 


- 


Total 


49 


64 


55 


44 


5 


1 


- 


- 



'See inside back cover October 1955 Labour Gazette. 



144 



I 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS, 
February 1' 1956 









APPROXIMATE LABOUR 




LABOUR SURPLUS 


BALANCE SHORTAGE 




Group 1 


Group 2 


Group 3 Group 4 




Quebee-Levis 


Calgary 










St. John'* 


Edmonton 








METROPOLITAN AREAS 


VANCOUVER -NEW ^_ 
WESTMINSTER 


Hamilton 
Montreal 








(labour fare* 75,000 or mora) 


WINNIPEG < 


OTTAWA -HULL 

TORONTO 

Windsor 


< 








Cornor Brook 


Brontford 










CORNWALL < 


Fort William - 










FARNHAM-GRANBY< 


Port Arthur 










JOLIETTE < 


GUELPH 


^ 








LAC ST. JEAN < 


Halifax 










Moncton 


KINGSTON 


< 








Now Glasgow 


Kitchanar 








MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 


OSHAWA <— 


London 








(labour lore. 25,000-75,000; 


Shawinlgan Falls 


Niagara Paninsula 








60 per c«nt or mora in 
non-agricultural activity) 


SYDNEY < 


Peterborough 








TraU Rivieres 


Rouyn-Val d'Or 
Saint John 












Sarnia 












Sherbrooke 












SUDBWY 


< 










Timmlns — Klrkland 












Lake 












Victoria 










CHARLOTTETOWN < 


BARRIE 


_ 








LETHBRIDGE < 


Brandon 










Riviere du Loup 


Chatham 








MAJOR AGRICULTURAL AREAS 

(labour fore. 25,000-75,000; 


THETFORD-MEGANTIC- 
ST. GEORGES < 


Moose Jaw 
North Battl.ford 
Prince Albert 








40 par cant or mora In agricultura) 




RED DEER 

Regina 

Saskatoon 


< 




















Yorkton 










Beauhornois 


Belleville- 




Brompton 






Control Vancouver 


Trent on 




Gait 






Island 


Cranbrook 




StraHord 






Chllllwack 


DAWSON CREEK 


< 


St. Thomas 






Bathurst 


DRUMHELLER 


< 


Woodstock - Irtgersoll 






BRACEBRIDGE < 


Fredericton 










BRIDGEWATER < 


Goderlch 










CAMPBELLTON < 


Lachute - Ste. 










DAUPHIN < 


Therese 










Drummondvllle 


Lindsay 










EDMUNDSTON < 


LISTOWEL 


< 








Gaspe* 


Medicine Hat 










GRAND FALLS < 


North Bay 










KENTVILLE < 


Pembroke 








MINOR AREAS 


KAMLOOPS < 


>.PRINCE GEORGE 








(labour forca 10,000-25,000) 


Montmagny 
Nawcastla 
Okanogan Vallay 

OWEN SOUND < 

PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE<- 

QUEBEC NORTH SHORB<- 

Rlmouski 

Soral 

Sta. Agatha -St. 

Jerome 
St. Stephen 
Summarsida 

TRURO •*— 
Velleyfield 

VICTORIAVILLE < 

WOODSTOCK, N.B. < — 
Yarmouth 


Prince Rupert 

SAULT STE MARIE 

Simcoe 

St. Hyacinthe 

St. Jean 

Swift Current 

Trail -Nelson 

Walkerton 

Weyburn 












letters ore those that hove been reclassified during the month; an arrow indicates the group from which they moved. 



ATLANTIC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS- ATLANTIC 
- 1954-55 1955-56 




EMPLOYMENT fell sharply in the 
Atlantic region during January, 
as unseasonable weather severely 
curtailed outdoor work. The logging 
industry in particular was affected, 
as an early thaw brought hauling 
operations to a virtual standstill. 
Logging employment dropped to a 
lower level by the end of January 
than a year earlier; it had been 
2,200 higher at the beginning of the 
month. Trucking and sawmilling 
underwent sizeable employment 
declines following the closing of 
secondary roads. Other factors 
contributing to the increase in 
unemployment during the month 
were the return of seamen from the 
Great Lakes and the usual seasonal slackening in construction. Total 
employment remained at a notably higher level than a year earlier, how- 
ever, despite the temporary slowdown in woods operations. The number 
of persons with jobs at January 21 was estimated at 462,000, a decline 
of 33,000 from December 10, 1955, but an increase of 21,000 from a 
year earlier. Year-to-year employment gains in manufacturing, construc- 
tion and trade were chiefly responsible. 

Nine of the 21 areas in the region were reclassified during the 
month from the moderate to the substantial labour surplus category. At 
February 1, the area classification was the same as a year before: in 
moderate surplus, 3; in substantial surplus, 18. 



I l—i I 1 L 



J A S O N J F M A M J 

. — , : - ; - - ■■ 



Local Area Developments 
St. John's (metropolitan). Remained in Group 1. Unemployment increased 
markedly in this area during January. By the end of the month, registra- 
tions for employment were about equal to last year's at the same date. 
Construction workers accounted for more than half of the registrations, 
and loggers for most of the remainder. 

Sydney (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. Except 
for employment contractions in seasonal industries, very little change 
occurred in this area during January. Coal mining, iron and steel and 
ship repairing remained active. Employees were recalled in the ship- 
building industry following receipt of additional refit work. Employment 
continued slightly higher than a year ago, principally because of im- 
proved markets for lumber and coal. 

Charlottetown (major agricultural). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. 

Bridgewoter, Campbellton, Grand Falls, Kentville, Truro, Edmundston 
and Woodstock (minor). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. 



146 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - QUEBEC 
■ 1954-55 1955-56 




Labour Force 



Person* 
With Jobs 



Persons Without Jobs 
and Seeking Work 



J ASONDJFMAMJ 

— 



QUEBEC 

EMPLOYMENT in the Quebec 
region declined slightly more than 
seasonally during January. Steel 
shortages were responsible for 
layoffs by steel-using establish- 
ments and shortages of water and 
electricity caused a drop in em- 
ployment in some manufacturing 
concerns. On the other hand, 
logging operations were maintained 
at a high level and were expected 
to continue high throughout Febru- 
ary. Employment dropped most 
sharply in the contruction industry, 
although it remained above the 
January 1955 level. It decreased 
further in the transportation in- 
dustry and slightly in logging. 

At January 21, the number of persons with jobs was estimated at 
1,456,000, a decrease of 61,000 from December 10, 1955, but an increase 
of 43,000 from January 22, 1955. 

Labour surpluses increased in almost all labour market areas in 
the region during January and brought six areas from the moderate to the 
substantial surplus category by the end of the month. Although the area 
classification was the same at February 1, 1956, as a year earlier, the 
number of persons registered for employment was lower in all 24 local 
areas. Classification of the areas at February 1 of both years was as 
follows: in moderate surplus, 6; in substantial surplus, 18. 

Local Area Developments 
Montreal (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. The number of persons 
registered for employment increased seasonally during January but 
remained well below the January 1955 level. The usual seasonal decline 
in employment continued in construction, transportation and trucking; 
steel shortages were responsible for reduced activity in steel-using 
industries. Job openings increased in logging, secondary textiles and, 
by the end of the month, in the rubber footwear and leather goods in- 
dustries. 

Quebec — Levis (metropolitan). Remained in Group 1. Seasonal reductions 
in employment were most severe in retail trade, clothing, transportation 
and construction. However, employment did not drop as low as in January 
last year. Shoe and glove industries were rehiring workers and primary 
textiles operated at capacity. 

Lac St. Jean (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. 
Labour requirements declined seasonally in construction, retail trade 
and transportation. Labour surpluses were also increased by large lay- 
offs in metalworking industries because of water and electricity short- 
ages. Despite this, employment conditions were better than last year 
owing to high employment in logging and wood cutting, which was ex- 
pected to last till the end of February. 






147 



Farnham - Granby (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 
1. The usual seasonal employment decline occurred in construction, 
agriculture and the rubber industry. The General Motors strike was res- 
ponsible for temporary layoffs in some textile firms producing materials 
for cars. The shutdown of an electrical supplies firm added to the labour 
surpluses. 

Joliette (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. The 
usual seasonal decline in employment was intensified by the permanent 
closing of a match plant. 

Thetford — Megantic — St. Georges (major agricultural). Reclassified from 
Group 2 to Group 1. Labour surpluses increased seasonally. 

Quebec North Shore and Victoriaville (minor). Reclassified from Group 
2 to Group 1. 

ONTARIO 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - ONTARIO 
1954-55 1955-56 



Lcoour Force 



f} 2,050,000- 

■0, 000 ^^ 

t, 950,000 



2,000,000 
1,950,000 \ 




IN ONTARIO, employment in con- 
struction, retail trade, and the 
light manufacturing industries 
showed the usual seasonal decline 
during January. The number of 
persons with jobs dropped by 
40,000 during the month to an 
estimated 1,954,000 at January 21; 
this was about 80,000 higher than 
at the same date in 1955. Employ- 
ment in the manufacturing and 
construction industries was sub- 
tantially higher than in 1955 and 
there were also slight year-to-year 
gains in mining, logging, trade and 
services. The heavy manufacturing 
industries continued at capacity, 
with engineers, draughtsmen and 
most skilled metal tradesmen still 
scarce. On the other hand, production in some of the General Motors 
feeder plants was further reduced and there were scattered layoffs in iron 
and steel processing and construction because of steel shortages. 

The generally high level of employment throughout the region was 
reflected in a more balanced labour demand and supply situation than 
last year in nearly all areas. At February 1, the classification of the 
34 local labour market areas was as follows (last year's figures in 
brackets): in balance, 5 (0); in moderate surplus, 25 (22); in substantial 
surplus, 4 (12). 

Local Area Developments 

Hamilton (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. Further seasonal declines 
occurred in construction. Capacity operations continued in the iron and 
steel industry and, towards the end of the month, demand for workers 
for the electrical apparatus industry increased. Engineers, tool and 



Persons Without Jobs 
and Seeking Work 



I I I I I 1 I l i I 1 l 

J A S O N I) J F V A M J 

; , , j ; : i ,■„■„,„„,:, 



148 



die-makers, draughtsmen, machinists, electronics technicians and other 
skilled metal workers continued in short supply. 

Ottawa -Hull (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 
Gradual seasonal reductions in construction brought the area into surplus, 
but unemployment remained lower than last year. 

Toronto (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. There was 
some seasonal reduction in the construction and light manufacturing in- 
dustries during January. Heavy manufacturing industries continued to 
operate at capacity, with most skilled metal tradesmen in short supply. 

Windsor (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. Ford and Chrysler and most 
other manufacturing industries continued busy. Further layoffs occurred 
in the General Motors feeder plants. 

Cornwall (maior industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. Regis- 
tration of construction workers, seamen and longshoremen brought the 
area into substantial surplus. Employment in the textile industry was 
steady. 

Guelph (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. Most 
industries remained busy. Unemployment levels were well below last 
year's. 

Kingston (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. Em- 
ployment was still high in construction and in the manufacturing of tex- 
tiles, aluminum goods and railway locomotives. 

Oshawa (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. Con- 
tinuation of the General Motors strike resulted in gradual cut-backs in 
employment at the feeder plants. Js 

Sudbury (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. Mining 
operations continued at near capacity. Logging employment was slightly 
higher than a year earlier. The demand for labour at the Blind River 
uranium developments remained strong. 

Barrie (major agricultural). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 

Bracebridge and Owen Sound (minor). Reclassified from Group 2 to 
Group 1. 

Listowel and Sault Ste. Marie (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to 
Group 2. 

PRAIRIE 

ECONOMIC activity in the Prairie region showed continuing strength 
during January, despite the effect of severe winter weather. The season- 
al employment decline was the smallest recorded for January in the last 
four years. Layoffs during the month were almost entirely seasonal and 
chiefly confined to construction and related industries. An upturn in 
coal-mining employment partially offset these declines; certified coal 
miners were in strong demand in several areas but no acute shortages 
were reported. The number of persons with jobs in the region was esti- 
mated at 925,000 at January 21, which was 13,000 fewer than the figure 



149 




at December 10, 1955, but 55,000 
more than a year earlier. This 
was the largest year-to-year differ- 
ence on record and a reflection of 
the basic strength of the region's 
economy. 

Seven labour market areas 
were reclassified during the 
month — three from balance to the 
moderate labour surplus category 
and four from the moderate to the 
substantial surplus category. At 
February 1, classification of the 
20 areas in the region was as 
follows (last year's figures in 
brackets): in balance (1); in 
moderate surplus 16 (11); in 
substantial surplus 4 (8). 



Local Area Developments 
Calgary (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. Unemployment continued 
to rise as a result of further seasonal slackening in the construction 
industry. The volume of construction being carried out was about equal 
to the winter record of last year but unusually severe weather resulted 
in the release of a considerable number of workers during early January. 
In the last two weeks of the month, intermittent employment was con- 
siderable as temperatures moderated. Recall of workers caused a reduc- 
tion in total registrations for employment during the last week of Jan- 
uary, in contrast to the usual seasonal pattern. Total employment in the 
area remained at a notably higher level than a year earlier, the sharpest 
year-to-year gains being recorded in the wholesale and retail trade. 

Edmonton (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. Construction and trans- 
portation accounted for almost all of the increase in unemployment 
during January. Total unemployment remained at a notably lower level 
than a year earlier, reflecting the buoyancy of industrial activity in 
this area. Job opportunities were more numerous than a year before in 
almost all occupations; the most notable improvements were recorded in 
the professional, sales, clerical and metal-working occupations. 

Winnipeg (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. While 
seasonal reductions in manufacturing employment occurred during the 
month, layoffs were fewer and of shorter duration than usual. 

Lethbridge (major agricultural). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. 

Red Deer (major agricultural). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 

Dauphin and Portage La Prairie (minor). Reclassified from Group 2 to 
Group 1. 

Dawson Creek and Drumheller (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to 
Group 2. 



150 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PACIFIC 



1954-55 



1955-56 




J L 



J I I L 



J A S O N D J F M A M J 

— 



PACIFIC 

EMPLOYMENT in the Pacific 
region declined considerably less 
than seasonally during January 
and remained notably higher than 
a year before, particularly in non- 
agricultural industries. As a result, 
unemployment continued to be 
significantly lower than last year, 
especially in the Vancouver — New 
Westminster area. The estimated 
number of persons with jobs in 
the week of January 21, at 434, 000, 
was 10,000 less than a month 
earlier but 31,000 more than at 
January 22, 1955. The seasonal 
pick-up in employment appeared 

to have begun, as usual, during the last week of the month and full in- 
dustrial activity will be resumed as soon as weather permits. In several 
areas, there was already a scarcity of fully qualified workers in some 
skilled occupations. Employment in manufacturing, apart from seasonal 
industries, continued to rise higher above last year's. Construction was 
very active for this time of the year, particularly in the pulp and paper 
industry and in the extension of the smelter at Kitimat. Sawmill produc- 
tion continued at a high level but logging activities were still hampered 
by heavy snow. Mining maintained steady operations. 

During the month two labour market areas were reclassified from the 
moderate to the substantial labour surplus category and one from the 
substantial to the moderate surplus group. At February 1, the classifica- 
tion of the ten labour merket areas in the region was as follows (last • 
year's figures in brackets): in moderate surplus, 5 (2); in substantial 
surplus, 5 (8). 

Local Area Developments 
Vancouver — New Westminster (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 2 
to Group 1. Total industrial employment declined slightly from a month 
earlier but continued to rise above year-earlier levels, partly because 
of favourable weather conditions. Mining operations continued at the 
same rate as in the preceding month. By mid- January logging operations 
were resumed in some districts but the production of lumber and allied 
products slowed down in Vancouver because of log shortages, high log 
prices and lack of water. Conditions in the construction industry improved 
during the month. Manufacturing was particularly active in the clothing 
and metal trades industries. 

Victoria (major industrial). Remained in Group 2. The over-all employment 
picture in the logging industry was better than usual for this time of the 
year. Sawmills continued to operate at a fairly high level. All metal and 
chemical industries were busy. Construction activity was exceptionally 
strong for the season. As a result, the number of unemployed for the 
month was the lowest since 1948. 

Kamloops (minor). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. 
Prince George (minor). Reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 



151 



Current Labour Statistics 



(Latest available statistics as of February 10, 1956) 



Principal Items 





Amount 


Percentage Change 
From 


Date 


Previous 
Month 


Previous 
Year 


Jan. 21 
Jan. 21 
Jan. 21 
Jan. 21 
Jan. 21 


5,517,000 

5,231,000 

4,705,000 

364,000 

162,000 


- 1.3 

- 2.9 

- 0.9 
-28.9 1 
+ 27.6 


+ 2.8 
+ 4.6 
+ 4.9 
- 4.5 
+ 20.0 


Jan. 21 
Jan. 21 


40,000 
26,000 


- 4.8 
+ 44.4 


-28.6 

+ 13.0 


Jan. 21 


286,000 


+ 43.0 


-21.2 


Jan. 21 
Jan. 21 
Jan. 21 


4,107,000 

74,000 

4,033,000 


- 2.9 
0.0 

- 3.0 


+ 6.9 
-23.7 

+ 7.7 


Jan. 19 
Jan. 19 
Jan. 19* 
Jan. 19 
Jan. 19 
Jan. 19 


69,206 

150,501 

135,027 

75,581 

54,238 

484,553 


+ 98.6 
+ 83.5 
+ 66.2 
+ 52.7 
+ 38.8 
+ 69.0 


- 1.5 
-14.4 
-22.8 

- 9.9 
-16.5 
-14.9 


Jan. 1 
December 


388, 129 
$11,942,873 


+ 76.6 
f37.9 


-19.0 
-38.5 


Dec. 1 
Dec. 1 


117,8 
112.3 


- 0.3 

- 0.5 


+ 5.1 
+ 6.5 


Year 
(1955) 


109,946 


- 


-28.7(c] 


January 
January 
January 


338,340 

17,335 

13 


- 


- 


Dec. 1 
Dec. 1 
Dec. 1 
Dec. 1 
Jan. 3 
Dec. 1 
November 


$61.99 

$ 1.46 

41.6 

$60.78 

116.8 

124.6 

1,133 


0.0 
+ 0.5 

- 0.2 
+ 0.2 

- 0.1 
+ 0.2 

- 0.5 


+ 4.0 
+ 3.5 
+ 1.0 
+ 4.5 
+ 0.3 
+ 4.2 
+ 9.3 


November 
November 
N ovember 
November 


283.5 
285.0 
340.9 
249.3 


0.0 
f 0.1 

0.0 
+ 0.3 


+ 11.4 
+ 10.5 
+ 14.0 

+ 7.5 



Manpower 

Total civilian labour force (a) 

Total persons with jobs 

At work 35 hours or more 

At work less than 35 hours 

With jobs but not at work 

TCith jobs but on short time 

With jobs but laid off full week 

Persons without jobs and seeking work 

Total paid workers 

In agriculture 

In non-agriculture 

Registered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 

Claimants for Unemployment 

Insurance benefit 

Amount of benefit payments 

Industrial employment (1949=100) 

Manufacturing employment (1019=100) 

Immigration 

Industrial Relations 

Strikes and Lockouts — days lost 

No. of workers involved 

No. of strikes 

Earnings and Income 

Average v/eekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg„) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (av. 1949=100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg. av. 1949=100) 
Total labour income $000,000 

Industrial Production 

Total (average 1935-39 = 100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-Durables 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from 
Labour Force, a monthly publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. See also 
inside back cover, October 1955 Labour Gazette. 

(b) See inside back cover, October 1955 Labour Gazette. 

(c) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year with 
total for same period previous year. 

1 Religious holiday occurred during the survey week. 



152 



Notes of 
Current 
Interest 



Work on Public Projects 
Continues during Winter 

Despite the severity of the weather this 
winter, work is continuing on each of the 
196 building projects of the Department of 
Public Works now in progress. 

This was revealed by the Hon. Robert 
Winters, Minister of Public Works, at the 
laying of the cornerstone of the new 
Federal Building at North Bay, Ont., last 
month. He cited the construction of the 
building as an example of how well the 
Government's efforts to alleviate winter 
unemployment are having effect. 

The 196 projects, Mr. Winters said, "are 
providing work and wages for people at a 
time when even a few years ago they would 
have been closed down until spring. 

"Here is an example," he added, "of what 
can be accomplished when private enter- 
prise and government team up to tackle a 
problem of common concern." 

He also predicted that employment in 
house-building would be higher this winter 
than last. "At the end of 1955 there were 
some 78,000 dwelling units under construc- 
tion, 14 per cent more than at the end of 
1954," he said. "This means a correspond- 
ing increase in the labour required to 
complete these dwellings in the first four 
or five months of the year." 

Mr. Winters estimated an increase of 
some eight million man-hours in direct 
employment in house-building activity this 
winter compared with last winter. "This 
represents an increase in employment of 
10,000 men," he pointed out. 



Locomotive Firemen Seek 
25-Per-Cent Pay Increase 

Locomotive firemen employed by Cana- 
dian railways and harbour boards will ask 
for a basic wage increase of 25 per cent 
when they negotiate a new agreement to 
replace the one that expires on March 31. 
They will also demand pay for all statutory 
holidays not worked and time and a half 
for holidays worked. A third demand will 
be that time lost on account of layoffs, 
illness or injury shall be counted as service 
in computing pension. 



An announcement that these demands 
were to be served on the companies on 
February 1 was made last month by W. E. 
Gamble, Vice-president of the Brotherhood 
of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemcn. 

The wage demand of the locomotive fire- 
men is computed to be about equal to the 
demand of the non-operating employees of 
the railways for an 18-per-cent wage in- 
crease and a health plan, which together 
are equivalent to about 33 cents an hour. 

(The Canadian Brotherhood of Railway 
Employees (CCL) announced last month 
that it will use every means at its disposal 
to safeguard the right to strike and to 
oppose compulsory arbitration as a means 
of settling railway workers' disputes.) 



British Rail Workers 
Granted Wage Boost 

An offer of a 7-per-cent wage increase 
made by the British Transport Commission 
was accepted last month by three unions 
representing 450,000 workers. Together 
with other benefits which will add about 
$7,000,000 to the Commission's wage bill, 
the total cost of the extra wages will 
amount to approximately $70,000,000 a year. 

Of the three unions concerned, the 
Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers 
and Firemen and the Transport Salaried 
Staffs Association had asked for an increase 
of 74 per cent, while the National Union 
of Railwaymen had tried to get a 10-per- 
cent increase. 

The increases mean that porters, whose 
present basic wage is equal to $19 a week, 
will receive an extra $1.35, while for top 
scale engineers the basic wage will rise 
from $27.72 to $29.66 a week. Actual earn- 
ings are higher than these amounts, since 
considerable overtime is worked. 

Impetus to Inflation 

Some economists fear that these wage 
increases, together with increases in other 
industries, will add impetus to the 
dangerous inflationary trend already in 
evidence in the United Kingdom, although 
the speed and goodwill with which the 
negotiations were concluded lend encourage- 
ment to the hope that 1956 will be com- 
paratively free from industrial strife. A 
good deal of Britain's economic difficulty 
is generally ascribed to the railway and 
dock strikes last year, which had an. 
unfavourable effect on exports. 

The railway unions have undertaken to 
co-operate with the Commission in making 
the operation of the lines more efficient, in 
which case much of the new wage bill 
might be made up by economies. 



67507—2 



153 



Railway Revenues Jump 
To Twice Total Year Ago 

Net operating revenues of Canada's prin- 
cipal railway systems jumped to S16.806.277 
in October, more than double the preceding 
year's total of S7,44S.926, the Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics reports. 

Operating revenues rose 16 per cent to 
S106.395.233 from S9 1,698,098 while operating 
expenses showed a smaller rise of 6-3 per 
cent to SS9.5SS.956 from S84,249,172. 

Employees on railway payrolls numbered 
185,418. up from 185.048, and total payroll 
increased to S54,078,192 from $52,529,209. 



30 Canadians to Attend 
Oxford Study Conference 

A conference this summer to study the 
human problems raised by industrialization, 
which is being sponsored by the Duke of 
Edinburgh, will be attended by 30 Cana- 
dian delegates. 

The conference, w r hich will be held in 
Oxford, England, from July 9 to 27, and 
will be attended by some 280 persons from 
Britain and from Commonwealth countries, 
grew out of a suggestion made to the Duke 
by Britain's Industrial Welfare Society, of 
which he is a patron. A council of 48 men 
and two women, set up by him in July 1954, 
has been laying plans for the conference. 

The committee charged with selecting the 
Canadian delegates is under the chairman- 
ship of the Rt. Hon. C. D. Howe, Minister 
of Trade and Commerce. The Duke of 
Edinburgh broached the matter of the con- 
ference to Mr. Howe when the latter was 
in London last year. 

Vice-chairmen of the selection committee 
are Claude Jodoin, President of the Trades 
and Labour Congress of Canada, and W. S. 
Kirkpatrick, Vice-president of Consolidated 
Mining and Smelting Co. 

It has been emphasized that the confer- 
ence is not for research workers but "for 
young people actually engaged in industry," 
as the Duke wrote in a booklet describing 
the purpose of the meetings. "Its main 
value will not lie in the reports of speeches 
and discussions. Its value will depend upon 
what the members make of what they see 
and hear," he continued. 

"Ultimately, it is hoped that the mem- 
bers will be able to extend their influence 
in their own countries and industries to 
the end that industrial enterprises are so 
organized that they form an integral part 
of a happy and healthy community," he 
said. 

The conference will consider how disci- 
pline can be reconciled with freedom and 



initiative in an industrial plant, "how you 
can overcome the boredom of performing 
a simple mechanical task and how you can 
lead all those connected with industrial 
enterprise to feel that they have a stake 
in its success," as Mr. Howe put it. 

Applicants will be chosen mainly from 
among men and women between the ages 
of 25 and 45 years. 

Since the conference is essentially for 
persons actively engaged in industry, gov- 
ernment departments, universities, banks, 
finance companies, and so on, are not to 
be represented; neither will farmers be 
included. Employees of Crown companies 
are eligible, however. 

Members of the Canadian delegation are 
being chosen from among persons recom- 
mended by businessmen and labour leader's. 

Those who are helping in the selection 
include: H. Crombie, Vice-president of 
Dominion Engineering Works, Montreal, 
and J. B. Stirling, President of E.G.M. 
Cape and Co., a Montreal construction 
firm, on the management side; and Donald 
MacDonald, Secretary-Treasurer of the 
Canadian Congress of Labour, on the 
labour side. Two other labour men are to 
be appointed, Mr. Howe said, and W. J. 
Bennett, President of the Atomic Energy of 
Canada, Ltd., will represent Crown com- 
panies on the selection committee. 



Changed Regulations Will 
Restore Jobless Renefits 

Unemployment insurance regulations will 
be relaxed to restore benefits to some 
workers who were temporarily disqualified 
under the new Unemployment Insurance 
Act that went into effect last October 2, 
Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour, 
announced in the House of Commons on 
January 25. 

Net effect of the change will be to restore 
benefits to those who could have qualified 
under the old regulations but could not do 
so under the new ones. 

A more detailed explanation of the change 
will appear in the March issue. 



CORRECTION 

It was reported in the Labour Gazette 
account of the CCL convention in 
October that Secretary-Treasurer Donald 
MacDonald had been voted a salary 
increase to $10,000 a year. Actually, Mr. 
MacDonald did not receive the increase at 
that time, that salary having been estab- 
lished at the 1954 convention. 



154 



t II 1 Suggests Reduction 
In income Tax Rates 

"If present tax rates are continued, they 
will impede the development of manu- 
facturing in this country," the Canadian 
Manufacturers' Association declared in a 
submission last month to the Hon. W. E. 
Harris, Minister of Finance. 

The rates at which personal and corpora- 
tion income taxes are levied could well 
come under the closest scrutiny, the CMA 
brief said. 

While recognizing the Government's needs 
for substantial revenues to provide the 
necessary public services, including existing 
social security measures, the CMA urged 
Mr. Harris to study carefully the effect 
of taxation policy on the maintenance of a 
high and steady level of employment, the 
progressive expansion and improvement of 
productive resources, and the need to guard 
against inflation. 

Personal Income Taxes 

On the subject of personal income taxes, 
the Association submitted that, with so 
highly progressive a rate structure, the 
increase in rates in recent years has 
discouraged initiative, particularly for those 
in the middle income bracket, whose taxes 
have increased from four- to six-fold in 
pre-war dollars in the last 15 years. 

The present top corporation rate of 47 
per cent on all profits in excess of $20,000 
makes it difficult to interest the owners of 
capital in investment in Canadian industry. 
Into the bargain, the existing rate encour- 
ages borrowing for purposes of expansion 
rather than securing the needed capital by 
stock sale, because of the necessity of 
paying taxes on the profits out of which 
the dividends are paid, the CMA pointed 
out. 

A further submission was that, in view 
of its effect on the willingness of married 
women to work in industry and commerce, 
consideration should be given to raising 
substantially the present $250 limit set to 
the earnings permitted them before their 
husbands' tax exemption was reduced. 

With regard to the Excise Tax Act, the 
Association recommended that the 15-per- 
cent and 10-per-cent special excise taxes on 
commodities be abolished. The selection 
of certain specified commodities for special 
taxes was both unsound and discriminatory 
and it was suggested that there should be 
no place in Canada's permanent tax struc- 
ture for special taxes on any commodities. 
These temporary taxes have now been in 
effect for many years and, in the main, the 
reasons for their imposition no longer exist. 



The Association also asked that all 
articles and materials that enter into the 
cost of manufacture or production of goods 
be exempted from sales tax. These would 
include items that are now taxable, such 
as machinery and apparatus for exclusive or 
primary use in the repair or maintenance of 
machinery used directly in the production 
of goods, lubricating oils and grease when 
used in the production of goods, and equip- 
ment and materials for the promotion of 
safety and health of workmen engaged in 
the manufacture or production of goods. 

All building materials should also be 
made completely exempt from sales tax, the 
CMA declared. 



Chamber of Commerce 
Requests Tax Changes 

A number of changes in income tax, 
excise tax, and federal succession duty 
taxes were suggested by the Canadian 
Chamber of Commerce in a brief sent last 
month to Finance Minister Harris and 
Revenue Minister McCann. 

The Government was asked to make 
more liberal allowance for medical expenses 
by making such expenses deductible for 
income tax purposes when they exceed 3 
per cent of income after deduction of 
personal exemptions, instead of before as 
at present. 

The Chamber also suggested that persons 
providing individually for their retirement 
should be granted tax exemptions similar 
to those given persons contributing to 
approved pension schemes. 

That tax assessments should be issued 
by the Department of National Revenue 
only after a taxpayer's return has been 
"adequately reviewed"; and that, except in 
cases of fraud, the right to re-assess a tax- 
payer should not extend beyond one year 
from the time of assessment, was another 
recommendation made by the Chamber. 
Taxpayers should "have the right of appeal 
from any assessment," it was further 
contended. 

Another suggestion was that professional 
accountants be appointed to the Income 
Tax Appeal Board, because the Board deals 
"continually" with accounting problems. 

Three recommendations made formerly 
and repeated this year were: that bene- 
ficiaries under a deferred profit-sharing 
plan be taxed only as and when they 
receive payments under the plan, that a 
wife employed by her husband as an 
ordinary employee be allowed to list her 
salary separately rather than jointly with 
her husband, and that costs of appealing 
assessments be deductible from taxable 



67507— 1\ 



155 



Manitoba Labour Ashs 
85-Cent Minimum Wage 

A minimum wage for Manitoba workers 

of 85 cents an hour was requested in 
December in a joint submission made by 
Winnipeg and provincial labour bodies to 
the Manitoba Minimum Wage Board, while 
the Winnipeg Chamber of Commerce con- 
tended that an increase in the present 
minimum wage scales might result in some 
workers losing their jobs. 

In a short submission to the Board the 
Chamber put forward three points which 
it believed should be considered in regard 
to any "contemplated, proposed or prospec- 
tive alteration" in present levels: — 

1. No change should be made in the 
present scales "except on clear proof that 
real hardships are now being created 
directly because of present minimum levels 
being too low and that because of such 
a fact, employers are taking an unfair 
advantage of employees". 

"Tend to Loss of Jobs" 

2. Present minimum wage levels "affect 
only those who are either physically or 
mentally incapable of earning more — that 
is, people who are incapable of competing 
on equal terms with able-bodied and 
mentally alert persons. In these cases an 
increase in present minimum levels will 
tend to a loss of jobs and hence be 
contrary to the public interest." 

3. Regulation of minimum wages by law 
"never was nor is it now intended to affect 
general wage levels as such. These are 
now generally determined by collective 
bargaining. Consequently no desire either 
to increase or decrease the general wage 
level should be reflected in the determina- 
tion of the level of minimum wages." 

The brief added that minimum wages 
now paid to practically all employees of 
Chamber members were considerably in 
excess of the minimum set by the Minimum 
Wage Regulations. 

The labour brief, which was prepared 
jointly by the Manitoba Provincial Federa- 
tion of Labour (TLC), the Winnipeg and 
District Trades and Labour Council (TLC), 
the Winnipeg Labour Council (CCL), the 
Winnipeg Central Council (OBU) and the 
Manitoba Provincial Legislative Committee 
of the International Railway Brotherhoods, 
also requested: — 

40-Hour Work Week 

Reduction of the present 44- and 48-hour, 
six-day work week to a 40-hour work week. 
(The 44-hour week applies to female 
workers and the 48-hour week to male 
workers.) 

156 



Deletion of all regulations providing for 
the issuing of permits allowing payments 
of loss than minimum rates, except for 
physically- or mont ally-handicapped persons. 

Prohibition of the employment of any 
person under 16 years of age unless a 
permit is obtained from the Minister of 
Labour. 



Arrange Special Training 
For Jobless N.S. Miners 

Arrangements to provide special training 
facilities for unemployed Nova Scotia 
miners have been made by the Nova Scotia 
Department of Labour in co-operation with 
the federal Department of Labour. 

In making the announcement last month, 
an official of the Glace Bay National 
Employment Office said it would involve 
an expansion of the regular training facili- 
ties at the provincial Department of 
Labour's trade school at North Sydney. 
Special preference, he said, would be given 
to unemployed persons who have been 
employed in the coal mining industry. 

A training bulletin issued by the Nova 
Scotia Department of Labour stated that 
the courses would depend on the number 
of requests from unemployed coal miners, 
the employment opportunities, and the 
extent to which facilities can be set up in 
the school. 

The main course, at least for a time, 
the bulletin said, would be for the training 
of diesel mechanics. The course was 
planned to start at the end of January and 
continue for eight months. 

A course for mine electricians was also 
being set up to begin sometime this month. 
It was planned to give consideration to 
such courses as television servicing, heating 
unit servicing and barbering, provided 
sufficient candidates apply. 



Number Receiving Blind 
Allowances Up Slightly 

The number of blind persons in Canada 
receiving allowances under the Blind 
Persons Act increased from 8,140 at June 30. 
1955, to 8,159 at September 30, 1955. 

The Federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
$721,285.20 for the quarter ended Septem- 
ber 30, 1955, compared with $719,314.02 in 
the preceding quarter. Since the inception 
of the Act, the Federal Government has 
contributed $10,947,551.68. 

At September 30, 1955, the average 
monthly allowance in the provinces ranged 
from $37.73 to $39.49. In all provinces the 
maximum allowance paid was $40 a month. 






See More Automation in 
Offices than in Plants 

Automation was generally foreseen as 
becoming more extensive in office opera- 
tions than in manufacturing by 67 United 
Stales executives queried in a recent survey 
by the Bureau of National Affairs. 

Generally, too, the 67 executives were 
of the opinion that the work force in 
individual plants will be reduced by normal 
turnover rather than layoffs. Most of those 
questioned did not expect a cut in the 
work week in the next five years but 40 
per cent foresaw a cut to 35 or 37^ hours. 

Some effects which the group expected to 
accompany automation were: (1) a decrease 
in the number of employees in individual 
plants; (2) greater specialization in the 
work force; (3) proportionately lower 
labour costs; (4) more centralized com- 
pany organization; (5) greater supervisory 
training needs, and (6) higher wage rates 
and more widespread application of sever- 
ance pay. 

A Canadian executive, Robert D. 
Armstrong, Comptroller of the Canadian 
National Railways, referring to the new 
electronic computers being introduced into 
CNR accounting operations, had this to 
say about the effects of automation: — 

"The computor can make calculations that 
dazzle the mind, but it is still only a 
machine. It has no intelligence, so it has 
to be directed by human intelligence. 

"With the machines operating, we will 
need fewer employees. But there should 
be no layoffs because the normal rate at 
which a company as big as ours loses 
employees through marriage, death and 
retirement is greater than the rate at which 
we would have to cut clerical staffs. 

"It'll just be a matter of not making 
replacements when certain vacancies occur," 
he pointed out. 

At a conference held this month in 
conjunction with an engineering show at 
Philadelphia, L. C. Morrow, conference 
chairman and consulting editor of Factory 
Management and Maintenance, looked 
ahead to 1975. 

By 1975, he claimed, "there won't be 
enough workers to fill the demand unless 
there is a great deal more speed in the 
application of automatic operation than we 
can see today. 

"If we continue to improve standards of 
living at the rate we are going, by that 
time we'll have to produce $3,900 worth 
of goods and services for each of our 
220.000,000 population, or a total of 
$858,000,000,000." 



Mr. Morrow predicted that by 1975 each 
worker would be producing $10,150 worth 
of goods and services a year, so that there 
would be a need for 84,000,000 workers. 



Remove Health Matters 
From Bargaining, is Plea 

Industrial medicine should be removed 
from the arena of labour-management 
bickering because a factory's health 
programs now reach beyond the plant 
and into homes, Harry Read, Assistant 
Treasurer of the AFL-CIO, said last month. 
He was speaking at the American Medical 
Association's conference on industrial health. 

Although tremendous progress has been 
made from the days when workers regarded 
the plant doctor as a member of man- 
agement's staff and even a snooper for 
management, the still-practised method of 
bargaining for health provisions acts as a 
deterrent on good employer-employee rela- 
tions, he said. 

Industrial medicine now plays so vital a 
role that it should be recognized for that 
importance and no longer be fought over 
like wages, hours or working conditions, 
he added. 



Advise No Major Change 
In U.K. Health Service 

A committee appointed by the U.K. 
Government to examine the cost, efficiency 
and future of the National Health Service 
reports that there has been no widespread 
extravagance in the use of money and 
manpower and no lowering of service by 
physicians. The service was initiated in 
1948. 

"We are strongly of the opinion", the 
committee stated, "that it would be alto- 
gether premature at the present time to 
propose any fundamental change in the 
structure of the National Health Service." 

While there were defects of organization 
and administration, the service's record of 
performance has been one of real achieve- 
ment, the committee said. 

"Looking to the future, it is clear that 
there are long-term problems of high 
importance confronting the National Health 
Service, not a few of which can only be 
solved by the medical profession itself and 
which call for all the qualities of states- 
manship and adaptability that it can. 
command," the committee said. 

The committee made no suggestions for 
substantial reductions in the annual cost 
of the service;. in fact, it reported that some 
of its recommendations would tend to 
increase the cost. 



157 




J. A. McClelland, OBE 

J. A. McClelland, OBE, of 
War Labour Board, Killed 

John A. McClelland, a former Vice- 
president of the International Association 
of Machinists (AFL-TLC) and who served 
on the National War Labour Board during 
the Second World War, for which he 
received the Order of the British Empire, 
died in a fire on January 9. He was 77 
years of age. 

Born at Barrow-in-Furness, England, Mr. 
McClelland was educated in Ireland and 
came to Canada in 1903. He was with the 
CPR for several years. 

From 1912 to 1928 he served as an official 
of the I AM. During the First World War 
he was associated with government services 
and afterwards represented Canada at a 
number of labour conferences in Europe. 
From 1932 to 1940 he served on several 
boards of conciliation. 

Joined Board in 1941 

In 1941 Mr. McClelland joined the War 
Labour Board, serving on its executive 
committee, then as technical adviser and 
finally as a member of the Board until it 
went out of existence in 1946. 

Mr. McClelland remained with the 
Department of Labour until 1948, when he 
retired to his home at Valois, Que. 



Canada Dps Contribution 
To Technical Aid Plan 

Canada's pledged contribution to the 
Expanded Program of Technical Assistance 
of the United Nations and the Specialized 
Agencies for 1956, subject to approval by 
Parliament, is $1,800,000, an increase of 
$300,000 over the sum pledged for 1955. 

At the sixth annual pledging conference 
for the Program held in New York in 
October, 61 governments pledged a total of 
$28,031,536, which is already more than 
the total of $27,996,017 pledged for 1955, 
although a number of governments have 
still to make their pledges. 

Colombo Plan 

Most of the Colombo Plan countries also 
reported progress which equalled, and in 
some cases surpassed, that made in the 
previous year, according to the Colombo 
Plan Annual Report for 1954-55. 

At a recent ministerial meeting in 
Singapore it was decided to expand the 
Plan until 1961. 

Economic indicators show that there has 
been a considerable rise in national income 
and output in most of the countries con- 
cerned. In some the rise of income was 
at a greater rate than the growth of 
population. The rate of increase in income 
and output was, however, uneven. 

Development outlay under the Plan con- 
tinued to increase in all sectors. Agricul- 
ture attracted more than two-fifths of the 
total, transport and communications stayed 
at about one-quarter, and public health, 
education and housing also remained at 
about one-quarter. 



OIcI Age Assistance 
Recipients Fewer 

The number of persons receiving old age 
assistance in Canada decreased from 94,493 
at June 30, 1955, to 94,452 at September 30, 
1955. 

The Federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme 
totalled $5,290,907.33 for the quarter ended 
September 30, 1955, compared with 
$5,286,008.26 in the preceding quarter. Since 
the inception of the Act, the Federal Gov- 
ernment has contributed $73,140,270.14. 

At September 30, 1955, the average 
monthly assistance in the provinces paying 
a maximum of $40 a month ranged from 
$33.70 to $37.64, except for one province 
where the average was $27.75. In New- 
foundland, which pays a maximum of $30 
a month, the average was $29.39. 



158 



(htt. to Grant Allowances 
To iiandicappeil Persons 

Living allowances ranging up to as high 
as $1,680 a year for handicapped persons 
undergoing rehabilitation treatment under 
legislation passed a year ago by the 
Ontario Legislature were announced by the 
province's Minister of Public Welfare, 
Louis Cecile, in an address last month 
before the Institute of Physical Medicine 
in Essex County. 

The Minister said that the Ontario 
Government plans to make grants available 
to such people, after they have been 
accepted and approved by local rehabilita- 
tion authorities. 

Grants will vary from $60 a month — 
with up to $15 extra when need is shown 
— for an unmarried person to $115 a month 
for a married person with dependent child 
or children. These grants are to be paid 
for a maximum of two years, Mr. Cecile 
said. 

Speaking on the same occasion Dr. 
Harold Cranfield of Toronto, medical 
adviser on physical medicine to the pro- 
vincial Government's departments which 
deal with health and re-establishment 
problems, said that the basis of a program 
of rehabilitation is sound diagnosis of the 
individual case and a careful consideration 
of what is possible. 

He divided all cases into four groups: 
those who can be made fit to return to 
work by special treatment and training; 
those who can be fitted for part-time work 
or work at home; those who can be taught 
to look after themselves; and those for 
whom nothing can be done. Experience 
has shown, Dr. Cranfield said, that when a 
person can be put back to work it means 
a tremendous saving in the public funds 
which would otherwise be required to 
support him. 



Soap Co. Layoff Benefits 
Not Linked to State Plan 

A layoff benefit plan that is not linked 
in any way to unemployment insurance 
payments has been negotiated between the 
Colgate-Palmolive Company in the United 
States and the International Chemical 
Workers' Union and the Oil, Chemical and 
Atomic Workers International Union. It 
is said to be the first major layoff plan in 
the industry. 

Under the plan, benefits of one week's 
wages for each year of service will be paid 
at the time of a worker's layoff provided 
he has worked for 24 of the preceding 30 
months. The entire amount is to be paid 
at the time of layoff but if the worker is 




Birt Showier, MBE 

— Steffens Colmer, Vancouver, 

Once TLC Vice-President, 
Birt Showier, MBE, Dead 

Birt Showier, MBE, a Canadian labour 
leader for nearly 40 years, died in 
Vancouver on December 8. He was in his 
67th year. 

of 



A Vice-president 



the Trades and 
Labour Congress for ten years, from 1943 
to 1953, Mr. Showier was serving his fourth 
term as alderman in Vancouver at the time 
of his death. He was one of the original 
leaders of trade unionism in Vancouver. 

Born in London, England, Mr. Showier 
came to Vancouver in 1910. In 1917, 
driving a horse and wagon, he helped to 
organize the teamsters. This was the 
beginning of his active union career. 

Mr. Showier was elected Secretary of 
the Teamsters' Joint Council in 1917 and 
Secretary of the Milk Wagon Drivers and 
Dairy Employees' Union in 1919, posts 
which he held until January 1955. 

For eight years he was president of the 
Vancouver, New Westminster and District 
Trades and Labour Council (TLC). 

recalled to work in fewer weeks than the 
number for which he has received benefits, 
he will have to repay the excess at the- 
rate of 10 per cent of his wages weekly. 

The benefit will not be paid if the layoff 
is the result of causes beyond the company's 
control or of the worker's illness, or if the 
worker quits or is dismissed. 



159 



Studebaker Grants SUB 
But Gains Concessions 

The United Automobile Workers (AFL- 
CIO) have won a supplementary unem- 
ployment benefit plan under a new 
collective agreement with another auto 
manufacturer but have made certain con- 
>ns in return, which, it is said, will 
enable the company to compete on equal 
terms financially with the rest of the 
industry. 

The three-year contract between the 
union and the Studebaker Division of the 
Studebaker-Packard Corporation, which was 
ratified early last month by a narrow 
majority of the members of Local No. 5 
at South Bend, Ind.. contains substantial^ 
the same economic provisions as the agree- 
ments negotiated earlier by the union 
and the other automobile manufacturing 
companies. 

The economic package, as in the case of 
the other auto contracts, calls for a 6-cents- 
an-hour or 2i-per-cent (whichever is 
the greater) annual wage increase, and 
"inequity adjustments" varying from 3 to 
25 cents an hour. The economic provisions 
are retroactive to last September 1. 

The new contract incorporates provisions 
eliminating factors which the company 
believes lowered productivity under the old 
agreement. These changes affect seniority 
and displacement resulting from layoffs, 
transfers, production standards, relief and 
clean-up time, steward representation, and 
grievance procedure. 

Company officials said that the new 
contract provided for seniority by classifica- 
tion, department, and shift; rather than by 
division as before. 

Production standards, the company said, 
have also been revised, and both parties 
have agreed that standards shall be based 
on "a fair day's work for a fair day's pay". 
The management, according to the com- 
pany, is given the right "to establish and 
enforce production standards". 



iV.Y. Employers 9 Group 
Opposes Ford-Type SUB 

A major New York State employer organ- 
ization said last month that it would be 
opposed to "any supplemental unemploy- 
ment benefit plan which would be tied in 
with the state's unemployment compensa- 
tion system". 

The Associated Industries of New York 
State announced January 15, following a 
director's meeting, that it opposed the type 
of guaranteed annual wage agreement in 
effect in the automobile industry. 



20,032 Disabled Persons 
Beceiving Allowances 

The number of persons in Canada receiv- 
ing allowances under the Disabled Persons 
Act at September 30, 1955, was 20,032. 

The Federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
SI, 705,2 19.02 for the quarter ended Septem- 
ber 30, 1955. Since the inception of the Act, 
the Federal Government has contributed 
$2,877,611.78. 

At September 30, 1955, the average 
monthly allowance in the provinces ranged 
from $33.24 to $39.42. In all provinces the 
maximum allowance paid was $40 a month. 



Price to Farmer Drops 
But Handling Costs Bise 

The United States Department of Agri- 
culture reported in December that despite 
a reduction of 10 per cent in prices to the 
farmer, retail food prices in November 1955 
were just 2 per cent below those of 
November 1954. In the year, it said, 
marketing and handling charges had in- 
creased 5 per cent. 

The Department, in its first report on 
new studies of price spreads, said that 
farmers were now getting "only 39 cents 
out of every dollar spent for food in the 
retail store," the smallest share since 1940. 
The 39 cents compared with 42 cents in 
November 1954 and a peak of 53 cents in 
1945. 



Farm Cash Income Drops 
2*3 Per Cent in 1955 

Farmers' cash income in 1955 was 2-3 
per cent below that in 1954, the Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics reported last month. 

Cash income from the sale of farm 
products and from participation payments 
on previous year's prairie grain crops 
amounted to an estimated $2,323,330,000; 
the 1954 estimate was $2,377,800,000. 

The 1955 income estimate was 18-5 per 
cent below the all-time high of $2,849,300,000 
in 1952. 



Sees No End This Year 
To Farming Depression 

No prospect this year of an end to the 
depression in Canadian agriculture, which 
has continued for three years even while 
the rest of the economy has been enjoying 
a boom, is seen by Dr. W. E. Haviland of 
Macdonald College. 

In his view, "the price of prosperity in 
agriculture during the Second World War 



160 



now is being paid in the form of painful 
adjustments which have been under way 
-nice 1952. 

"( lotting people to eat more is no solu- 
tion," he said. ''People cannot eat more 
of everything. Canada's population in- 
crease is not sufficient to keep pace with 
production expansion and shrinking export 
markets." 

Unmanageable farm surpluses seem to 
be assuming "an alarming measure of 
permanency," he said. His opinion is that 
there is no food surplus in the world as a 
whole "but we have not exhibited the will, 
nor have we found the financial way, to 
move our extra food into stomachs abroad 
instead of into storage at home". 

In wheat, "the United States has been 
outselling and underselling us". The dairy 
market is mainly domestic and demand is 
expected to increase at a rate of only about 
2 per cent a year, Dr. Haviland said. 

Labour income Reached 
New Peah in October 

Canadian labour income reached an all- 
time peak of $1,139,000,000 in October, the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics reported last 
month. 

This was an increase of $13,000,000 over 
the September total and of $95,000,000, or 
9 per cent, over the October 1954 figure. 

In the January-October period, the total 
rose 7 per cent to $10,603,000,000 from 
$9,920,000,000 a year earlier. 

Total w r ages and salaries increased in all 
industrial divisions in October with the 
exception of the finance and services group, 
in which there was a decline of $2,000,000. 
Increases ranged from $1,000,000 in the 
primary group of industries to $6,000,000 
for the construction industry. 



Occupational Diseases 
Problems "Multiplying" 

The problem of occupational diseases in 
industry has become "enormously multi- 
plied'' in recent years, especially in rubber 
processing and handling of radioactive sub- 
stances, Dr. Harold S. Mitchell, head of 
the Montreal General Hospital's allergy 
department, said last month in an address 
to the Progress Club. 

"Y\hen a new compound or moderniza- 
tion of an industrial process is considered, 
careful investigation must always be carried 
out," he said. "Each new substance brings 
its own problems which often can be 
discovered only by experience." 

Dr. Mitchell also said that a physically- 
handicapped person should not be excluded 
from employment that would not lead to 
danger to himself or to others. 



Government Enforcement 
Of Wage Elates Opposed 

Enforcement of federal government wage 
scales on United States highway projects 
receiving federal aid has been opposed by 
the American Road Builders Association. 
Employment practices and rates of pay on 
such projects should remain a matter for 
adjustment by each state, a resolution at 
the Association's annual meeting declared. 

The resolution asserted that administra- 
tive expenditures would be increased if 
payrolls were under federal control, that 
the right of collective bargaining would be 
seriously abridged, that states' rights would 
be abrogated and that construction costs 
would soar. 



C/.S. Jobless Insurance 
Now Covers 40,400,000 

The number covered by federal-state 
unemployment insurance in the United 
States reached a record of 40,400,000 on 
January 1 of this year, according to Acting 
Secretary of Labor Arthur Larson. This 
has been brought about by the extension 
of coverage to an additional 1,700,000 
workers by the 1954 amendment to the 
Federal Unemployment Tax Act to include 
employers of four or more employees, and 
legislative action in a number of states 
providing unemployment insurance protec- 
tion to employees of smaller business, state 
and local governments, and certain other 
units not previously covered by the federal 
law. 

Before the 1955 legislative sessions the 
Secretary of Labor wrote to all governors 
calling their attention to desirable improve- 
ments in state laws dealing with unem- 
ployment insurance. His letters recom- 
mended that the maximum weekly benefit 
amount be adjusted to average gross earn- 
ings of all covered workers, and that 
weekly amounts below the maximum should 
represent 50 per cent of the workers' gross 
earnings. He also recommended that the 
states should carry out President Eisen- 
hower's recommendation of a uniform 26 
weeks' duration of benefits. 

The new yardstick under the federal law 
is the employment of four or more w r orkers 
in covered employment for some portion 
of a day in each of 20 weeks. State yard- 
sticks vary. 

Twenty states amended their unemplo3 r - 
ment insurance laws in 1955 to conform to- 
the coverage provisions of the federal act. 
Four other states, in which employers of 
four or more were already included, broad- 
ened coverage beyond that of the federal 
Act, 



67507—3 



161 



1955 Immigration Drops 
To Five-Year Low 

The number of immigrants to Canada 
dining 1955 dropped 30 per cent from the 
1954 total and was the lowest in five years, 
according to figures released by the Depart- 
ment of Citizenship and Immigration. 

In the 12-month period, immigrants 
numbered 109,946 compared with 154,227 
over the corresponding period in 1954. 
Immigrants arriving in Canada during the 
last quarter of 1955 totalled 23,339. 

Department of Citizenship and Immigra- 
tion officials state the main reason for the 
drop in the figures was a drying up of 
immigrant pools abroad. Persons in 
Britain, Germany, Italy and the Nether- 
lands were now less anxious to emigrate 
because of better economic conditions and 
job prospects in their own countries. 

In efforts to halt the slide the Govern- 
ment has broadened its assisted passage 
scheme and now is encouraging winter 
movement of immigrants assured of employ- 
ment in Canada. Officials believe these 
moves may be reflected in immigration 
figures in the first quarter of 1956. Pre- 
viously winter movement was discouraged 
because unemployment was usually high in 
Canada. 



$6.94 Per Person Weekly 
Spent on Food in Canada 

Canadian families in the country's larger 
cities spend an average of $6.94 per person 
per week on food, it is indicated by a 
survey conducted by the Dominion Bureau 
of Statistics. 

For the survey, which spanned the year 
1953, the Bureau collected records of food 
expenditures of about 200 families in 
Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg and 
Vancouver each month. The survey 
families were selected by systematic 
sampling from a list previously drawn for 
the monthly labour force survey. Family 
incomes ranged from SI, 800 to $6,500 a year. 

The results of the survey were published 
last month in a reference paper, "Urban 
Family Food Expenditure". 



Aid to Depressed Areas 
Aim of U.S. Senate Bill 

The Administration's bill to aid areas of 
chronic unemployment was introduced in 
the United States Senate last month. The 
main features of the bill are: provision for 
setting up of a $50,000,000 revolving federal 
loan fund to finance the preparing of land 
for commercial or industrial uses and the 
building of new factories and modernizing 



of old ones; and provision of $1,500,000 for 
annual giants for technical assistance. 

Under the bill individual federal loans 
are not to exceed 25 per cent of the total 
cost of the project for which the loan is 
made, the state must approve the project, 
and 15 per cent of its total cost must be 
borne locally or by the state. Loans are 
also to be contingent upon the existence 
of a program for the economic develop- 
ment of the area as a whole, and are to be 
repayable within a period of not more than 
20 years. 

This bill differs widely from the one 
introduced by a Democratic senator and 
sponsored by seven senators from states 
with a large amount of chronic unemploy- 
ment. That measure would provide 
$100,000,000 for loans and the same amount 
for grants for public works. It would 
create an independent Depressed Areas 
Administration, allow 40 years for repay- 
ment of loans, and provide supplementary 
unemployment compensation benefits for 
up to 13 weeks after state benefits were 
exhausted, for those under retraining 
programs. 

The need for a broad program to aid 
depressed areas, on the ground that the 
existence of "geographic pockets of 
continuing economic depression" retards 
national economic growth and may cause 
depression in other areas, was emphasized 
in a report issued a short time ago by 
the Joint Committee's sub-committee on 
low-income families. The sub-committee's 
opinion is that to be successful a remedial 
program requires not only federal action 
but also the co-operation of labour and 
management, church groups and community 
organizations, under the direction of a 
single federal agency. 



CCL Approves Merger of 
Affiliate and Hydro Union 

The Executive Committee of the Cana- 
dian Congress of Labour on January 30 
approved the terms of a merger between 
the National Union of Public Service 
Employees, a CCL affiliate, and the Ontario 
Hydro Electric Employees' Association, an 
independent organization. 

Discussions between the two groups have 
been in progress for some time and late 
last year the membership of the Hydro 
Employees' Association voted by a large 
majority in a referendum ballot to merge 
with the Public Service Employees (L.G., 
Jan., p. 27). As a result of the executive 
decision, the 13,000 members of the Ontario 
Hydro Electric Employees' Association will 
become part of the Canadian Congress of 
Labour. 



162 



Radio, Television Unions 
Agree on Affiliation 

Announcement was made last month of 
an affiliation agreement between the Asso- 
ciation of Radio and 'Television Employees 
of Canada and the National Association of 
Broadcast Employees and Technicians 
(AFL-CIO-CCL). 

ARTEC, which represents 1,700 office 
and professional employees, including 
announcers, of the CBC, has not hitherto 
been affiliated with any major organiza- 
tion. NABET, which represents CBC 
technical employees, was formed 20 years 
ago in the United States and has been 
functioning in Canada since 1952. 

The unions said that in combining forces 
their intention was "to complete the 
organization of the entire radio-television 
industry from Newfoundland to British 
Columbia," and that they "plan to raise 
basic wages in the independent stations to 
the wage levels in the CBC, to put an end 
to wage inequalities". 



CBRE Given Support in 
Fight to Repel UMW Raid 

An attempt by the United Mine Workers, 
District 50, to wrest representation of the 
Montreal Transportation Commission's 
conductors, motormen, and bus drivers, 
numbering about 800, from the Canadian 
Brotherhood of Railway Employees (CCL) 
is meeting with strong resistance from the 
CBRE, with the active support of both 
the TLC and the CCL. 

The raid by the UMW coincides with the 
recently announced merger of the Canadian 
Workers' Association (ind) with the miners' 
union. Paul Emile Marquette, President of 
the CWA, was for a long time connected 
with the MTC's operating employees, at 
first as an official of the CBRE and later, 
from 1946 until 1952, as head of his own 
Canadian Workers' Association, which he 
founded in 1946. The CWA lost the repre- 
sentation of the conductors, motormen, and 
bus drivers to the CBRE in 1952. 

In a joint statement, issued January 20, 
Claude Jodoin, President of the TLC, and 
Donald MacDonald, Secretary-Treasurer of 
the CCL, said: "The conduct of raids, in 
an effort to entice workers from one union 
to another, is completely contrary to the 
spirit of unity and co-operation. On behalf 
of both the Trades and Labour Congress 
of Canada and the Canadian Congress of 
Labour, which will shortly unite in the 
Canadian Labour Congress, we deplore the 
action of those who are attempting to split 
the employees of Montreal Tramways and 



we call upon the workers to stand united 
with their one million fellow workers in 
our two Canadian congresses." 

UMW officials in Montreal have attacked 
the pension plan approved by the CBRE, 

which was recently accepted by a large 

majority of the employees of the MTC, 
and have endeavoured to convince the 
employees of the superiority of the UMW's 
welfare and retirement fund plan. 



U.S. Reports Shortages 
Of Skilled WorUers 

Only one in seven in the work force of 
the United States is a skilled worker or a 
technician. 

Total skilled workers and technicians 
number about nine million. 

Replacement needs just for those who 
die, retire or leave the field run about 
250,000 annually. 

Shortages exist in many skilled worker 
and technician fields. 

These facts are reported in a recent 
pamphlet published by the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Labor. 

The productiveness of the nation is 
directly hinged to the size of the skilled 
work force. The pamphlet presents a 
picture of the size of the nation's skilled 
work force, a breakdown into various 
classifications of skills, how skills are 
acquired and where, shortages that exist 
in the armed forces, minimum education 
apparently required to enable the acquisi- 
tion of skills, the experience of the armed 
forces as regards sectional areas of the 
country as providers of the raw material for 
training in skilled classifications, the rela- 
tion of skill to unemployment and the 
impact of automation on skill. 

The pamphlet, entitled The Skilled Work 
Force of the United States, is available from 
the Superintendent of Documents, United 
States Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington. D.C. 



Civil Service Accidents 
Increase in December 

Accidents to federal civil servants and 
employees of Crown corporations reported 
to the Government Employees Compensa- 
tion Branch during December numbered 
1,441, an increase of 134 over the 1,307 
reported in November. 

In the first nine months of the current 
fiscal year, accidents reported now 7 total 
11,815, an increase of 395 over the 11.420 
in the same period of the previous fiscal 
year. 



67507—31 



163 



I .S. President Repeats 
1955 Labour Requests 

Enactment of the recommendations he 
made to Congress last year for the amend- 
ment of the Taft-Hartley Act was urged 
by President Eisenhower in his State of 
the Union message sent to the United 
- Congress early in January. 

These amendments included changes 
dealing with the right of economic strikers 
to vote in representation elections, the 
requirement that employers should file 
non-Communist affidavits, government- 
conducted secret ballot strike votes, a large 
measure of immunity from certain provi- 
sions of the law for unions in the building 
trades ami the maritime and amusement 
industries, easing of secondary boycott and 
injunction provisions, and several other 
changes. 

There is said to be little likelihood of the 
amendments being passed at this session, 
however. 

The President also repeated his request 
made to Congress the year before that the 
coverage of the minimum wage should be 
broadened. 

The message requested measures to clarify 
and strengthen the eight-hour laws for 
workers subject to federal jurisdiction, occu- 
pational safety legislation, improvement of 
the Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers 
Compensation Act, and amendment of the 
District of Columbia's laws regarding non- 
occupational disability insurance and unem- 
ployment insurance. It also urged Congress 
to implement an equal-pay-for-equal-work 
law. 

The Administration, the President said, 
will shortly propose legislation to assure 
adequate disclosure of the financial affairs 
of each employee pension and welfare plan 
and to afford substantial protection to the 
beneficiaries of such plans. 



The message said that provision should 
be made, by federal reinsurance or other- 
wise, to foster extension of voluntary health 
insurance coverage to many more persons, 
especially older persons and those in rural 
areas. 

Under the 1954 amendments to the old 
age and survivors' insurance program, pro- 
tection was extended to some 10,000,000 
additional workers and their families, and 
benefits were increased. This system is 
sound, the President said, and must be 
kept so. The Administration will present 
its recommendations for further extension 
of coverage and other steps which may be 
taken wisely at this time, he said. 

Social security amendments approved by 
the House, and now pending before the 
Senate Finance Committee, are designed to 
lower the retirement age for women from 
65 to 62 years, to allow benefits at age 
50 to those who retire before their time 
because of disability, and to provide bene- 
fits for disabled children 18 years of age 
and over. 

A firm program of public housing is 
essential until the private building industry 
has found ways to provide more adequate 
housing for low-income families, the message 
stated, and the Administration will propose 
authority to contract for 35,000 additional 
public housing units in each of the next 
two fiscal years for communities which will 
participate in an integrated attack on slums 
and blight. 



U.S. Unemployment Insurance 

Unemployed workers were paid a total 
of $1,340,000,000 in state unemployment 
benefits last year, the U.S. Department of 
Labor reports. This was 34 per cent less 
than the 1954 total. Benefit payments 
dropped considerably in the second half of 
1955 as employment expanded. 



Proceedings of Parliament of Labour Interest 

Speech from the Throne 



January 10 

Industrial Status of Women — A bill to 
provide for equal pay for equal work in 
industries under federal jurisdiction will be 
introduced. 

Unemployment Assistance — Parliament 
will be asked to approve legislation to 
implement a program for the sharing of 
costs with the provinces of assistance to 
unemployed persons not eligible for unem- 
ployment insurance benefits and in need. 



Health Insurance — Arising out of the 
federal-provincial conference in October, a 
committee of ministers from all govern- 
ments was established to consider health 
insurance programs. The work of the 
committee is already under way. 

Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements — 
A specific proposal, to commence next 
year, will be placed before all provincial 
governments. 

National Housing Act — Amendments will 
be introduced to increase assistance designed 



164 



to encourage redevelopment of older sec- 
tions of Canadian cities to their best use, 
and to increase amounts of loans avail- 
able for home improvement. 

Trans-Canada Highway Act— Amend- 
ments to accelerate completion of essential 
links in the highway. 

Gas Pipeline — Parliament will be asked 
to provide for the construction jointly 
with the Ontario Government of a gas 
pipeline across Northern Ontario. 

Colombo Plan — Parliament will be asked 
to authorize Canada's continued participa- 
tion in the Plan and in the United Nations 
Technical Assistance Program. 

Employment — On the employment situa- 
tion, the Speech contained the following 
statement : 

A higher level of employment this winter 
than last seems to be assured and the 
improvements you made to the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Act last year will provide a 
better coverage for those who are temporarily 
without work, particularly in the winter 
season. Various departments and agencies 
of government have sought to arrange their 
construction programs to provide more 
employment during the winter season. It 
is gratifying to note that many other 
employers are endeavouring to follow the 
same policy. 

Industrial Status of Women 
January 11 

Mrs. Ann Shipley (Timiskaming), in 
moving the address in reply to the Speech 
from the Throne, expressed pleasure at the 
Government's intention to introduce a bill 
to provide that women will receive equal 
pay for equal work in industries under 
federal jurisdiction. She said: 

Speaking on this subject on previous occa- 
sions, I pointed out how difficult it is to 
evaluate what is equal work, and I shall be 
most interested to examine the methods of 
administration which will be proposed in 
the forthcoming Bill. What I would like 
to see is some method of giving women equal 
opportunities for advancement, but I know 
of no way of putting that into legislation in 
order to ensure the desired results. I notice 
that there is a vacancy on the Civil Service 
Commission and I urge strongly that this 
vacancy be filled by the appointment of a 
woman. Not only do I feel that this is 
necessary; I urge that this should be done 
if we are to obtain our objective of equal 
opportunities for all. 

Miss Margaret Aitken (York-Humber) 
inquired if it is the Government's inten- 
tion to appoint a woman to the Civil 
Service Commission. The Prime Minister 



replied that the matter has been under 
consideration and a decision had been 
reached but that the person the Govern- 
ment desired to appoint felt she was not 
desirous of accepting the appointment. 
The matter is still under consideration, he 
said, "because we would like to have a 
competent woman acting on the Civil 
Service Commission". 

January 12 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg introduced the 
following motion: 

That it is expedient to introduce a 
measure to provide equal pay for female 
employees as compared with male employees 
of the same employer, for identical or sub- 
stantially identical work in federal works, 
undertakings or businesses; and to provide 
further under the enforcement procedure for 
the appointment of referees Who may be paid 
such allowances and expenses as may be 
approved by the Treasury Board. 

January 16 

Bill received first reading. 

Unemployment Insurance 

January 11 

Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg North 
Centre) asked the Minister of Labour if 
arrangements have been made for unem- 
ployed persons who have been denied 
benefits under the new Unemployment 
Insurance Act to be put on benefit if they 
could have qualified under the terms of the 
old Act. 

Mr. Gregg replied that since the coming 
into effect of the new Act on October 2 
the Commission has been following the 
course of its operations very carefully and 
he was glad to report that, in the main, 
"the great revisions of last year have gone 
into effect very well indeed". It has been 
found that some adjustments are necessary 
so that the actual application of the Act 
could more closely conform with the inten- 
tions of Parliament. Some it was possible 
to achieve by regulations under the Act. On 
others, the Commission would like to have 
a little longer time to complete their 
preliminary survey and to assess the 
longer term effects of any further adjust- 
ments it might recommend to the Govern- 
ment. Mr. Gregg added: 

The Commission feels that a useful part 
of their survey would be for them to get 
at first hand from hon. members an outline 
of any difficulties that are being experienced 
among their constituents. With this in view, 
I shall be happy to arrange for any hon. 
member ... to discuss this whole matter with 
the members of the Commission and myself 
because it is not quite as simple as it 
appears to be on the surface. 



165 



January 16 

L. T. Stick (Trinity-Conception) asked 
that the provisions of the Unemployment 
Insurance Act be examined to cover 
fishermen. 

January 17 

Coverage of fishermen was also urged 
by H. J. Robichaud (Gloucester) and 
Charlee Cannon (Iles-de-la-Madeleine). 

Mr. Cannon suggested that the Act be 
amended to lengthen the period in which 
the 30 weeks of contributions are to be 
made from 12 months to 18 months. He 
proposed also that seasonal benefits be 
payable from December 15 to April 1, 
instead of January 1 to April 30 as at 
present, so that claimants would not be 
deprived of these benefits during the 
Christmas season. 

January 19 

Asked by Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg 
North Centre) if a ruling had been obtained 
from the Department of Justice as to 
whether it will be possible by regulation 
to pay unemployment insurance benefits to 
persons denied under the new Act, pro- 
vided they could have qualified under the 
old Act, the Minister of Labour made the 
following reply: 

The answer is that a ruling has not been 
received as yet. While I am on my feet, 
I can report at first hand to my hon. friend 
that in his own city of Winnipeg there are 
not a very large number so affected. I was 
glad to find in my weekend visit there that 
under our new legislation some 25 per cent 
more were qualifying for seasonal benefits 
this winter, and I am quite sure it includes 
practically all those he has in mind. 

Disabled Persons 

January 12 

F. S. Zaplitny (Dauphin) asked if, in 
view of the fact that there is no reference 
in the speech from the Throne to any 
proposed amendments to the Disabled 
Persons Act, the Minister of National 
Health and Welfare would indicate whether 
he is prepared to recommend amendments 
to the Act during this session? 

The Hon. Paul Martin replied that the 
question is one that will be studied very 
carefully by a group of administrators of 
disability allowances from both the federal 
and provincial governments. 



Blind Persons 



January 12 



A-ked by Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg 
North Centre) wmat consideration the 
Government is giving to the request of the 
blind organizations in Canada for a supple- 



mentary allowance to blind persons to help 
them to meet special expenses which arise 
because of their blindness, the Minister of 
National Health and Welfare replied that 
the Government is giving all representa- 
tions of such character its most careful 
consideration. 

Labour Legislation 

January 12 

Hon. George A. Drew, Leader of the 
Opposition, in the debate on the Speech 
from the Throne, observed that there was 
no reference to a revision of Canada's 
labour legislation. He said: 

It will be recalled that at a time when 
this House was brought together to meet a 
situation, with which the Government dealt 
in a manner of which we did not approve, 
we emphasized then the need for a review 
of our labour legislation. We pointed out 
then and we have pointed out continually 
since then that, as this country rapidly 
expands and our industrial development 
creates increased numbers of workers in this 
country, a basis of harmony and of under- 
standing and of the recognition of the rights 
in clearly-defined terms of those who work 
in our many activities in Canada is an 
essential part of that good understanding, 
of that good fellowship which is a priceless 
part of the development of this Canadian 
democracy of ours. 

We have had general assurances that this 
subject was being considered, but now when 
concern may be felt by many about the 
situation that could arise, it is not too much 
to ask the Government to take steps to carry 
out the recommendation that was made at 
that time and call together representatives 
of labour, of management and of the Govern- 
ment, so that the greatly cherished rights of 
organized labour, the relationship of man- 
agement to labour and the relationship of the 
public represented by the Government may 
be explored and interpreted in satisfactory 
and desirable legislative terms. There is no 
reference to this in the Speech from the 
Throne. 

Health Insurance 

January 13 

Asked by Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg 
North Centre) if the Government would 
be prepared to introduce at this session 
legislation implementing any agreement 
reached between the federal Government 
and the provinces respecting health insur- 
ance, the Minister of National Health and 
Welfare made the following reply: 

The federal and the provincial govern- 
ments are to meet pursuant to a suggestion 
made by the Prime Minister of Canada at 
the conference which was held in this 
chamber on October 3. That conference set 
up a subcommittee consisting of the Minister 
of National Health and Welfare, the Min- 
ister of Finance and the provincial treasurers 
of the provinces. That committee is to meet 
on January 23 next. I would remind my 
hon. friend of the words of the Premier of 
Ontario that the only way to make progress 



1GG 



in this matter is to recognize that co-opera- 
tion between the provincial and the federal 
governments is essential. I would hope the 
hon. gentleman would agree with that view. 

Industrial Relations 

January 13 

A Bill to amend the Industrial Relations 
and Disputes Investigation Act to provide 
for the voluntary revocable check-off of 
union dues was introduced by Stanley 
Knowles (Winnipeg North Centre). 

Old Age Pensions 

January 16 

Asked by the Member for Winnipeg 
North Centre, Stanley Knowles, if it is the 
intention of the Government at this session 
to increase the amount of pension "in 
accordance with the increase in the gross 
national product," the Minister of National 
Health and Welfare replied that the 
Government "is giving consideration to a 
number of matters in the health and 
welfare field, one of which will involve a 
discussion with the provinces on the 23rd 
of this month". 

Family Allowances 

January 17 

Family allowances should be increased 
to keep pace with the rising cost of living, 
Charles Cannon (Iles-de-la-Madeleine) said. 
If the Government cannot see its way to 
double them, it should at least increase 
them by 25 or 50 per cent, he said. If it 
is impossible to do this all along the line, 
current payments for younger children of 
$5, $6 and $7 monthly should be raised to 
$8, he suggested. 

Automatic Retirement at 65 Years 
January 18 

The Department of National Defence 
does not automatically lay off people at 
age 65, Hon. R. 0. Campney said in reply 
to a question put by W. G. Dinsdale 
(Brandon-Souris). While 65 is regarded as 
the normal age for retirement, if an 
employee indicates that he wishes to con- 
tinue w r orking after 65, each particular case 
is considered on its merits, the man's use- 
fulness, his ability to discharge his duties 
and whether a favourable decision would 
be helpful to him, the Minister said. 

Guaranteed Annual Wage 
January 18 

Mr. A. H. Hollingworth (York Centre), 
speaking during the debate on the Speech 
from the Throne, devoted his remarks 
almost entirely to an appraisal of the 
guaranteed annual wage. 



It is not, he stated, as new a departure 
as it is reputed to be; the principle is 
already in effect in the United States. The 
greal merit of the guaranteed annual wage, 
said Mr. Hollingworth, is that it gives the 
unionized working man security in a com- 
plex society where otherwise he would be 
at the mercy of economic conditions of 
supply and demand over which he would 
have little or no control. It also provides 
more security for the industrialists, he said. 

"It is my opinion," he concluded, "that 
the guaranteed annual wage opens up new 
vistas, new challenges to industry, which I 
feel certain will prove beneficial to labour, 
to management and to the Canadian people 
and will render even greater the speedy 
development of this great Canada of ours." 

Immigration 

January 18 

The Minister of Citizenship and Immi- 
gration, at the request of E. D. Fulton 
(Kamloops), tabled a return showing that 
103,273 immigrants were admitted to Canada 
in the first 11 months of 1955. Figures for 
the month of December were not available. 

In the same period in 1954, the figure 
was 146,773, and in 1953 it was 157,638. 

J. H. Ferguson (Simcoe North) said "a 
most important item, immigration, has been 
forgotten," and charged the Government 
with lack of forethought. Canada, now in 
an economic up-surge, he said, finds itself 
short of both materials and labour. 

National Housing Act 

January 19 

The Hon. Robert H. Winters, Minister 
of Public Works, was asked by the member 
for Burnaby-Coquitlam, Erhart Regier, if, 
"in view of the announcement by the banks 
indicating a decline in money being avail- 
able for housing, would the Government 
consider again supplying a portion of NHA 
funds as it did before the first session of 
this Parliament". He replied: 

I should point out that I do not know 
of any general announcement by the banks 
regarding a decline in money available for 
housing. There has been no indication by 
prospective borrowers that there is a general 
shortage of mortgage money under the 
National Housing Act. As the hon. member 
knows, the Act contains authority by which 
Central Mortgage may make loans directly 
to borrowers if loans are not being made 
available by approved lenders. If a shortage 
of mortgage money did occur it would be a 
matter of government policy, in light of the 
circumstances at that time, to determine to 
what extent the Corporation's power to 
make direct loans should be used. At the 
present time this authority is being used in 
the smaller communities. It is the Govern- 
ment's intention to insure that a high level 
of house-building continues. 



167 



The Department of Labour Library 

Established in the same year (1900) as the Department of Labour and 
the Labour Gazette, the Library has grown to become one of the most 
outstanding labour libraries in the world, now has 140,000 volumes 



In the very first issue of the Labour 
ite, in September 1900, its young 
editor, William Lyon Mackenzie King, 
wrote of the Library of the Department 
of Labour. "An important feature of the 
Department of Labour will be 'A Labour 
Library', towards the establishment of 
which steps have already been taken," he 
said. 

Then he added: 

It is intended to make a collection of 
books, reports, and other documents of 
interest to labour, and of such publications 
in particular, as have a bearing on the 
industrial and other economic conditions of 
Canada. Notices will be given from time to 
time in the Labour Gazette of current 
publications received, and attention directed 
by references and abstracts to such points 
in them as is thought desirable to bring to 
the notice of our readers. It is hoped, that 
in this way those interested in labour 
matters may be kept informed of important 
movements abroad, and developments at 
home, and that the nation may, by degree 
become possessed of a store of material, 
from which as original sources, the best 
history of its growth may be traced. 

Labour had for long years been insistent 
in its requests that such an establishment 
be created. A recommendation by the first 
convention of the Canadian Labour Union, 
made during the afternoon session on 
September 25, 1873, that the Dominion 
Government create a Bureau of Labour 
and Statistics was extended at the 1876 
meeting of the Union — on August 3 — to 
include a request that "a collection of 
information bearing upon the labour ques- 
tion be made". This was an explicit 
request that a library form part of a 
Department of Labour. 

Similar requests were made at the con- 
vention of the Canadian Labour Union of 
1877, and repeated again and again by the 
Trades and Labour Congress after 1886. 
The Royal Commission of 1887-1889 also 
recommended strongly for a Library in its 
report to Parliament. 

When the Conciliation Act of 1900 was 
passed establishing a Ministry of Labour, 
a definite reference to the establishment of 
a library was made. 

Mackenzie King, the Chief Editor of the 
Labour Gazette and first Deputy Minister 
of the new Department of Labour, was the 
directing mind behind the first work of 
the Library in its early days in 1900, 1901 



and 1902. It started quite humbly but has 
since become one of the most outstanding 
labour libraries in the world. 

The Annual Report of the Department 
of Labour for 1901-1902 declared: 

During the year 1901-1902 the Department 
has made special efforts to increase the 
collection of reports and other documents 
having to do with industrial and labour 
conditions in Canada and other countries, 
and to improve in various ways its Library 
of Labour Literature. An important work 
in this connection has been the classification 
of reports and other documents gathered by 
the Department during the past and previous 
year and the preparation of a reference 
catalogue. 

It is interesting to note the divisions 
into which the Library was divided at this 
time. The report continued: 

There are three main divisions in the 
Library — 

(1) A Division containing publications of 
Labour Departments, particularly those 
gathered by the Labour Gazette in the daily 
course of its work and also of the Bureau 
of Statistics in Canada and throughout the 
world. 

(2) A Division containing other publica- 
tions relating to labour (excepting Trade 
and Labour Journals) . 

(3) A Division containing Trade and 
Labour Journals. 

These Divisions covered: 

(a) Publications of Labour Departments 
and Bureaus of Labour Statistics in Canada 
and abroad. 

(b) A complete file of the publications 
of the Labour Department of the United 
Kingdom and of the United States. 

(c) A large number of annual and special 
reports published in the various states of 
the American Union. 

(d) Publications of the Austrian Govern- 
ment. 

(e) Publications of the Office de Travail, 
Belgium. 

(f) Publications of the Ministere de 
Vindustrie et de travail, France. 

(g) Many of the most important publica- 
tions of the Labour Departments of New 
Zealand, New South Wales, Western 
Australia and Eastern Australia. 

(h) Publications of the Labour Depart- 
ment of Canada and of the new Bureaus 
of Labour of Ontario and Quebec. 

In constituting the Library, special 
efforts were made to obtain as complete a 



168 



set as possible of all official documents 
published by all existing Labour Depart- 
ments or Bureaus in the world. In some 
instances it was impossible to obtain old 
reports, but on the whole a satisfactory 
collection was made. This policy was 
followed and is still being followed. The 
policy in 1900, 1901, 1902 and 1903 to 
follow up all contacts made in this way 
and to request friendly Departments to 
forward future publications assured and has 
obtained a constant flow of documents. 

From the beginning, as publications 
arrived, their receipt was noted in the 
Labour Gazette; this procedure is still 
followed today. 

The collection of published material was 
an important feature of the Conciliation 
Act of 1900, under which the Department 
of Labour — and the Labour Gazette — was 
created. In the words of that Act, the 
purpose of the Department would be "to 
collect, digest and publish in suitable form 
statistical and other information relating to 
the conditions of Labour, to institute and 
conduct inquiries into important industrial 
questions, upon which adequate information 
might not, at that time, be available, and 
to issue at least once in every month a 
publication known as the Labour Gazette, 
which shall contain information regarding 
conditions of the labour market and kindred 
subjects, and shall be distributed or pro- 
curable in accordance with terms and 
conditions, in that behalf, prescribed by 
the Minister." 

The establishment and expansion of the 
Library was a natural outgrowth of this 
collection of material. It was needed as a 
custodian of the many thousands of docu- 
ments and publications received from exist- 
ing libraries of Labour Departments and 
from other sources all over the world. 

For many years the Library acted as a 
reference Library and later as a free 
circulating and reference Library for the 
public. Located in the Confederation 
Building, it is the only storehouse in 
Canada for the great mass of Canadian and 
American trade union publications. Seven 
hundred Canadian labour periodicals, some 
of them dating back to 1872, are in the 
Library. These cover the early formation 
of labour unions and their councils and 
congresses. 

At the end of its first year the Library 
possessed 2,500 volumes and reports; by 
the end of the second year, 3,000 books; 
and by 1908, a collection of 8,500 books. 
There are now 140,000 volumes in the 
Library, classified by subjects under the 
headings which appear in the Library's 
subject list: They appear in the Library's 



Catalogue under author, title and subject, 
the latter appearing in a separate catalogue. 
The Library of Congress system of classi- 
fication is used; the re-classification of the 
book collection begun in 1942 will be com- 
pleted later this year. Pamphlets and 
ephemeral material are kept in a separate 
vertical file collection, alphabetically by 
subject. 

Publications are classified by many 
categories, such as: training in industry, 
industrial relations, health and safety, 
occupational guidance, social security, 
labour legislation, industrial pension plans, 
apprenticeship, working conditions, wages 
and hours, etc. It should be noted that 
the collection of proceedings of trade unions 
are kept alphabetically in a separate group. 
There are approximately 4,000 items in this 
collection, from Canadian, American and 
Commonwealth sources. 

There are approximately 300,000 cards in 
the catalogue of the Library. The classifi- 
cation system permits speedy replies to the 
inquiries made each year; there were 
approximately 3,335 inquiries or requests for 
specific and varied information during the 
fiscal year 1954-55. Many of these 
inquiries required intensive searching and 
the preparation of bibliographies, approxi- 
mately 90 of which were prepared in the 
year. Bibliographies prepared to date by 
the Library staff total nearly 490; they are 
available on request. 

Of the many requests received by the 
Library, the following is a sample: 

You may recall, that about two years ago, 
I wrote to you from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 
for some advice and assistance in setting up 
a Library there for the operating companies 
of the Brazilian Traction Light and Power 
Co. Limited. 

I find myself back again in Canada in the 
same capacity here, needing the same infor- 
mation, which unfortunately I left in Brazil. 
I hope that it will not be much trouble for 
you to give me the same information again. 
I refer to the necessary guides to a librarian 
for setting-up shop, and also for the lists of 
periodicals from three groups, which the 
Board serves, namely, management, labour 
and medical. In addition it would be helpful 
for us to have from you Bibliographies in 
these three distinct fields of literature. 

We shall appreciate your advice and 
assistance. 

Telephone requests are received daily for 
information on subjects like: How to Form 
Union Locals, Industrial Health, Occupa- 
tional Hazards, Profit-Sharing Plans, How- 
to Build Personnel Departments, Housing, 
Handicrafts, Salesmanship, Executive 
Compensation. 

For many years, as stated before, the 
Library has served as a free circulation and 
reference Library. Last year 362 individuals 



169 



and concerns borrowed 7,385 volumes. 
Within the Department itself, last year 
there were 146 individual readers of labour 
journals, pamphlets, etc. The Department 
of Labour Library is used by unions, in- 
dustry, other government Departments, 
journalists, management and students. 

Information supplied by the Library on 
industrial disputes has in hundreds of cases 
enabled those involved in a dispute to 
settle the disagreement. 

The Library has in recent years added 
about 3.000 books annually to its collec- 
tion, until now it has 140,000 books and 
pamphlets on all phases of labour and 
industry and has become the most com- 
plete labour library in Canada. It is so 
complete, in fact, that labour unions use 
it as a source of information concerning 
their own union. Every year an average 
of about 1,500 annual reports from govern- 
ments, unions, companies and other 
organizations are added, as well as all the 
publications of the International Labour 
Organization. 

The annual flow of about 3,000 volumes 
may be divided as follows: 

Annual reports from governments, 
companies, unions, Bureaus of Labour, 
Libraries of Labour and other organizations 
(900 annually). 

General, industrial and occupational 
magazines from Canada and outside (475 
annually) . 

Trade union constitutions and proceed- 
ings 250 annually). 

Trade journals and house organs. 

Volumes purchased, exchanged, or received 
gratis. 

Over the years a valuable collection of 
rare historical volumes on the labour move- 
ments in Canada, Great Britain and the 
United States has been compiled. These 
include books like the following: — 

State of the Poor, by Sir Frederick Eden 
(3 Volumes, dated 1797). 

London Labour and the London Poor, 
by Henry Mahew, 1861 (4 Volumes). 

The History of the 12 Great Livery 
Companies in London, by William Herbert, 
Librarian of the City of London, 1834 (2 
Volumes). 

The Homes of the Working Classes, by 
James Hole, London, 1866. 

On Labour, by William Thornton, 1872. 

Condition of the Industrial Classes in 
Foreign Countries. (These are reports 
published by Her Majesty's Diplomatic and 
Consular Agents Abroad, London, 1873. 
3 Volumes). 

History of the Merchant Tailors, by 
Charles Hode, London, 1888 (2 Volumes). 



Evidence, Royal Commission on Capital 
and Labour, 1889. 

An Essay on the Relations between 
Capital and Labour, by C. Morrison, 
London, England, 1854. 

History of Progress in Great Britain, 1866. 

Almost all the volumes in the Library 
may be obtained for a period of a month, 
although some volumes in demand are 
available only for shorter periods. The 
Inter-Library Loan Service, National and 
International, makes it possible for students 
of schools or colleges to obtain material by 
placing their request with the Library of 
their institution. 

The Library also preserves publications of 
the Department itself, on labour organiza- 
tion in Canada; wages and hours of labour; 
strikes and lockouts in Canada; wages, 
hours and working conditions in specific 
industries; labour demand and supply; 
placement operations of the National 
Employment Service; annual reports on 
labour legislation in Canada, monographs 
and pamphlets on occupational guidance; 
Annual Reports of the Department; 
Teamwork in Industry, a regular publica- 
tion of the Labour Management Co- 
operation Service; Annual Reports of the 
Vocational Training Branch; quarterly 
bulletin of the Bureau of Technical Per- 
sonnel, and the Labour Gazette, etc. The 
Library has a complete file of the Labour 
Gazette from 1900, in both English and 
French. 

The Library has been modernized since 
1948. The adoption of microfilming to 
preserve and make available a wider 
distribution of old and valuable documents 
is an illustration of how it keeps its 
methods up to date. The microfilm collec- 
tion now numbers 216 Canadian subjects 
and 172 United States items. 

The appendix to the Library of Congress 
Information Bulletin, December 19, 1955, 
page 2, tells the story of the microfilm 
service as follows: 

Canadian Labour Papers Microfilmed. The 
Canadian Department of Labour Library, 
Confederation Building, Ottawa, has pub- 
lished a mimeographed list of 177 Canadian 
Labour Paper titles of which microfilm 
copies are available, either through inter- 
library loan or by purchase at the price of 
9 cents per foot delivered. _ Reels of film will 
not be split to supply specific dates but may 
be purchased as they are reeled. Informa- 
tion on footage of any title will be supplied 
by the Department Library. In addition to 
providing a list of microfilms available, the 
list also represents an excellent bibliography 
of Canadian Labour Papers. 

Outside Libraries have purchased many 
of these films and loans have been made 
to others. 



170 



There is a constant stream of books being 
loaned each year. In 1954-55, there were 
3,370 volumes and 1,200 periodicals loaned. 
In that year 64 libraries made use of the 
loan service and 3,350 persons visited the 
Library. 

An important continuing function of the 
Library is to assist in research by providing 
specific information and published sources 
of information on all phases of labour and 
economic activities required in current 
departmental projects. 

Many requests have come for aid and 
advice in helping to build and plan new 



libraries and the re-organization and reha- 
bilitation of old libraries. Requests have 
come from: the Library, Combines Investi- 
gation Branch, Department of Justice; the 
Department of National Defence; Provin- 
cial Library of Frcdericton, N.B.; Brazilian 
Traction and Power Company, Rio de 
Janiero; the Civil Service Commission; and 
the Royal Commission on Canadian 
Broadcasting. 

When the Civil Service Commission was 
planning a training service Library, the 
Librarian of the Labour Department acted 
in an advisory capacity on training methods 
for the Commission. 



38th Annual General Meeting of the 
Canadian Construction Association 



Construction industry has doubled its annual volume since war's end, 
President reports. NHA amendment to permit purchase of existing homes 
suggested. Need for double the number of apprentices is pointed out 



The construction industry in Canada has 
roughly doubled its annual volume of work 
during the decade since the end of the 
Second World War, said W. G. Malcom 
in his presidential address to the 38th 
annual general meeting of the Canadian 
Construction Association, held in Winnipeg 
from January 16 to 18 inclusive. 

In 1946, Mr. Malcom said, 60,000 dwelling 
units were completed, while last year the 
total exceeded 125,000. During the same 
period the mileage of paved roads had 
risen some 75 per cent, and cement pro- 
duction and consumption in Canada had 
more than doubled. 

"The present above-average carryover of 
work, the high levels of personal savings 
and corporate investment funds, together 
with the large number of projects on the 
designing boards are . . . supports to predic- 
tions of busy months ahead," he continued. 
He said, however, that "increases in the 
volume of construction will likely be 
limited more by shortages of certain 
materials, such as structural steel, than by 
shortages of investment capital". 

Referring to the part which the Govern- 
ment might play in stimulating construction 
activity, Mr. Malcom mentioned projects 
common^ undertaken directly by govern- 
ments, such as roads, bridges and institu- 
tional buildings. But, he said, governments 



could also indirectly bring about an in- 
crease in the volume of building. Roughly 
half of our new houses, amounting to about 
15 per cent of the total volume of con- 
struction, were being financed under the 
National Housing Act and there was still 
considerable scope for increasing the hous- 
ing market. 

Provision in the NHA for "lower down 
payments, loans for the purchase of existing 
houses, and the creation of 'open-end' 
mortgages, would enable more people to 
own their own homes," he said. 

However, he went on, the industry itself 
(Tan take a hand in promoting increased 
construction activity. "Our basic require- 
ment is to maintain construction costs at 
levels that will encourage investment. This 
is largely a question of increasing our 
efficiency and expanding our industry's 
capacity. In short, we must see that we 
give increasing value for the construction 
dollar. 

"Our training program for practically all 
personnel classifications has failed to keep 
up with the pace of the industry's expanded 
volume. The number receiving apprentice- 
ship training should be at least doubled and 
there is a chronic shortage of engineers, 
superintendents, estimators and other skilled 
men in the industry," he asserted. 



171 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of 
Labour, in his address to the meeting had 
a good deal to say about seasonal unem- 
ployment in the industry and about the 
steps that were being taken, and those that 
remained to be taken, to prevent this 
'waste of manpower". 

He said that progress in this direction 
had been considerable. From 1924 to 1928 
the amplitude of seasonal employment 
variations in construction was about 66 per 
cent, in the years 1947 to 1951 it had 
dropped to about 38 per cent, while in the 
last five years it was 37 per cent. 

"The main obstacles [to more winter 
employment] are prejudice, habit, and 
misunderstanding," Mr. Gregg said. •'•'These 
barriers can be overcome in time, given the 
goodwill of all concerned." 

The Minister mentioned the steps being 
taken by government departments to 
arrange their construction and repair work 
in such a way as to provide the maximum 
amount of w r inter employment, and he gave 
instances of efforts private employers were 
making, not only in construction but also 
in other industries, to reduce seasonal 
unemployment. 

Housing Report 

V. L. Leigh of Victoria, reporting to the 
convention on housing, said that for Cana- 
dian families the attractions of home- 
ownership had to compete with the attrac- 
tions of owning a car or a TV set. To 
meet this competition, he said, the con- 
struction industry must be able to provide 
a well-constructed house without "frills or 
luxuries" and "the desire for home owner- 
ship must be created greater than the desire 
built up through years of advertising cars, 
TV sets or high-cost entertainment. In 
other words, we must actually compete for 
the monthly payments of the wage earners." 

Apprenticeship 

Roy H. Foss of Montreal, reporting for 
the Apprenticeship Committee, said that 
the largest apprenticeship programs are in 
Quebec, Ontario and Alberta. 

Following the CCA's pilot study in the 
Toronto area, Mr. Foss said, it was agreed 
that the most effective apprenticeship 
promotion activities were those on the 
local level, and that the Association's main 
role would be that of a source and clearing 
house of information helpful to provincial 
and local apprenticeship committees and to 
individual members. 



Research and Education 

J. D. Allan, making the Research and 
Education Committee's report, said that a 
$2,000 annual fellowship for post-graduate 
study in construction had been established 
by the CCA. He said that postgraduate 
courses in building construction or con- 
struction engineering w r ere not available in 
Canada at present but that further study 
was being given to the possibility of the 
establishment by the Ryerson School of 
Technology, Toronto, of a school of con- 
struction technology. 

Labour Relations 

During the past year the hourly earnings 
of construction workers, reckoned on a 
country-wide basis, had risen about 3 per 
cent, A. C. Ross, Ottawa, chairman of the 
Labour Relations Committee, said in his 
report. This meant a gain in real wages, 
because prices had remained virtually 
unchanged during the year. The higher 
volume of construction work during the 
year also resulted in more employment in 
1955 than in the previous year, he said. 

According to a review of basic construc- 
tion costs compiled by the Association, 1955 
averages of basic costs of construction were 
about 30 per cent higher than in the base 
year 1949. In the same interval prices of 
residential and non-residential building 
materials went up by approximately 23 and 
24 per cent respectively. Wage rates for 
construction workers, the other main com- 
ponent of basic costs, showed a much 
sharper rise of some 43 per cent in the 
same period. 

This means that workers in the industry 
have obtained an average annual increment 
of almost 4 per cent in real wages, since 
consumer prices rose only a little more than 
16 per cent between 1949 and 1955, Mr. 
Ross said. 

Resolutions 

Resolutions passed at the convention 
included those recommending a high rate 
of home building, increased wintertime 
work, and continued federal investment in 
highway construction. 

Election of Officers 

Allan Turner Bone of Montreal was 
elected President of the Association at the 
election of officers for the coming year. 
Vice-presidents are T. N. Carter, Toronto; 
and H. J. Ball, Kitchener. N. A. Eager, 
Hamilton, was elected Honorary Secretary, 
and D. L. Donaldson, Ottawa, Honorary 
Treasurer. 



172 



Report from Civilian Rehabilitation Branch 



Rehabilitation Co-ordinator Addresses Meetings 

Nurses told how they can help to provide necessary encouragement and 
inspiration to the disabled; employers' group shown how employment of 
handicapped can bring profit to the firm, happiness to those employed 



"In the critical stages of treatment, 
professional nurses can provide the encour- 
agement and inspiration needed to help 
disabled people to face the future with 
assurance and progress towards their reha- 
bilitation within the community." This 
statement was made by Ian Campbell, 
National Co-ordinator, Civilian Rehabilita- 
tion, when addressing a meeting of the 
Ottawa Area Chapter of the Registered 
Nurses of Ontario. 

Mr. Campbell said that the present 
century had seen a complete reversal in the 
attitude of people towards the disabled. 
Many disabilities that formerly plagued 
humanity can now be avoided. When a 
disability does exist, modern rehabilitation 
techniques can often enable the individual 
to rise above his disability and find a useful 
place in the community. 

He told the Ottawa Nursing Chapter 
that nurses form a key part of the reha- 
bilitation team which includes doctors, 
social workers, vocational counsellors and 



placement officers, whose efforts can com- 
bine to assure the maximum use of the 
remaining skills of the disabled. 

When talking to the Toilet Goods Manu- 
facturers Association, in Montreal, on the 
theme of "converting liabilities into assets," 
Mr. Campbell drew a parallel between 
sound business . practices and the correct 
attitude towards the disabled. He pointed 
out that with proper medical treatment, 
vocational training and sound placement, 
the disabled can be fitted into the modern 
industrial setting and can give performance 
that may equal, or even exceed, that of 
the able-bodied. In this process the co- 
operation of industry is essential and 
employers, recognizing the ability of these 
people, can bring profit to their own 
organizations and dividends of happiness to 
those that they employ. 

Mr. Campbell was introduced to the 
gathering by George G. Blackburn, Director 
of the Information Branch, Department of 
Labour. Following Mr. Campbell's address, 
the Department's film "Everybody's Handi- 
capped" was shown. 



Hospital Construction Costs Reduced by New Design 



In building its new 250-bed General 
Hospital, it is possible that Niagara Falls, 
Ont., has suggested a means of lessening the 
steadily mounting costs of hospitalization. 

Of new design, the hospital consists of a 
three-storey central building and less costly 
single-storey wings. The thinking behind 
this type of construction is that the great 
efficiency of the multi-storey conventional 
hospital building is not needed for the 
majority of patients, who when the critical 
stage of their illness is over can be treated 
in a less costly convalescent wing. This 
concept, it is expected, will result in a 
Baving of approximately $3,000 per bed in 
over-all construction cost. 

In addition, the transferral to the more 
optimistic atmosphere of the convalescent 
wing may result in a reduction of the length 
of hospital stay and the consequent further 
lessening of costs. 



How Rehabilitation Pays 

Over the past year and a half, most of 
the provinces of Canada have embarked on 
programs to rehabilitate the disabled. With 
federal assistance, some of those who made 
an early start in this program have reached 
a stage where disabled persons are emerging 
from medical treatment, or vocational train- 
ing, to be placed in suitable occupations. 

It will be some time before detailed 
statistics regarding all who have so far 
benefited will be available. However, the 
first 330 cases reported tell a significant 
tale. These 330 people had 140 dependants 
and had cost their communities in main- 
tenance approximately $165,000 annually. 
With the completion of rehabilitation, the 
group in its first year of emploj r ment will 
earn approximately $560,000. 



173 



From the Labour Gazette, February 1906 



50 Years Ago This Month 



Union organization active in 1905 but for 103 locals established 101 
were dissolved. Net increase in union locals in period 1903-05 was 
267. Printers win 8-hour day in Quebec City, Brantford and Calgary 



There was b great deal of activity in 
union organization during 1905, the number 
of local unions formed reaching 103; but 
this gain was almost balanced by the 101 
unions dissolved. 

There had been much better showings 
in 1903 and 1904. The figures for 1903 
were 275 formed and 54 dissolved, and for 
1904, 148 formed and 104 dissolved. The 
net gain in numbers for the three years 
was thus: 221 in 1903, 44 in 1904, and two 
in 1905, a total increase of 267 locals in 
the three-year period. 

These figures are given in a review of 
labour organization in Canada during 1905 
contained in the Labour Gazette for 
February 1906. 

During 1905 the building industry came 
first in number of unions formed, with 22 
new locals, but the printing industry had 
a larger net gain, with 12 new locals formed 
and only two lost, compared with 13 lost 
in the former industry. In general trans- 
port, 18 locals were formed, but there was 
a net loss of 32 owing chiefly to the 
dissolving of a large number in the railway 
industry, 34 of which were amongst the 
maintenance of way employees. 

By provinces, in Quebec the net gain in 
the number of unions was 51 in 1903 and 
23 in 1904, while gains and losses were 
exactly balanced in 1905. In Ontario the 
net gain in 1903 was 97 but in 1904 there 
was a net loss of three, and in 1905 a net 
loss of 17. Nova Scotia had the next 
largest net increase for the three-year 
period, with 37. 

The union with the largest net gain in 
number of locals in 1905 was the Interna- 
tional Typographical Union, with eight new 
locals formed and one dissolved. The 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters gained 
seven locals and lost two, while the Brother- 
hood of Maintenance of Way Employees 
gained five locals and lost 34. 

Typographical unions at a number of 
points during the last quarter of 1905 
presented requests to their employers for 
the adoption of an 8-hour day, in accord- 
ance with the resolution passed by the 
International Typographical Union in June 
1005 that the shorter day should come into 
g( neral effect on January 1, 1906. Up to 



December 31, the 8-hour day had been 
granted to a number of employees at 
Quebec, Brantford and Calgary. At the 
first two places the reduction was from nine 
hours and at Calgary from 84 hours. 

Of 140 changes in wages or hours reported 
to the Department during 1905, 114 were 
increases in wages only, four were increases 
in wages combined with reduction in hours, 
14 were decreases in hours only, four were 
decreases in wages, and the remainder were 
increases in hours with a corresponding 
increase in wages. 

The most important of the changes in 
wages and hours during the year was a 
general increase in farm wages in Ontario 
and the Prairie Provinces, due to a shortage 
of farm labour. Western harvesters and 
hired men got 25 cents a day more. 

During January investigations into the 
operations of illegal trade combines, which 
had been going on during the three previous 
months, continued. Fines totalling more 
than $10,000 were imposed on a number of 
master plumbers in Toronto who had been 
charged with conspiracy. 

In connection with a contract for plumb- 
ing in the Toronto city hall, certain 
plumbers were charged with a conspiracy 
to defraud the city of $10,000. 

But owing to the destruction or mutila- 
tion of the records of the two plumbing 
firms chiefly concerned, which had been 
ordered to be seized, the case was adjourned 
until February 1 to allow the re-examination 
of an important witness. 

Immigration through ocean ports during 
the last half of 1905 amounted to 35,257 
persons, compared with 37,111 in the corre- 
sponding period of 1904, a decrease of 1,854. 
Arrivals from the United States, however, 
amounted to 1,000 more than in the same 
period in the previous year. 

During 1905 there was an increase of 
8,132 in the number of homestead entries 
over those of 1904, the figures being 34,645 
and 26,513 for the respective years. 

Among the nationalities of homesteaders 
reported in December, Americans came first 
with 649, Canadians from Ontario second 
with 405, English third with 270, while 
Austro-Hungarians came fourth, numbering 
208. 



174 



International 
Labour Organization 

New Committee on Forced Labour 

Three-man committee to investigate use and extent of forced labour in 
world named by ILO Director-General; to hold first meeting next month 



David A. Morse, Director-General of 
the International Labour Organization, 
announced last month the setting up of an 
"independent ad hoc committee on forced 
labour" to investigate the use and extent 
of forced labour throughout the world. 

Paul Ruegger, of Switzerland, former 
President of the International Red Cross 
Committee, will head the investigation, 
assisted by Cesar Charlone, former Minister 
for Foreign Affairs of Uruguay, and T. P. B. 
Goonetilleke, former District Judge of 
Ceylon. 

The committee, the setting up of which 
was authorized by the ILO Government 
Body last June, will hold its first session 
in Geneva from March 12 to 17. 

The task of the committee is to analyse 
complaints received by the ILO about the 
existence of forced labour anywhere in the 
world and to pass on its findings to 
Director-General Morse. Mr. Morse will, 
in turn, transmit them to the Governing 
Body and communicate them to govern- 
ment, worker and employer delegates 
attending the 1956 and 1957 sessions of the 
International Labour Conference. 



The. committee will examine material 
received by the ILO, whether direct or 
through the United Nations, since June 
1953, when the joint UN-ILO Ad Hoc 
Committee on Forced Labour headed by 
Sir Ramaswami Mudaliar of India com- 
pleted its findings. The term of this 
committee ended automatically with the 
publication of its report. This report said 
forced labour . did exist in some parts of 
the world. 

Forced labour is one of the items before 
the general conference of the ILO this June. 
Delegates from the ILO's 71 member coun- 
tries attending the session will discuss the 
desirability of adopting an international 
instrument to outlaw forced labour. 

The discussion will be a preliminary one, 
a final decision on the instrument being 
left to the 1957 session, in keeping with the 
ILO's double discussion procedure. 

This year's session will have before it 
the texts of replies received by the ILO 
to a questionnaire on forced labour circu- 
lated by it to all member governments. 



ILO Reports Progress in Inquiry into Employers', Workers' Freedom 



Twenty-eight member nations of the 
International Labour Organization have 
replied so far to an ILO questionnaire on 
the extent to which employers' and workers' 
organizations in their territory are free from 
government domination and control. Eleven 
other countries have promised to reply 
shortly. 

The questionnaire was sent out by a 
special three-man Committee set up by 
David A. Morse, Director-General of the 
ILO, following a decision by the ILO's 
Governing Body early last year. 

The Committee, presided over by Sir 
Arnold McNair, former President of the 
International Court of Justice, met late last 
year to examine replies to its questionnaires 
and check the progress made by its secre- 
tariat in the preparation of monographs on 
each country. These monographs, relating to 
each of the ILO's 70 member countries, 



describe: (a) the existing condition of 
employers' and workers' organization, and 
(b) those portions of each country's law 
and practice which seemed relevant for the 
Committee's purposes. 

It is the intention of the Committee that 
each monograph shall be seen by the gov- 
ernment concerned before the document is 
put into final form. Most of the monographs 
already have been sent to governments. 



CORRECTION 

In the report of the Fifth Session of the 
ILO Textiles Committee (L.G., Dec. 1955, 
p. 1376), George Shaw was listed as an 
employer delegate. At the last moment 
Mr. Shaw was unable to attend the meet- 
ing and was replaced by Fred Hutchings, 
Director of Industrial Relations, Dominion 
Woollens and Worsteds, Limited. 



175 



U.N. Committee to Discuss Discrimination in Employment 



The United Nations Subcommission on 
the Prevention of Discrimination and the 
Protection of Minorities last month decided 
u to give priority to the consideration of 
the subject of discrimination in employ- 
mi 'nt and occupation" at its next session, 
in 1957. 

The International Labour Organization 
was to have presented to this year's 
session a report of its study of discrim- 
ination in employment, a task entrusted 



to it by the Subcommission two years ago. 
An ILO representative reported that the 
report would not be ready until May. 

While it expressed "concern" over the 
delay in the presentation of the ILO report, 
the Subcommission "noted with satisfac- 
tion" the ILO's decision to place the 
question of discrimination in employment 
on the agenda for the 40th session of the 
International Labour Conference in 1957 
(L.G., Jan, p. 72). 



Jordan Becomes 71st Member of ILO 



The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has 
joined the International Labour Organiza- 
tion, David A. Morse, ILO Director- 
General, announced last month. 

The admission of Jordan brings ILO 
membership to 71 countries. 



No special vote was required for the 
admission of Jordan, one of the 16 coun- 
tries admitted recently to the United 
Nations. Under the ILO Constitution, any 
member country of the UN can become 
a member of the ILO by accepting the 
provisions of the ILO Constitution. 



ILO PUBLICATIONS 



Since its inception in 1919, one of the 
important functions of the International 
Labour Office, which is the Secretariat of 
the International Labour Organization, has 
been research and investigation into 
various phases of labour and social 
problems, both nationally and internation- 
ally. As a result, over the years the Office 
has published a considerable literature, 
made up of special studies and reports, 
and reports on numerous international 
meetings on labour matters. Additions are 
made continually to the already substantial 
list of these publications, in order to make 
available internationally current informa- 
tion in this ever-changing field. 

Comprised in this literature are several 
periodical publications, among which are 
the following: — 

International Labour Review (Monthly) : 
carries special articles on economic, labour 
and social topics, and international statis- 
tical information. 



Industry and Labour (issued twice 
monthly) : covers the activities of the ILO, 
and current events in the field of indus- 
trial relations, employment, migration, con- 
ditions of work, and social security. 

Legislative Series (issued about every two 
months) : gives reprints and translations of 
labour and social laws in various countries. 

Year Book of Labour Statistics (pub- 
lished annually) : reproduces statistics on 
employment, hours of work, wages, prices, 
migration, and so forth, drawn from a wide 
range of countries. 

Occupational Safety and Health (pub- 
lished quarterly) : deals with problems of 
industrial accident prevention and the 
health factor in employment conditions. 

Enquiries on publications of the Inter- 
national Labour Office, or requests for the 
ILO Catalogue, may be addressed to: V. C. 
Phelan, Director, Canada Branch, ILO, 
95 Rideau Street, Ottawa 4, Ont. 

Publications of the ILO are invariably 
produced in both French and English 



The appointment of Ernest Bell, veteran British trade unionist, as Chief of the ILO 
Workers' Relations Service was announced last month. Mr. Bell was with the Trades 
Union Congress for 25 years, for 15 years as head of the TUC International Service. 



176 



TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



Labour and management concerned with 
the activities of the City of London, Ont., 
shops and outside services agree that 
labour-management committees are an 
excellent medium for establishing and 
maintaining a co-operative relationship 
between employers and employees. 

Emphasizing this are the many improve- 
ments that have resulted, through their 
combined efforts, for management, labour 
and the citizens of London. 

The feelings of those connected with the 
labour-management committee have been 
expressed by E. T. Skelton, the city 
engineer, and a member of the committee 
since it was organized: — 

"To sum up my feeling toward the 
labour-management committee, I will say 
this: 'I was put on the committee when 
I was deputy engineer. Now that I have 
been promoted to city engineer, with 
greater demands on my time, it would be 
logical for me to pass the duties of 
committee work on to my deputy. How- 
ever, I enjoy these meetings so much, and 
feel that there is so much to be done 
through them, that I intend to remain on 
the committee myself." 

Speaking for labour, Herbert Worton, 
President of Local 107, Civic Employees 
National Union of Public Employees, 
said: — 

"The gains and accomplishments made 
since the inception of the labour-manage- 
ment committee three years ago are too 
numerous to mention here, but, speaking 
for the members of Local 107, I can say 
that results and satisfaction derived from 
the meetings of the committee have been 
most appreciated. 

"The relationship that these meetings has 
brought forth between management and 
labour has been most cordial, and the 
atmosphere at these meetings is filled with 
good fellowship and the free expression of 
opinion by all hands. 

"Labour as a whole, and particularly the 
members of the committee, feel proud of 
their accomplishments as a result of 
measures adopted through the meetings, 
and their reports to the members of Local 
107 are received with enthusiasm. The 



members have at many times expressed 
their appreciation of the value of such get- 
togethers to management and labour. 

"The interest of labour and management 
in the meetings is shown by the fact that 
since the committee's inception attendance 
at meetings has been 100 per cent, except 
in cases of extreme emergency, and at 
election time labour offices on the com- 
mittee are contested to the fullest extent 
possible." 

LMPC Helps Improve Morale 

The following statements made by 
members o f the labour - management 
committee operating in the Dominion 
Wheel and Foundries Division of Canada 
Iron Foundries, Limited, Toronto, give 
some indication of the work done by 
labour-management committees in helping 
to improve morale and promote improved 
methods of operation. 

"Our employees are a motivated group 
since the establishment of the labour- 
management committee. I have never 
found such co-operative people as we have 
here. When we have problems to solve, 
we ask the production personnel to help 
us, and in nearly every case they have 
assisted us to come up with an answer 
quickly," said Edward P. Grass, Works 
Manager. 

"Matt" Smith, Chairman of the shop 
union in the foundry, finds that "the 
committee has gone a long way towards 
making working conditions much improved, 
more systematic, and therefore, more 
productive . . ." 

Roy Menzies, a member of the committee 
and a c